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Oradour-sur-Glane is a commune in the department of Haute-Viennemarker, in the Limousinmarker region of west-central Francemarker.

The original village was destroyed on June 10, 1944, when 642 of its inhabitants were massacred by a German Waffen-SS company. A new village was built after the war on a nearby site and the original has been maintained as a memorial.

History

World War II

Background

In early 1944, 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich was stationed in the southern French town of Montauban north of Toulouse to gain new equipment and freshly trained troops. After the D-Day invasion in Normandy, France, Das Reich was ordered to make its way across the country to stop the Allied advance. In the days leading up to the Allied D-Day landings at Normandy, the local French Resistance had increased its activities in order to disrupt local German forces and to hinder communications. Along their way, the Germans came under attack and sabotage by the fighters from the Maquis du Limousin and, in turn, attacked and killed many French civilians.

Early on the morning of June 10, 1944, Sturmbannführer Adolf Diekmann, commanding the I battalion of the 4th Waffen-SS ("Der Führer") Panzer-Grenadier Regiment, informed Sturmbannführer Otto Weidinger at regimental headquarters that he had been approached by two French civilians who claimed that a German officer was being held by the Resistance in Oradour-sur-Vayres, a nearby town. The captured German was alleged to be Sturmbannführer Helmut Kämpfe, commander of the 2nd SS Panzer Reconnaissance Battalion, who may have been captured by the Maquis the day before.

Massacre

Abandoned cars and buildings still litter the remains of the original village.
On June 10, Diekmann's battalion sealed off the town of Oradour-sur-Glane, having confused it with nearby Oradour-sur-Vayresmarker (some disagreement on this point, see esp. Max Hastings, Das Reich, who states reasons for believing no such confusion), and ordered all the townspeople – and anyone who happened to be in or nearby the town – to assemble in the village square, ostensibly to have their identity papers examined. In addition to the residents of the village, the SS also apprehended six people who did not live there but had the misfortune of riding their bikes through town when the Germans arrived.

All the women and children were then taken to and locked in the church while the village itself was looted. Meanwhile, the men were led to six barns and sheds where machine-gun nests were already in place. According to the account of a survivor, the soldiers began shooting at them, aiming for their legs so that they would die more slowly. Once the victims were no longer able to move, the soldiers covered their bodies with fuel and set the barns on fire. Only six men escaped; one of the six men was later seen walking down a road heading to the cemetry and was later shot dead. 190 men died.

The soldiers then proceeded to the church and put an incendiary device in place there. After it was ignited, women and children tried to flee from the doors and windows of the church but were met with machine-gun fire. Two hundred forty-seven women and two hundred and five children died in the carnage. Only two woman and one child survived, 47-year-old local housewife Marguerite Rouffanche. They had managed to slide out of a small window at the back of the church and had dropped 10 feet, at which point the Germans heard the child cry and began to shoot at them, Marguerite Rouffanche's companions died and she was wounded, she crawled and hid in the some pea bushes behind the church overnight until she was rescued. Another small group of about twenty villagers had fled Oradour-sur-Glane as soon as the soldiers had appeared. That night, the remainder of the village was razed.

A few days later, survivors were allowed to bury the dead. It was found that 642 inhabitants of Oradour-sur-Glane had been brutally murdered in a matter of hours.

Sturmbannführer Adolf Diekmann claimed that it was a just retaliation due to partisan activity in nearby Tullemarker and the kidnapping of Helmut Kämpfe.

Aftermath

On January 12, 1953, a trial began before a military tribunal in Bordeauxmarker, France, against the surviving 65 of the approximately 200 German soldiers who had been involved. Only 21 of them were present (many were living in East Germanymarker and the German Democratic Republicmarker would not allow them to be extradited). Seven of them were Germans, while the other 14 were Alsatianmarker, i.e., French nationals of German ethnicity who had been regarded as members of the "Reich" by the Nazis. All but one of them claimed to have been drafted into the Waffen-SS against their will (the so-called malgré-nous).

The trial caused a huge protest in Alsace, forcing the French authorities to split the tribunal into two separate proceedings, according to the nationality of the defendants. On February 11, 20 defendants were found guilty. Continuing uproar (including calls for autonomy) in Alsace pressed the French parliament to pass an amnesty law for all malgré-nous on February 19, and the convicted Alsatians were released shortly afterwards. This, in turn, caused bitter protest in the Limousinmarker region.

By 1958, all the German defendants had been released as well. General Heinz Lammerding of the Das Reich division, who had given the orders for the measures against the Resistance, died in 1971 after a successful entrepreneurial career. At the time of the trial, he lived in Düsseldorfmarker, Germany, which was located inside the Britishmarker occupation zone of West Germanymarker, and the Frenchmarker government never obtained his extradition from the British authorities.

The last trial against a former Waffen-SS member took place in 1983. Shortly before, former SS-Obersturmführer Heinz Barth had been tracked down in the German Democratic Republic GDRmarker. Barth had participated in the Oradour-sur-Glane massacre as a platoon leader in the Der Führer Regiment, commanding forty-five soldiers. He was amongst other war criminals charged with having given orders to shoot twenty men in a garage. Barth was sentenced to life imprisonment by the 1st Senate of the City Court of Berlin. He was released from prison in the reunified Germany in 1997 and died in August 2007.

After the war, General Charles de Gaulle of France decided that the village would never be rebuilt. Instead, it would remain as a memorial to the cruelty of Nazi occupation. In 1999, French President Jacques Chirac dedicated a visitors' centre, the Centre de la Mémoire, in Oradour-sur-Glane and named the site a Village Martyr.

Modern days

Map showing modern and former village
The modern town of Oradour-sur-Glane, with a 2006 population of 2,188, was built after the war. It lies just to the northwest of the ruins of the former village.

The old village, the site of the massacre, still stands as a memorial to the dead and as being representative of similar sites and events. Part of the memorial includes items recovered from the burned-out buildings: watches stopped at the time their owners were burned alive, glasses melted from the intense heat, and various personal items and money. All visitors are requested to remain silent while visiting the martyr village.

Analysis

Diekmann's conduct

Upon entering Oradour-sur-Glane, Sturmbannführer Diekmann had received orders from his regimental commander, Standartenführer Sylvester Stadler, to only have the mayor of the town name 30 people who could serve as hostages in exchange for Sturmbannführer Kämpfe; however, Diekmann instead ordered the population exterminated and the village burned to the ground.

Protests followed from Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel; General Gleiniger, German commander in Limoges; and the Vichy government. Standartenführer Stadler felt Diekmann had far exceeded his orders and began a judicial investigation; however, Diekmann was killed in action shortly afterward during the Battle of Normandy, and a large number of the third company, which had committed the massacre, were themselves killed in action within a few days.

German attitudes to resistance

The massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane involved men, women and children, some as young as one week old, and some as old as 90. Oradour-sur-Glane was not the only collective punishment reprisal action committed by German troops: other well-documented examples include the Frenchmarker villages of Tullemarker, Ascq, Maillé, Robert-Espagnemarker, and Clermont-en-Argonnemarker; the Sovietmarker village of Kortelisy (in what is now Ukrainemarker); the Czechoslovakianmarker villages of Ležákymarker and Lidicemarker (in what is now the Czech Republicmarker); the Greekmarker towns of Kalavrytamarker and Distomomarker; the Dutch town of Puttenmarker; Serbianmarker towns of Kragujevacmarker and Kraljevomarker; Norwegianmarker village of Telavågmarker; and the Italianmarker villages of Sant'Anna di Stazzemamarker and Marzabottomarker. Furthermore, the Germans executed hostages (random or selected in suspect groups) throughout France as a deterrent to resistance.

Demographic evolution

Demographic Evolution
1806 1820 1876 1901 1911 1921 1936 1946 1954 1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2008*
1222 1585 1903 1966 2019 1789 1574 1145 1450 1540 1671 1759 1941 1998 2025


In media

In television

The tragic story of Oradour-sur-Glane was featured in 1974 in the acclaimed British documentary television series, The World at War, which was narrated by Sir Laurence Olivier. The first and final episodes (1 and 26), entitled "A New Germany" and "Remember" respectively, show helicopter views of the destroyed village, interspersed with pictures of the victims that appear on their graves.

Episodes 1 and 26 both started with the words:

Down this road, on a summer day in 1944. . . The soldiers came. Nobody lives here now. They stayed only a few hours. When they had gone, the community which had lived for a thousand years. . . was dead.

This is Oradour-sur-Glane, in France. The day the soldiers came, the people were gathered together. The men were taken to garages and barns, the women and children were led down this road . . . and they were driven. . . into this church. Here, they heard the firing as their men were shot. Then. . . they were killed too. A few weeks later, many of those who had done the killing were themselves dead, in battle.

They never rebuilt Oradour. Its ruins are a memorial. Its martyrdom stands for thousands upon thousands of other martyrdoms in Poland, in Russia, in Burma, in China, in a World at War...


And at the end of episode 26, while another aerial shot of the village ruins plus photos of various massacre victims was being shown to the accompaniment of dramatic music, Olivier said:

At the village of Oradour-sur-Glane, the day the soldiers came, they killed more than six hundred men, women . . . and children. Remember.


In music

In The Streets video, "The Escapist," Mike Skinner is briefly seen walking through the destroyed village of Oradour-sur-Glane.

Gallery

Image:Oradour-sur-Glane-Entrance-1361.jpg|The entrance to Oradour-sur-Glane.Image:Oradour-sur-Glane-Streets-1294.jpg|The main street of Oradour-sur-Glane.Image:Oradour-sur-Glane-Church-1275.jpg|The church where the women and children were burnt to death.Image:Oradour-sur-Glane-Cars-1263.jpg|Wrecked cars.Image:Oradour-sur-Glane-Hardware-1342.jpg|Wrecked hardware - bicycles, sewing machines etc. are still left in Oradour-sur-Glane.Image:Oradour-sur-Glane doctors car.jpg|Doctor's car parked in centre of Oradour-Sur-Glane.Image:Oradour-sur-Glane-Streets-1306.jpg|Outside a ruined elementary school.



See also



References and notes

  • Farmer, Sarah. Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane. University of California Press, 2000.
  • Fouché, Jean-Jacques. Massacre At Oradour: France, 1944; Coming To Grips With Terror. Northern Illinois University Press, 2004.
  • Penaud, Guy. La Das Reich" 2e SS Panzer Division (Parcours de la division en France, 560 pp). Editions de La Lauze/Périgueux. ISBN 2 912032-76-8


External links




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