Oroks (Ороки in
Russian; self designation:
ульта, ulta, ulcha) are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly, eastern part of the
island) in Russia.
- Not to be confused with the Oroch of
Khabarovsk Krai and Oroqen of China
belongs to the southern
group of the Tungusic language
and have no written language. According to the 2002
census, there were 346 Oroks living in
Northern Sakhalin by the
Sea and Southern Sakhalin in the district by the city
The name Orok is believed to derive from the exonym Oro
given by a Tungusic
group meaning "a domestic
reindeer." The Orok self-designation endonym
probably a root
(a domestic reindeer in Orok language), another
self-designation is nani
. Occasionally, the Oroks, as well
as the Orochs
are erroneously called Orochons
Empire gained complete control over Orok lands after the
1858 Aikhun Treaty and 1860 Peking Treaty.
A penal colony was
established on Sakhalin between 1857 and 1906 bringing large
numbers of Russian criminals and political exiles, including
, an important early
ethnographer on Oroks and the other island's indigenous people
underwent the Bolshevik
Revolution forming the Soviet Union in 1922. The new government altered prior Russian Imperial polices towards the Oroks that were in line with
collectivization in the 1920s the Orok were divided into five
groups, each with their own migratory zone.
- Kolga, pp.281-284
- Kolga, pp.270
- Shternberg and Grant, p.xi
- Shternberg and Grant, pp.184-194
- "Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North, Siberia
and Far East" by Arctic Network for the Support of the
Indigenous Peoples of the Russian Arctic
- Kolga, Margus. (2001). The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian
Empire. NGO Red Book. Tallinn, Estonia 399p. ISBN
- Missonova, Lyudmila I. (2009). The Main Spheres of Activities
of Sakhalin Uilta: Survival Experience in the Present-Day Context.
Sibirica: Interdisciplinary Journal of Siberian Studies,
8:2, 71–87. Abstract available here (retrieved Nobember 9, 2009).
- Shternberg, Lev Iakovlevich, and
Bruce Grant. (1999). The Social Organization of the
Gilyak. New York: American Museum
of Natural History. Seattle: University of Washington
Press 280p. ISBN 029597799X
- Ороки. -- Народы Сибири, Москва -- Ленинград 1956.
- Т. Петрова, Язык ороков (ульта), Москва 1967.
- А. В. Смоляк, Южные ороки. -- Советская этнография 1,
- А. В. Смоляк, Этнические процессы у народов Нижнего Амура и
Сахалина, Москва 1975.