, also known as Afaan
: ኦሮሚኛ ’Orominya
), Afan Boran
, Afan Arsi
and sometimes in other languages by variant spellings of these
names (Oromic, Afan Oromo, etc.), is an Afro-Asiatic
language, and the most
widely spoken of the Cushitic
is spoken as a first language by more than 25 million Oromo and neighboring peoples in Ethiopia and
Older publications refer to the language as
"Galla", a term that is resented by Oromo people and no longer
The 16th edition of the Ethnologue
the term macrolanguage
"multiple, closely related individual languages that are deemed in
some usage contexts to be a single language." This article
generally uses this macrolanguage approach to Oromo, not dealing
with variation and non-comprehension.
percent of Oromo speakers live in Ethiopia, mainly in Oromia Region. In Somalia there are
also about 41,000 speakers of the language.
In Kenya, the
Ethnologue also lists 222,000 speakers of Borana and Orma, two
languages closely related to Ethiopian Oromo .Within Ethiopia,
Oromo is the first most spoken (more than 40%). Within Africa, it
is the language with the fourth most speakers, after Arabic
(if one counts the mutually
unintelligible spoken forms of Arabic as a single macrolanguage and
assumes the same for the varieties of Oromo), Swahili
Besides first language speakers, a number of members of other
ethnicities who are in contact with the Oromos speak Oromo as a
second language, for example, the Omotic
and the Nilo-Saharan
in northwestern Oromia.
Before the Ethiopian Revolution
of 1974, publishing or broadcasting in Oromo was prohibited, and
the few works that had been published, most notably Onesimos Nesib
's and Aster Ganno
's translation of the Bible
from the late nineteenth century, were written
in the Ge'ez alphabet
, as was the
1875 New Testament produced by Krapf
. Following the 1974 Revolution,
the government undertook a literacy campaign in several languages,
including Oromo, and publishing and radio broadcasts began in the
language. All Oromo materials printed in Ethiopia at that time,
such as the newspaper Barissa
, were written in the
Plans to introduce Oromo instruction in the schools, however, were
not realized until the government of Mengistu Haile Mariam
in 1991, except in regions controlled by the Oromo Liberation Front
the creation of "Oromia" under the new system of ethnic regions, it
has been possible to introduce Oromo as the medium of instruction
in elementary schools throughout the region (including areas where
other ethnic groups live speaking their languages) and as a
language of administration within the region. Since the OLF left
the transitional Ethiopian government in early 1990s, the Oromo Peoples' Democratic
(OPDO) continued developing Afaan Oromoo in
Oromo is most commonly written with a modified Latin alphabet
was formally adopted in 1991. Various versions of the Latin based
orthography had been used previously, mostly by Oromos outside of
Ethiopia and by the OLF by the late 1970's (Heine 1986). In recent
years, it is said to have been limited by the Ethiopian government.
With the adoption of Qubee, it is believed more
texts were written in the Oromo language between 1991 and 1997 than
in the previous 100 years.
The Saphalo script
was an indigenous
Oromo script invented by Sheikh
(also known by his birth name, Abubaker Usman
Odaa) in the years following Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and used
underground afterwards . 
has also been used intermittently in areas with Muslim
Kenya there has been radio broadcasting in Oromo (in the
Borana dialect) on the Voice of Kenya
since at least the 1980s.
The Borana Bible in Kenya was
printed in 1995 using the Latin alphabet, but not using the same
spelling rules as in Ethiopian Qubee. The first comprehensive
online Afan Oromo dictionary was developed by Jimma Times Oromiffa
Group (JTOG) in cooperation with SelamSoft. Voice of America
also broadcasts in Afan
Oromo alongside its other horn of Africa programs. Afan Oromo and
Qubee are currently utilized by the Ethiopian government's state
radios, TV stations and regional government newspaper.
Sounds and orthography
Consonant and vowel phonemes
Like most other Ethiopian languages, whether Semitic, Cushitic, or
Omotic, Oromo has a set of ejective
, that is, voiceless stops or affricates that are
accompanied by glottalization and an explosive burst of air. Oromo
has another glottalized phone that is more unusual, an implosive
retroflex stop, "dh" in Oromo
orthography, a sound that is like an English "d" produced with the
tongue curled back slightly and with the air drawn in so that a
glottal stop is heard before the following vowel begins.
Oromo has the typical Southern Cushitic set of five short and five
long vowels, indicated in the orthography by doubling the five
vowel letters. The difference in length is contrastive, for
is also significant in Oromo. That is,
consonant length can distinguish words from one another, for
In the Qubee alphabet, a single "letter" consists either of a
single symbol or a digraph ("ch", "dh", "ny", "ph", "sh").
Gemination is not obligatorily marked for the digraphs, though some
writers indicate it by doubling the first symbol:
'be prepared'. In the charts below, the
symbol for a phoneme is shown in brackets where it
differs from the Oromo letter. The phonemes appear in parentheses
because they are only found in recent loan words. Note that there
have been minor changes in the orthography since it was first
adopted: ( ) was originally represented as "th", and there has been
some confusion among authors in the use of "c" and "ch" in
representing the phonemes and , with some early works using "c" for
and "ch" for and even "c" for different phonemes depending on where
it appears in a word. This article uses "c" consistently for and
"ch" for .
||i , ii
||u , uu
||e , ee
||o , oo
Like most other Afro-Asiatic
, Oromo has two grammatical genders
feminine, and all nouns belong to either one or the
other.Grammatical gender in Oromo enters into the grammar in the
- Verbs (except for the copula be) agree with their
subjects in gender when the subject is third person singular
(he or she).
- Third person singular personal
pronouns (he, she, it, etc. in
English) have the gender of the noun they refer to.
- Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender.
- Some possessive adjectives ("my", "your") agree with the nouns
they modify in some dialects.
Except in some southern dialects, there is nothing in the form of
most nouns that indicates their gender. A small number of nouns
pairs for people, however, end in -eessa
(f.), as do adjectives when they are used as
'the rich one (m.)',
'the poor one (f.)'. Grammatical gender
normally agrees with biological gender for people and animals; thus
nouns such as abbaa
'ox' are masculine, while nouns such as
'mother' and intala
'girl, daughter' are
feminine. However, most names for animals do not specify biological
Names of astronomical bodies are feminine: aduu
'star'. The gender of other inanimate nouns varies
somewhat among dialects.
Oromo has singular and plural number
, but nouns that refer to multiple
entities are not obligatorily plural. That is, if the context is
clear, a formally singular noun may refer to multiple entities:
'man'or "people", nama shan'or', 'five men'or
"five people. Another way of looking at this is to treat
the "singular" form as unspecified for number.
When it is important to make the plurality of a referent clear, the
plural form of a noun is used. Noun plurals are formed through the
addition of suffixes
. The most common plural
suffix is -oota
; a final vowel is dropped before the
suffix, and in the western dialects, the suffix becomes -ota
following a syllable
with a long vowel:
'teachers'. Among the other
common plural suffixes are -(w)wan
; the latter two may cause a preceding consonant to
be doubled: waggaa
Oromo has no indefinite articles
(corresponding to English a
), but (except
in the southern dialects) it indicates definiteness
suffixes on the noun: -(t)icha
for masculine nouns (the
is geminated though this is not normally indicated in
writing) and -(t)ittii
for feminine nouns. Vowel endings
of nouns are dropped before these suffixes: karaa
'the road', nama
'the man', haroo
'the lake'. Note that for animate nouns
that can take either gender, the definite suffix may indicate the
intended gender: qaalluu
priest (m.)', qallittii
'the priest (f.)'. The definite
suffixes appear to be used less often than the
and they seem not to co-occur with the plural suffixes.
An Oromo noun has a citation
or base form
that is used when
the noun is the object of a verb, the object of a preposition or
postposition, or a nominal predicative
- mana 'house', mana binne 'we bought a
- hamma 'until', dhuma 'end', hamma
dhuma 'until (the) end'
- mana keessa, 'inside (a/the) house'
- inni 'he', barsiisaa 'teacher', inni
barsiisaa (dha) 'he is a teacher'
A noun may also appear in one of six other grammatical cases
, each indicated by a
suffix or the lengthening of the noun's final vowel. The case
endings follow plural or definite suffixes if these appear. For
some of the cases, there is a range of forms possible, some
covering more than one case, and the differences in meaning among
these alternatives may be quite subtle.
- The nominative is used for nouns that are the subjects of clauses.
- * Ibsaa man's name, Ibsaan 'Ibsaa (nom.)',
makiinaa, qaba 'he has', Ibsaan makiinaa
qaba 'Ibsaa has a car'
- Most nouns ending in short vowels with a preceding single
consonant drop the final vowel and add -ni to form the
nominative. Following certain consonants, assimilation changes either the
n or that consonant (the details depend on the
- * nama 'man', namni 'man (nom.)'
- * namoota 'men'; namootni, namoonni
'men (nom.)' (t + n may assimilate to
- If a final short vowel is preceded by two consonants or a
geminated consonant, -i is suffixed.
- * ibsa 'statement', ibsi 'statement
- * namicha 'the man', namichi 'the man (nom.)'
(the ch in the definite suffix -icha is actually
geminated, though not normally written as such)
- If the noun ends in a long vowel, -n is suffixed to
this. This pattern applies to infinitives, which end in
- * maqaa 'name', maqaan 'name (nom.)'
- * nyachuu 'to eat, eating', nyachuun 'to eat,
- If the noun ends in n, the nominative is identical to
the base form.
- * afaan 'mouth, language (base form or nom.)'
- Some feminine nouns ending in a short vowel add -ti.
Again assimilation occurs in some cases.
- * haadha 'mother', haati (dh +
t assimilates to t)
- * lafa 'earth', lafti
- The genitive is used for possession or "belonging"; it
corresponds roughly to English of or -'s. The
genitive is usually formed by lengthening a final short vowel, by
adding -ii to a final consonant, and by leaving a final
long vowel unchanged. The possessor noun follows the possessed noun
in a genitive phrase. Many such phrases with specific technical
meanings have been added to the Oromo lexicon in recent years.
- * obboleetti 'sister', namicha 'the man',
obboleetti namichaa 'the man's sister'
- * hojii 'job', Caaltuu, woman's name,
hojii Caaltuu, 'Caaltuu's job'
- * barumsa 'field of study', afaan 'mouth,
language', barumsa afaanii 'linguistics'
- In place of the genitive it is also possible to use the
relative marker kan (m.) / tan (f.) preceding the
- * obboleetti kan namicha 'the man's sister'
- The dative is used for nouns that represent the recipient
(to) or the benefactor (for) of an event. The
dative form of a verb infinitive (which
acts like a noun in Oromo) indicates purpose. The dative takes one
of the following forms:
- * Lengthening of a final short vowel (ambiguously also
signifying the genitive)
- :* namicha 'the man', namichaa 'to the man,
of the man'
- * -f following a long vowel or a lengthened short
vowel; -iif following a consonant
- :* intala 'girl, daughter', intalaaf 'to a
- :* saree 'dog', sareef 'to a dog'
- :* baruu 'to learn', baruuf 'in order to
- :* bishaan 'water', bishaaniif 'for
- * -dhaa or -dhaaf following a long vowel
- :* saree 'dog'; sareedhaa, sareedhaaf 'to a
- * -tti (with no change to a preceding vowel),
especially with verbs of speaking
- :* Caaltuu woman's name, himi 'tell, say
(imperative)', Caaltuutti himi 'tell Caaltuu'
- The instrumental is used for nouns that represent the
instrument ("with"), the means ("by"), the agent ("by"), the
reason, or the time of an event. The formation of the instrumental
parallels that of the dative to some extent:
- * -n following a long vowel or a lengthened short
vowel; -iin following a consonant
- :* harka 'hand', harkaan 'by hand, with a
- :* halkan 'night', halkaniin 'at night'
- * -tiin following a long vowel or a lengthened short
- :* Afaan Oromoo 'Oromo (language)', Afaan
Oromootiin 'in Oromo'
- * -dhaan following a long vowel
- :* yeroo 'time', yeroodhaan 'on time'
- :* bawuu 'to come out, coming out',
bawuudhaan 'by coming out'
- The locative is used for nouns that represent general locations
of events or states, roughly at. For more specific
locations, Oromo uses prepositions or postpositions. Postpositions
may also take the locative suffix. The locative also seems to
overlap somewhat with the instrumental, sometimes having a temporal
function. The locative is formed with the suffix
- * Arsiitti 'in Arsii'
- * harka 'hand', harkatti 'in hand'
- * guyyaa 'day', guyyaatti 'per day'
- * jala, jalatti 'under'
- The ablative is to represent the source of an event; it
corresponds closely to English from. The ablative, applied
to postpositions and locative adverbs as well a nouns proper, is
formed in the following ways:
- * When the word ends in a short vowel, this vowel is lengthened
(as for the genitive).
- :* biyya 'country', biyyaa 'from
- :* keessa 'inside, in', keessaa 'from
- * When the word ends in a long vowel, -dhaa is added
(as for one alternative for the dative).
- :* Finfinneedhaa 'from Finfinnee (Addis Ababa)'
- :* gabaa 'market', gabaadhaa 'from
- * When the word ends in a consonant, -ii is added (as
for the genitive).
- :* Hararii 'from Harar'
- * Following a noun in the genitive, -tii is
- :* mana 'house', buna 'coffee', mana
bunaa 'cafe', mana bunaatii 'from cafe'
- An alternative to the ablative is the postposition
irraa 'from' whose initial vowel may be dropped in the
- * gabaa 'market', gabaa irraa, gabaarraa
In most languages, there is a small number of basic distinctions of
, and often gender
that play a role within the
grammar of the language. Oromo and English are such languages. We
see these distinctions within the basic set of independent
, for example, English I
; English they
, Oromo isaani
set of possessive
, for example, English
, Oromo koo
; English mine
. In Oromo, the same distinctions are also
reflected in subject-verb agreement: Oromo verbs (with a few
; that is, the person,
number, and (singular third person) gender of the subject of the
verb are marked by suffixes
on the verb.
Because these suffixes vary greatly with the particular verb
, they are normally not considered to
be pronouns and are discussed elsewhere in this article under verb
In all of these areas of the grammar — independent pronouns,
possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, and subject-verb
agreement — Oromo distinguishes seven combinations of person,
number, and gender. For first and second persons, there is a
two-way distinction between singular ('I', 'you sg.') and plural
('we', 'you pl.'), whereas for third person, there is a two-way
distinction in the singular ('he', 'she') and a single form for the
plural ('they'). Because Oromo has only two genders, there is no
pronoun corresponding to English it
; the masculine or
feminine pronoun is used according to the gender of the noun
Oromo is a subject pro-drop
. That is, neutral sentences in which the subject is
not emphasized do not require independent subject pronouns:
'we came yesterday'.The Oromo word that
translates 'we' does not appear in this sentence, though the person
and number are marked on the verb dhufne
('we came') by
the suffix -ne
. When the subject in such sentences needs
to be given prominence for some reason, an independent pronoun can
be used: nuti kaleessa dhufne
The table below gives forms of the personal pronouns in the
different cases, as well as the possessive adjectives. For the
first person plural and third person singular feminine categories,
there is considerable variation across dialects; only some of the
possibilities are shown.
The possessive adjectives, treated as separate words here, are
sometimes written as noun suffixes. In most dialects there is a
distinction between masculine and feminine possessive adjectives
for first and second person (the form agreeing with the gender of
the modified noun). However, in the western dialects, the masculine
forms (those beginning with k-
) are used in all cases.
Possessive adjectives may take the case endings for the nouns they
modify: ganda kootti
'to my village' (-tti
Oromo Personal Pronouns
||naa, naaf, natti
[too, tiyya (f.)]
||sii, siif, sitti
||isaa, isaa(tii)f, isatti
||isii, ishii, isee,
||ishii, ishiif, ishiitti, etc.
||nuti, nu'i, nuy, nu
||nuu, nuuf, nutti
||isinii, isiniif, isinitti
||isaanii, isaaniif, isaanitti
As in languages such as French
, and Turkish
, the Oromo second person plural is
also used as a polite singular form, for reference to people that
the speaker wishes to show respect towards. This usage is an
example of the so-called T-V
that is made in many languages. In addition, the
third person plural may be used for polite reference to a single
third person (either 'he' or 'she').
For possessive pronouns ('mine', 'yours', etc.), Oromo adds the
possessive adjectives to kan
'of': kan koo
'mine', kan kee
Reflexive and reciprocal pronouns
Oromo has two ways of expressing reflexive pronouns
etc.). One is to use the noun meaning 'self': of(i)
. This noun is inflected for case but, unless it is
being emphasized, not for person, number, or gender: isheen of
'she looks at herself' (base form of of
isheen ofiif makiinaa bitte
'she bought herself a car'
(dative of of
The other possibility is to use the noun meaning 'head',
, with possessive suffixes: mataa koo
'myself', mataa kee
'yourself (s.)', etc.
Oromo has a reciprocal pronoun
(English 'each other') that is used like
. That is, it is inflected for case but not person,
number, or gender: wal jaalatu
'they like each other'
(base form of wal
), kennaa walii bidan
brought each other gifts' (dative of wal
Like English, Oromo makes a two-way distinction between proximal
('this, these') and distal ('that, those') demonstrative pronouns
Some dialects distinguish masculine and feminine for the proximal
pronouns; in the western dialects the masculine forms (beginning
) are used for both genders. Unlike in English,
singular and plural demonstratives are not distinguished, but, as
for nouns and personal pronouns in the language, case is
distinguished. Only the base and nominative forms are shown in the
table below; the other cases are formed from the base form as for
nouns, for example, sanatti
'at/on/in that' (locative
Oromo Demonstrative Pronouns
An Oromo verb consists minimally of a stem
, representing the lexical
meaning of the verb, and a suffix
, representing tense
agreement. For example, in
'we came', dhuf-
is the stem ('come') and
indicates that the tense is past and that the subject
of the verb is first person plural.
As in many other Afro-Asiatic
, Oromo makes a basic two-way distinction in its verb
system between the two tensed forms, past (or "perfect") and
present (or "imperfect" or "non-past"). Each of these has its own
set of tense/agreement suffixes. There is a third conjugation based
on the present which has three functions: it is used in place of
the present in subordinate
, for the jussive
me/us/him, etc. V', together with the particle haa
for the negative
of the present (together
with the particle hin
). For example, deemne
'we go', akka deemnu
'that we go',
'let's go', hin deemnu
'we don't go'.
There is also a separate imperative
The table below shows the conjugation in the affirmative and
negative of the verb beek-
'know'. The first person
singular present and past affirmative forms require the suffix
to appear on the word preceding the verb or the word
before the verb. The negative particle hin
shown as a separate word in the table, is sometimes written as a
prefix on the verb.
Oromo Verb Conjugation
For verbs with stems ending in certain consonants and suffixes
beginning with consonants (that is, t
there are predictable changes to one or the other of the
consonants. The dialects vary a lot in the details, but the
following changes are common.
|b- + -t → bd
||qabda 'you (sg.) have'
|g- + -t → gd
||dhugda 'you (sg.) drink'
|r- + -n → rr
||barra 'we learn'
|l- + -n → ll
||galla 'we enter'
|q- + -t → qx
||dhaqxa 'you (sg.) go'
|s- + -t → ft
||baas- 'take out', baafta 'you (sg.) take
|s- + -n → fn
||baas- 'take out', baafna 'we take out'
|t-/d-/dh-/x- + -n
||bitti 'buy', binna 'we buy';
nyaadhaa 'eat', nyaanna 'we eat'
|d- + -t → dd
||fid- 'bring', fidda 'you (sg.) bring'
|dh- + -t → tt
||taphadh- 'play', taphatta 'you (sg.)
|x- + -t → xx
||fix- 'finish', fixxa 'you (sg.) finish'
Verbs whose stems end in two consonants and whose suffix begins
with a consonant must insert a vowel to break up the consonants
since the language does not permit sequences of three consonants.
There are two ways this can happen: either the vowel i
inserted between the stem and the suffix, or the final stem
consonants are switched (an example of metathesis
) and the vowel a
between them. For example, arg-
'we see'; kolf-
'he laughed', kolfite
'you (sg.) laughed'.
Verbs whose stems end in the consonant ' (which may appear as
, or y
in some words, depending on
the dialect) belong to three different conjugation classes; the
class is not predictable from the verb stem. It is the forms that
precede suffixes beginning with consonants (t
) that differ from the usual pattern. The third person
masculine singular, second person singular, and first person plural
present forms are shown for an example verb in each class.
- du'- 'die': du'a 'he dies', duuta
'you (sg.) die', duuna 'we die'
- beela'-, 'be hungry': beela'a 'he is hungry',
beelofta 'you (sg.) are hungry', beelofna 'we are
- dhaga'- 'hear': dhaga'a 'he hears',
dhageessa 'you (sg.) hear', dhageenya 'we hear'
(note that the suffix consonants change)
The common verbs fedh-
'want' and godh-
deviate from the basic conjugation pattern in that long vowels
replace the geminated consonants that would result when suffixes
beginning with t
are added: fedha
'he wants', feeta
'you (sg.) want', feena
'you (pl.) want', hin feene
The verb dhuf-
'come' has the irregular imperatives
. The verb deem-
has, alongside regular imperative forms, the irregular imperatives
An Oromo verb root can be the basis for three derived voices,
passive, causative, and autobenefactive, each formed with addition
of a suffix to the root, yielding the stem that the inflectional
suffixes are added to.
- Passive voice
- The Oromo passive corresponds closely to the English passive in
function. It is formed by adding -am to the verb root. The
resulting stem is conjugated regularly. Examples: beek-
'know', beekam- 'be known', beekamani 'they were
known'; jedh- 'say', jedham- 'be said',
jedhama 'it is said'
- Causative voice
- The Oromo causative of a verb V corresponds to English
expressions such as 'cause V', 'make V', 'let V'. With intransitive
verbs, it has a transitivizing function. It is formed by adding
-s, -sis, or -siis to the verb root,
except that roots ending in -l add -ch. Verbs
whose roots end in ' drop this consonant and may lengthen the
preceding vowel before adding -s. Examples: beek-
'know', beeksis- 'cause to know, inform',
beeksifne 'we informed'; ka'- 'go up, get up',
kaas- 'pick up', kaasi 'pick up (sing.)!';
gal- 'enter', galch- 'put in', galchiti
'she puts in'; bar- 'learn', barsiis- 'teach',
nan barsiisa 'I teach'.
- Autobenefactive voice
- The Oromo autobenefactive (or "middle" or "reflexive-middle")
voice of a verb V corresponds roughly to English expressions such
as 'V for oneself' or 'V on one's own', thought the precise meaning
may be somewhat unpredictable for many verbs. It is formed by
adding -adh to the verb root. The conjugation of a middle
verb is irregular in the third person singular masculine of the
present and past (-dh in the stem changes to -t)
and in the singular imperative (the suffix is -u rather
than -i). Examples: bit- 'buy', bitadh-
'buy for oneself', bitate 'he bought (something) for
himself', bitadhu 'but for yourself (sing.)!';
qab- 'have', qabadh- 'seize, hold (for oneself)',
qabanna 'we hold'. Some autobenefactives are derived from
nouns rather than verbs, for example, hojjadh- 'work' from
the noun hojii 'work'.
The voice suffixes can be combined in various ways. Two causative
suffixes are possible: ka'-
'go up', kaas-
'cause to pick up'. The causative may be
followed by the passive or the autobenefactive; in this case the
of the causative is replaced by f
'return (intransitive)', deebis-
(transitive), answer', deebifam-
'be returned, be
'get back for oneself'.
Another derived verbal aspect
formed by copying the first consonant and vowel of the verb root
and geminating the second occurrence of the initial consonant. The
resulting stem indicates the repetition or intensive performance of
the action of the verb. Examples: bul-
'spend the night',
'spend several nights', cab-
'break to pieces, break completely';
'push, apply pressure', dhiddhiib-
The infinitive is formed from a verb stem with the addition of the
. Verbs whose stems end in -dh
particular all autobenefactive verbs) change this to ch
before the suffix. Examples: dhug-
'to drink'; ga'-
'to reach'; jedh-
'to say'. The verb
is exceptional; its infinitive is fedhuu
rather than the expected fechuu
. The infinitive behaves
like a noun; that is, it can take any of the case suffixes.
'to reach', ga'uuf
'in order to
reach' (dative case); dhug-
to be drunk', dhugamuudhaan
being drunk' (instrumental case).
- Lewis, M. Paul, ed. 2009. Ethnologue. Dallas: SIL
- Ethnologue: Languages of Ethiopia
- "Afaan Oromo" University of Pennsylvania,
School of African Studies
- R. J. Hayward and Mohammed Hassan. 1981. "The Oromo Orthography
of Shaykh Bakri Saṗalō", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and
African Studies, 44.3, pp. 550-566
- Stroomer, p. 4.
- Online Afaan Oromoo - English Dictionary
- Gragg, Gene B. et al. (ed., 1982) Oromo Dictionary.
Monograph (Michigan State University. Committee on Northeast
African Studies) no. 12. East Lansing, Mich. : African Studies
Center, Michigan State Univ.