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   is a city in Japanmarker, located at the mouth of the Yodo Rivermarker on Osaka Baymarker, in the Kansai regionmarker of the main island of Honshūmarker.


Osaka is a City in Japan and also is designated city under the Local Autonomy Law and the capital city of Osaka Prefecturemarker. Osaka has historically been the commercial capital of Japan, and is at the heart of Japan's second largest metropolitan area of Keihanshin (Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto), whose population is 18,643,915.

The ratio between daytime and night time population is 141%, the highest in Japan, highlighting its status as an economic center. Its nighttime population is 2.6 million, the third in the country, but in daytime the population surges to 3.7 million, second only after Tokyomarker. Osaka has traditionally been referred to as the , or the Meccamarker of gourmet food.

History

Prehistory to the Kofun period

Some of the earliest signs of habitation in the area of Osaka were found at the , with its shell mounds, including sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 5th–6th centuries BC.It is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land, with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew as rice farming became popular.

By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japanmarker. The large numbers, and the increasing size, of tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state.

Asuka and Nara period

In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his palace, the Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in Osaka, making this area the capital (Naniwa-kyō). The place that became the modern city was by this time called Naniwa. This name, and derived forms, are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwamarker (浪速) and Namba (難波). Although the capital was moved to Asukamarker (in Nara Prefecturemarker today) in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato (modern day Nara Prefecturemarker), Koreamarker, and Chinamarker.

In 744, Naniwa once again became the capital by order of Emperor Shōmu. Naniwa ceased to be the capital in 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyōmarker (now Nara). The seaport function was gradually taken over by neighboring lands by the end of Nara period, but it remained a lively center of river, channel, and land transportation between Heian-kyō (Kyoto today) and other destinations.

Heian to Edo period

In 1496, the Jōdo Shinshū Buddhist sect set up their headquarters in the heavily fortified Ishiyama Hongan-jimarker on the site of the old Naniwa imperial palace. Oda Nobunaga started a siege of the temple in 1570. After a decade, the monks finally surrendered, and the temple was razed, and Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castlemarker in its place.

Osaka was, for a long time, Japan's most important economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class (see Four divisions of society). Over the course of the Edo period (1603–1867), Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port. Its popular culture was closely related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. Developing in parallel with the urban culture of Kyoto and Edo, Osaka likewise featured bunraku and grand kabuki productions, pleasure quarters, and a lively artistic community.

In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. Approximately one-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself.

Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgomarker (modern Kobe) on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin war and the Meiji restoration.

Modern Osaka

The modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 km², overlapping today's Chūōmarker and Nishimarker wards. Later, the city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 222 km².

Derivation of name

Osaka literally means "large hill" or "large slope."It is unclear when this name gained prominence over Naniwa, but the oldest usage of the name dates back to a 1496 text. Osaka, now written 大阪, was formerly written using a different second kanji as 大坂. The old writing is still in very limited use to emphasize history, but the second kanji 阪 is now universally considered referring to Osaka city and prefecture only, to distinguish it from homonyms in other Japanese prefectures.

Geography

The city of Osaka has its west side open to Osaka Baymarker. It is otherwise completely surrounded by more than ten smaller cities, all of them in Osaka Prefecturemarker, with one exception: the city of Amagasaki, belonging to Hyōgo Prefecturemarker, in the northwest. The city occupies a larger area (about 13%) than any other city or village within Osaka Prefecture. When the city was established in 1889, the city occupied roughly what today are the wards of Chuo and Nishi, with only size, and grew into today's over several expansions. The biggest leap was in 1925, when was claimed through an expansion. The highest point in Osaka is in Tsurumi-kumarker at Tokyo Peil, and the lowest point is in Nishiyodogawa-kumarker at Tokyo Peil.

Climate

Cityscape

Neighborhoods



Central Osaka is often divided into two areas referred to as Kita (キタ, lit. north) and Minami (ミナミ, lit. south), at either end of the major thoroughfare Midōsuji. Kita is roughly the area surrounding the business and retail district of Umeda. Minami is home to the Namba, Shinsaibashimarker, and Dōtonborimarker shopping districts. The entertainment district around Dōtonbori Bridge with its famous giant mechanical crab, Triangle Park, and Amerikamura ("America Village") is in Minami. In Yodoyabashi and Honmachi, between Kita and Minami, is the traditional business area where courts and national/regional headquarters of major banks are located. The newer business area is in the Osaka Business Park located nearby Osaka Castle. Business districts have also formed around the secondary rail termini, such as Tennoji Stationmarker and Kyobashi Stationmarker.

“The 808 bridges of Naniwa” was an expression in old Japan for awe and wonder, an adage known across the land. “808” was a large number which symbolized the idea of “uncountable”. Since Osaka is crossed by a number of rivers and canals, many bridges were built with specific names, and the areas surrounding the bridges were often referred to by the names of the bridges, too. Some of the waterways, such as the Nagahori canal, have been filled in, while others still remain..

Wards

A map of Osaka's Wards
Osaka has 24 wards (ku):





Demographics

According to the census in 2005, there were 2,628,811 residents in Osaka, an increase of 30,037 or 1.2% from 2000. There were 1,280,325 households with approximately 2.1 persons per household. The population density was 11,836 persons per km². The Great Kanto Earthquakemarker caused a mass migration to Osaka between 1920 and 1930, and the city became Japan's largest city in 1930 with 2,453,573 people, outnumbering even Tokyo, which had a population of 2,070,913. The population peaked at 3,252,340 in 1940, and had a post-war peak of 3,156,222 in 1965, but continued to decrease since, as the residents moved out to the suburbs.

There were 99,775 registered foreigners, the two largest groups being Korean (71,015) and Chinese (11,848). Ikunomarker, with its Tsuruhashi district, is the home to one of the largest population of Korean residents in Japan, with 27,466 registered zainichi Koreans.

Dialect

The commonly spoken dialect of this area is Osaka-ben. Of the many other particularities that characterize Osaka-ben, an example is the use of the suffix hen instead of nai in the negative of verbs.

Politics

Osaka City Hall


The Osaka City Council is the city's local government formed under the Local Autonomy Law. The Council has eighty-nine seats, allocated to the twenty-four wards proportional to their population and re-elected by the citizens every four years. The Council elects its President and Vice President. Toshifumi Tagaya (LDP) is the current and 104th President since May 2008. The Mayor of the city is directly elected by the citizens every four years as well, in accordance with the Local Autonomy Law. Kunio Hiramatsu, a former Mainichi Broadcasting Systemmarker announcer is the 18th mayor of Osaka since 2007. He is supported by two Vice Mayors, Akira Morishita and Takashi Kashiwagi, who are appointed by himself in accordance with the city bylaw.

Osaka also houses several agencies of the Japanese Government. Below is a list of Governmental Offices housed in Osaka.



  • Osaka Family Court
  • Osaka High Court
  • Osaka Immigration
  • Osaka Labour Bureau
  • Osaka Meteorological Observatory
  • Osaka Public Prosecutors Office
  • Osaka Regional Aerospace Bureau
  • Osaka Regional Law Bureau
  • Osaka Regional Taxation Bureau
  • Osaka Summary Court


Economy



See also Companies headquartered in Osaka

The gross city product of Osaka in fiscal year 2004 was ¥21.3 trillion, an increase of 1.2% over the previous year. The figure accounts for about 55% of the total output in the Osaka Prefecturemarker and 26.5% in the Kinki region. In 2004, commerce, services, and manufacturing have been the three major industries, accounting for 30%, 26%, and 11% of the total, respectively. The per capita income in the city was about ¥3.3 million, 10% higher than that of the Osaka Prefecture.MasterCard Worldwide reported that Osaka ranks 19th among the world's leading cities and plays an important role in the global economy.

The GDP in the greater Osaka area (Osaka and Kobe) is $341 billion. Osaka, along with Parismarker and Londonmarker, has one of the most productive hinterlands in the world. The figure has stayed fairly constant for the past 15 years, when the GDP compared with other cities worldwide was that much larger.

Historically, Osaka was the center of commerce in Japan, especially in the middle and pre-modern ages. Nomura Securities, the first brokerage firm in Japan, was founded in the city in 1925, and Osaka still houses a leading futures exchange. Many major companies have since moved their main offices to Tokyomarker. However, several major companies—such as Panasonic, Sharp, and Sanyo—are still headquartered in Osaka. Recently, the city began a program, headed by mayor Junichi Seki, to attract domestic and foreign investment.

The Osaka Securities Exchange, specializing in derivatives such as Nikkei 225 futures, is based in Osaka. The merger with JASDAQ will help the Osaka Securities Exchange become the largest exchange in Japan for start-up companies.

According to a U.S. study, Osaka is the second most expensive city for expatriate employees in the world and in Japan behind Tokyomarker. It jumped up nine places from 11th place in 2008. Osaka was the 8th most expensive city in 2007.

Transportation



Air

Osaka is served by two airports outside the city.

Kansai International Airportmarker (IATA: KIX) handles all scheduled international passenger flights, some domestic flights, and most cargo flights. It is on an artificial island that sits off-shore in Osaka Bay and is administratively part of the nearby town of Tajirimarker. The airport is linked by a bus and train service into the center of the city and major suburbs.

Osaka International Airportmarker (IATA:ITM), on the border of the cities of Itami and Toyonaka, houses most of the domestic services, some international cargo flights, and international VIP charters from and to the metropolitan region.

Sea

Date   Sister Port
1967 San Franciscomarker, United Statesmarker
1974 Melbournemarker, Australia
1980 Le Havremarker, Francemarker
1981 Shanghai, Chinamarker
1983 Valparaisomarker, Chilemarker
1985 Busanmarker, South Koreamarker
1994 Ho Chi Minh Citymarker, Vietnammarker
The port of Osaka serves as a shipping hub for the Kansai region along with the port of Kobe.

Ferry

Osaka's international ferry connections are far greater than Tokyo's, mostly due to geography. There are international ferries that leave Osaka for Shanghai, Koreamarker, and until recently Taiwanmarker. Osaka's domestic ferry services include regular service to ports such as Shimonoseki, Kagoshima, and Okinawamarker.

Shipping

Port of Osaka
Shipping plays the crucial role for the freight coming in and out of the area nationally and internationally, and Greater Osaka areas exports and imported raw materials span the globe, with no one port dominating. Though the port of Kobe was in the 1970s the busiest in the world by containers handled, it no longer ranks among the top twenty worldwide. Kansai area is home to 5 existing LNG terminals.



Rail

Greater Osaka has a very extensive network of railway lines, comparable to that of Greater Tokyo. Main rail terminals in the city include, Umeda, Namba, Tennojimarker, Kyobashi, and Yodoyabashi.

High speed rail

Series of Shinkansen


JR Central and JR West operate high-speed trains on the Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen line. Shin-Ōsaka Stationmarker is the Shinkansen terminal in Osaka. This station is connected to Ōsaka Stationmarker at Umeda by the JR Kyoto Line and the subway Midōsuji Line. All Shinkansen trains including Nozomi stop at Shin-Ōsaka Station and provide access to other major cities in Japan, such as Kyoto, Nagoya, Yokohama and Tokyomarker to the east, and Kobe, Okayama, Hiroshima, Kitakyushu and Fukuoka to the west. In spring 2011, JR West and JR Kyushu will introduce new Shinkansen services, Sakura, linking Osaka with Kumamoto, Kagoshima, and other cities in central and south Kyushumarker.

The Chuo Shinkansen using JR-Maglevmarker system will be extended to Shin-Ōsaka so that passengers can transfer to the existing Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen line.

Commuter rail

JR Osaka Loop Line


Both JR West and private lines connect Osaka and its suburbs. The commuter rail network of JR West is called the Urban Network. Major stations on the JR Osaka Loop Line include Osaka marker, Tennōjimarker, Tsuruhashimarker, and Kyōbashimarker. JR West competes with such private rail operators as Keihan Electric Railway, Hankyu Railway, Hanshin Railway, Kintetsu Corporation, and Nankai Electric Railway. The Keihan and Hankyu lines connect to Kyoto; the Hanshin and Hankyu lines connect to Kobe; the Kintetsu lines connect to Nara, Yoshinomarker, Ise and Nagoya; and the Nankai lines connect to Osaka's southern suburbs and Kansai International Airportmarker as well as Wakayama and Mt.marker Koyamarker. Many lines in Greater Osaka accept either ICOCA or PiTaPa contactless smart cards for payment.

Municipal subway

The Osaka Municipal Subway system is a part of Osaka's extensive rapid transit system. The Metro system alone ranks 8th in the world by annual passenger ridership, serving over 912 million people annually (a quarter of Greater Osaka Rail System's 4 billion annual riders), despite being only 8 of more than 70 lines in the metro area ( see map).

Bus

Regular bus services are provided by Osaka Municipal Transportation Bureau (the City Bus), as well as by group companies of Hankyu, Hanshin and Kintetsu. The City runs a dense network covering much parts of the city. The fare for the regular buses is a flat rate of 200 Yen, or 100 Yen for the smaller "Red Bus" looplines operated within segmented areas of the city. The other bus companies provide their services in supplement to their railway networks.

Culture and lifestyle



Shopping and culinary

Osaka has a large number of wholesalers and retail shops: 25,228 and 34,707 respectively in 2004, according to the city statistics. A lot of them are concentrated in the wards of Chuō (10,468 shops) and Kita (6,335 shops). Types of shops varies from malls to conventional shōtengai shopping arcades, built both above- and underground. Shōtengai are seen across Japan, and Osaka has the longest one in the country.: The Tenjinbashi-suji arcade stretches from the road approaching the Temmangu shrinemarker and continues for 2.6 km going north to south. The type of stores along the arcade includes commodities, clothing, and catering outlets.

Other shopping areas are Den Den Town, the electronic and manga/anime district, which is comparable to Akihabara; and the Umeda district, which has the Hankyu Sanbangai shopping mall and Yodobashi Camera, a huge electrical appliance store that offers a vast range of fashion stores, restaurants, and a Shonen Jump store.

Osaka is known for its food, as supported by the saying "Dress (in kimonos) till you drop in Kyoto, eat till you drop in Osaka" (京の着倒れ、大阪の食い倒れ). Regional cuisine includes okonomiyaki (pan-fried batter cake), takoyaki (octopus dumplings), udon (a noodle dish), as well as the traditional battera (バッテラ) sushi.

Other shopping districts include:
  • American Village – fashion for young people
  • Dōtonborimarker – part of Namba district and considered heart of the city
  • Namba – main shopping, sightseeing, and restaurant area
  • Shinsaibashimarker – luxury goods and department stores
  • Umeda – theaters, boutiques, and department stores near the train station


Entertainment and performing arts

  • Osaka is home to the National Bunraku Theatre[8427], where traditional puppet plays, bunraku, are performed.
  • At Osaka Shouchiku-za, close to Namba station, kabuki can be enjoyed as well as manzai. Nearby is the Shin-kabuki-za, where enka concerts and Japanese dramas are performed.
  • Yoshimoto, a Japanese entertainment conglomarate operates two halls in the city for manzai and other comedy shows: the Namba Grand Kagetsu and the Kyōbashi Kagetsu halls.
  • The Hanjō-tei opened in 2006, dedicated to rakugo. The theatre is in the Temmangūmarker area.
  • Umeda Arts Theater opened in 2005 after relocating from its former 46-year-old Umeda Koma Theater. The theater has a main hall with 1,905 seats and a smaller theater-drama hall with 898 seats. Umeda Arts Theatre stages various type of performances including musicals, music concerts, dramas, rakugo, and others.
  • The Symphony Hall, built in 1982, is the first hall in Japan designed specially for classical music concerts. The Hall was opened with a concert by the Osaka Philharmonic Orchestra, which is based in the city. Orchestras such as the Berlin Philharmonic and Vienna Philharmonic have played here during their world tours as well.
  • Osaka-jō Hallmarker is a multi-purpose arena in Osaka-jō park with a capacity for up to 16,000 people. The hall has hosted numerous events and concerts including both Japanese and international artists.
  • Near City Hall in Nakanoshima, is Osaka Central Public Hall, a Neo-Renaissance-style building first opened in 1918. Re-opened in 2002 after major restoration, it serves as a multi-purpose rental facility for citizen events.
  • The Osaka Shiki Theater is one of the nine private halls opearted nationwide by the Shiki Theatre, staging straight plays and musicals.
  • Festival Hall was a hall hosting various performances including noh, kyogen, kabuki, ballets as well as classic concerts. The Bolshoi Ballet and the Philharmonia are among the many that were welcomed on stage in the past. The hall has closed at the end of 2008, planned to re-open in 2013 in a new facility.


Annual festivals

Tenji Matsuri
One of the most famous festivals held in Osaka, the Tenjin-matsuri is held on July 24 and 25. Other festivals in Osaka include the Aizen-matsuri, Shōryō-e and Tōka-Ebisu. Furthermore, Osaka annually hosts the Osaka European Film Festival.

Museum and galleries

See also: Museums in Osaka
Osaka Maritime Museum


The National Museum of Artmarker (NMAO) is a subterranean Japanese art museum, housing mainly collections from the post-war era. Osaka Science Museummarker is in a five storied building next to the National Museum of Art, with a planetarium and an omnimax theatre. The Museum of Oriental Ceramics holds more than 2,000 pieces of ceramics, from China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam, featuring displays of some of their Korean celadon under natural light. Osaka Municipal Museum of Art is inside Tennōji parkmarker, housing over 8,000 pieces of Japanese and Chinese paintings and sculptures. The Osaka Maritime Museummarker, opened in 2000, is accessible only through an underwater tunnel into its dome. The Osaka Museum of History, opened in 2001, is located in a 13-story modern building providing a view of Osaka Castlemarker. Its exhibits cover the history of Osaka from pre-history to the present day. Osaka Museum of Natural History houses a collection related to natural history and life.

Sports

Osaka hosts four professional sport teams: one of them is the Orix Buffaloes, a Nippon Professional Baseball team, playing its home games at Kyocera Dome Osakamarker. Another baseball team, the Hanshin Tigers, although based in Nishinomiya, Hyōgomarker, plays a part of its home games in Kyocera Dome Osakamarker as well, when their homeground Kōshien Stadiummarker is occupied with the annual National High School Baseball Championship games during summer season. A J.League soccer team, Cerezo Osaka, plays its home games at Nagai Stadiummarker. The team plays in the 2nd division league since the 2007 season, after finishing second to last in the previous year. The city is home to Osaka Evessa, a basketball team that plays in the bj league. Evessa has won the first three championships of the league since its establishment. Kintetsu Liners, a rugby union team, play in the Top League. After winning promotion in 2008-09, they will again remain in the competition for the 2009-10 season. Their base is the Hanazono Rugby Stadiummarker.

The Sangatsubasho (三月場所 sangatsu basho, literally March ring), one of the six regular tournaments of professional Sumo is held annually in Osaka at the Osaka Prefectural Gymnasiummarker.

Another major annual sporting event that takes place is Osaka is Osaka International Ladies Marathon. Held usually at the end of January every year, the 42.195 km race starts from Nagai Stadium, runs through Nakanoshimamarker, Midōsuji and Osaka castlemarker park, and returns to the stadium. Another yearly event held at Nagai Stadium is the Osaka Gran Prix Athletics games operated by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) in May. The Osaka GP is the only IAAF games annually held in Japan.

Media

NHK Osaka
Osaka serves as one of the media hubs for Japan, housing headquarters of many media-related companies. Abundant television production takes place in the city andevery nationwide TV network (with the exception of TXN network) registers its sub-key station in Osaka. All five nationwide newspaper majors also house their regional headquarters, and most local newspapers nationwide have branches in Osaka. Yet, one should know that major film productions are uncommon in the city. Most major films are produced in nearby Kyoto or Tokyomarker.

Newspapers

All the five nationwide newspaper majors of Japan, the Asahi Shimbun, the Mainichi Shimbun, the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, the Sankei Shimbun and the Yomiuri Shimbun, have their regional headquarters in Osaka and issue their regional editions. Furthermore, Osaka houses Osaka Nichi-nichi Shimbun, its newspaper press. Other newspaper related companies located in Osaka include include, the regional headquarters of FujiSankei Business i.;Houchi Shimbunsha; Nikkan Sports;Sports Nippon, and offices of Kyodo News; Jiji Press; Reuters; Bloomberg L.P..

Television and radio

The five TV networks are represented by the Asahi Broadcasting Corporationmarker (ANN), the Kansai Telecasting Corporationmarker (FNN), the Mainichi Broadcasting Systemmarker (JNN), the Television Osaka (TXN) and the Yomiuri Telecasting Corporationmarker (NNN), headquartered in Osaka. NHKmarker has also its regional station based in the city. AM Radio services are provided by NHK as well as the ABC Radio (Asahi Broadcasting Corporation), MBS Radio (Mainichi Broadcasting System) and Radio Osaka (Osaka Broadcasting Corporation) and headquartered in the city. FM services are available from NHK, FM Osaka, FM802 and FM Cocolo, the last providing programs in multiple languages including English.

As of February 2009, the city is fully covered by terrestrial digital TV broadcasts

Publishing companies

Osaka is home to many publishing companies including: Examina, Izumi Shoin, Kaihou Shuppansha, Keihanshin Elmagazine, Seibundo Shuppan, Sougensha, and Toho Shuppan.

Places of interest

Tourist attractions include:

21st century Osaka

21st century Osaka

Kansai, the name being used for Osaka is transforming itself with high rise skyscrapers that define the 21st century Japan in social and economic standards



Amusement parks

  • Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukanmarker (海遊館) – an aquarium located in Osaka Bay, containing 35,000 aquatic animals in 14 tanks, the largest of which holds 5,400 tons of water and houses a variety of sea animals including whale sharks. This tank is the world's second-largest aquarium tank, behind the Georgia Aquariummarker, whose largest tank holds approximately 29,000 tons of water.
  • Tempozan Harbor Village Ferris wheelmarker, located next to the aquarium
  • Tennōji Zoo
  • Universal Studios Japanmarker
  • Umeda Joypolismarker Sega
  • Shin-Umeda city – an innovative structure that has the floating garden observatory 170 m from the ground, which offers a 360-degree panoramic view of Osaka, popular for photographs, a structure that also houses an underground mall with restaurants and is styled in the early Showa period in the 1920s.


Parks



Temples, shrines, and other historical sites



Entertainment



Education

Public elementary and junior high schools in Osaka are operated by the city of Osaka. Its supervisory organization on educational matters is Osaka City Board of Education. Likewise, public high schools are operated by Osaka Prefectural Board of Education.

Osaka city once had a large number of universities high schools, but because of growing campuses and the need for larger area, many chose to move to the suburbs, including Osaka Universitymarker.



Libraries



Natives

Sister cities

Osaka has eight sister cities and relationships of various sorts with several others:

Date   Sister City
1957 San Franciscomarker, United Statesmarker
1969 São Paulomarker, Brazilmarker
1973 Chicagomarker, United Statesmarker
1974 Shanghai, Chinamarker
1974 Melbournemarker, Australia
1979 Saint Petersburgmarker, Russiamarker
1981 Milanmarker, Italymarker
1989 Hamburgmarker, Germanymarker
Date   Friendship and Cooperation City
1998 Buenos Airesmarker, Argentinamarker
1998 Budapestmarker, Hungarymarker
2008 Busanmarker, South Koreamarker


Business Partner Cities :

See also



References

  1. Table 92, Final Report of The 2000 Population Census
  2. Totalling the Special wards of Tokyo, which is not a single incorporated city, for statistical purposes. See the Tokyo article for more information on the definition and makeup of Tokyo.
  3. Navigate to the equivalent Japanese page (大阪市の歴史 タイムトリップ20,000年 (History of Osaka, A timetrip back 20,000 years))[1] for additional information.
  4. The name was also historically written 浪華 or 浪花, with the same pronunciation. These are uncommon today but still used sometimes.
  5. Osaka city
  6. A Guide to the Ukiyo-e Tokyo national museum[2]
  7. The Cambridge History of Japan p.304
  8. Osaka city
  9. http://www.city.osaka.jp/keikakuchousei/toukei/G000/Gyh19/Gb00/Gb00.html
  10. More About Osaka, Osaka City Government
  11. Osaka City Council homepage
  12. http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/insights/pdfs/2008/MCWW_WCoC-Report_2008.pdf
  13. http://www.pwc.com/uk/eng/ins-sol/publ/ukoutlook/pwc_ukeo-section3-march07.pdf
  14. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/business/20061228TDY16003.htm
  15. [3]
  16. http://www.mercer.com/costoflivingpr#Top_50
  17. the City Bus network
  18. [4]
  19. http://www.kansai.gr.jp/KansaiWindowhtml/Collection/English/000232.html
  20. [5]
  21. The five largest newspapers by number of circulation in Japan in alphabetical order.
  22. See the Association for Promotion of Digital Broadcasting web page for the coverage map.
  23. Japan in the 21st century: environment, economy, and society
  24. http://www.city.osaka.lg.jp/contents/wdu020/english/more_about_osaka/administrative.html
  25. http://www.iiclo.or.jp/english/english.htm


External links




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