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 is the capital and largest city in Norwaymarker. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by a fire in 1624. The Danish–Norwegian king Christian IV rebuilt the city as Christiania (later spelled Kristiania). Oslo, then an alternative name, became official again in 1925. The diocese of Oslo is one of the five original dioceses in Norway, which originated around the year 1070.


Oslo is the cultural, scientificmarker, economic and governmental centre of Norwaymarker. The city is also a hub of Norwegian trade, banking, industry and shipping. It is also an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe, and is home to approximately 980 companies and 8,500 employees within the maritime sector—among which are some of the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers and insurance brokers.

Oslo is considered a global city and ranked "Beta World City Plus" in studies performed by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008. Oslo has for several years been listed as one of the most expensive cities in the world alongside cities such as Tokyo, Copenhagen and Paris. In 2009 Oslo regained its status as the world's most expensive city. Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commissionmarker intercultural cities programme.

It is estimated that 26%—or around 152,000—of Oslo's core population are immigrants. As of 2009, the metropolitan area of Oslo had a population of 1.4 million; of whom, 876,391 lived in the contiguous conurbation. Furthermore, the city's population currently increases at a record rate of over 2% annually, making it one of the fastest growing cities in Europe.

Urban region

The population of the municipality of Oslo is 580,229 (as of 1 July 2009). The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershusmarker, (municipalities of Bærummarker, Askermarker, Røykenmarker, Lørenskogmarker, Skedsmomarker, Gjerdrummarker, Sørummarker, Oppegårdmarker) its agglomeration total 876,391 inhabitants. The metropolitan area of Oslo, also referred to as the Greater Oslo Region ( ), has a land area of with a population of 1,403,268 as of 1 July 2009. The Inner Oslo Fjord Region, or the Capital Region made up by the 5 counties of Oslo, Akershus, Buskerud, Vestfold (west bank of the Oslo fjord) and Østfold (east bank) has a population of 1.86 million people.
Karl Johans Gate
The city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjordmarker from where the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors" from its centre; inland north-eastwards and southwards lining both sides of the fjord giving the city area more or less the shape of a large, reclining "Y" when seen from the north.

To the north and east wide forested hills (Marka) rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre.The urban municipality (bykommune) of Oslo and county (fylke) is the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated. Of Oslo's total area, is built-up and is agricultural. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to .

The city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). It was separated from the county of Akershusmarker to become a county of its own in 1842. The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948 (and simultaneously transferred from Akershus county to Oslo county). Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county.

Oslo's share of the national GDP is 17%; the metropolitan area's share is 25%. Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world.

General information

Name

The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate. It is certainly derived from Old Norse and was in all probability the name of a large farm at the site of the first settlements in Bjørvikamarker.

It is commonly held that Oslo means “the mouth of the Lo river”, referring to an alternative name of the river Alna, but this is most likely apocryphal; not only is it ungrammatical (the correct form would be Loos, cf. Nidaros), but the name Lo is not recorded anywhere before Peder Claussøn Friis first used it in the same work in which he proposed this etymology. The name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his spurious etymology for Oslo.

During the Middle Ages the name was initially spelled “Áslo” and later “Óslo”. The earlier spelling suggests that the first component ás refers either to the Ekebergmarker ridge southeast of the town (“ås” in modern Norwegian), or to the Aesir. The most likely interpretations would therefore be either “the meadow beneath the ridge” or “the meadow of the gods”. Both are equally plausible.

A fire in 1624 destroyed much of the medieval city, and when the city was rebuilt it was moved westwards in order to be nearer the Akershus Fortress. King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway renamed the reborn city Christiania. According to an official spelling reform (that changed ch to k) the form was changed to Kristiania in 1877. (The same year were the city names Christiansand and Christiansund changed to Kristiansandmarker and Kristiansundmarker—and the name of the county Christians Amt was changed to Kristians Amt (see Oppland).) The new form was used in all official documents and publications of the Norwegian State, but not by the municipality itself. The city continued to use the old form until 1897, then they also changed to Kristiania (without any formal or official decision).

This original name was restored by a law of 11 July, 1924, effective 1 January, 1925; a decision which caused much debate in its time.

"When I was young, the capital of Norway was not called Oslo. It was called Christiania. But somewhere along the line, the Norwegian decided to do away with that pretty name and call it Oslo instead."
Roald Dahl, Boy


When the city in general now took up the name of Oslo again, the eastern district of the city that had preserved the old name became known simply as Gamlebyen (Old Town). As of 2009, history is about to come full circle as the City Council has announced its intention to rename the city centre today known as Oslo Sentrum (Central Oslo) to possibly Kristiania or Christiania. This central area will roughly correspond to the area built up as the "new city" after the 1624 fire. There is some debate whether to use the historical name Christiania—in use for over 300 years—or the spelling Kristiania, introduced in 1897 and used for only 27 years. The spelling "Kristiania" is considered ahistorical by historians. The old square of Christian IV's city was named Christiania torv in 1958, and this name (with the old ch-form) is still in use on signs and maps.

The city was once referred to as Tigerstaden (the City of Tigers) by the author Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson around 1870, due to his perception of the city as a cold and dangerous place. This name has over the years achieved an almost official status, to the extent that the 1000-year anniversary was celebrated by a row of tiger sculptures around city hall. The prevalence of homeless and other beggars in more recent times led to the slight rewording of the nickname into Tiggerstaden (the City of Beggars). Another harsh picture of the city was drawn by Knut Hamsun in his novel Sult (Hunger) from 1890 (cinematised in 1966 by Henning Carlsen).

City seal

Coat of Arms of Oslo.


Oslo is the only city in Norway, besides Bergenmarker, that does not have a formal coat-of-arms, but uses a city seal instead. The seal of Oslo shows the city's patron saint, St. Hallvard. The seal shows St. Hallvard with his attributes, the millstone and arrows, with a dead woman at his feet. He is seated on a throne with lion decorations, which at the time was also commonly used by the Norwegian Kings. Seating him on such a throne made him equal to the kings.

The oldest known seal of Oslo showed the same composition as today's seal, except for the human figure reclining at the feet of St. Hallvard. In the original seal, it represented an armed warrior, one of the evil men who killed Hallvard. Due to its bad state of preservation, the image was misinterpreted as the woman he tried to defend. The seal was probably made around 1300 and was in use for nearly three centuries. After the Protestant Reformation, the city continued the use of St. Hallvard on its seal. The second seal of Oslo dates from around 1590. It shows the same basic design, but the saint holds his attributes in the opposite hands. Also the stars and some other smaller details were lost. This seal was used until around 1660.

At that time the church of St. Hallvard had become a ruin and the legend was no longer well known. The third seal of Oslo, made in 1659, therefore still showed the basic design, but the saint was transformed into a female figure. She still held the arrows and had a dead knight (with harness and helmet) lying at her feet. The millstone had become thinner and looked more like a ring. This image can still be seen on a cast iron stove plate dating from 1770. These plates became very popular in Denmarkmarker in the 18th century and the figure was presented as Queen Margaret I, who unified the three Kingdoms of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, which are represented by the ring (union) and the three arrows. The dead knight was to symbolise her opponent, Albrecht of Mecklenburg.

During the 18th and early 19th century, the image kept changing. The ring has been shown as a snake biting its own tail, the throne was replaced by a lion, and the warrior at Hallvard's feet definitely became a woman.

In 1854, A. T. Kaltenborn wrote about the Norwegian municipal arms and also was shown a medieval seal of Oslo. He recognised it as depicting the legend of St. Hallvard, but did not interpret the reclining figure correctly. He persuaded the city to have a new seal made, based on the alleged medieval composition. Finally a new design was made by the German E. Doepler in 1892. He changed only one item on the instead of naked as on the seal. His composition was also used on a proper shield, designed in 1899 by Reidar Haavin. In 1924, the present design was made, still with the incorrect woman instead of the original warrior, but now stark naked.

History

Christiania in July of 1814, as seen from Ekeberg.
According to the Norse sagas, Oslo was founded around 1049 by King Harald Hardråde. Recent archaeological research has uncovered Christian burials from before 1000, evidence of a preceding urban settlement. This called for the celebration of Oslo's millennium in 2000.

It has been regarded as the capital city since the reign of Håkon V (1299-1319), the first king to reside permanently in the city. He also started the construction of the Akershus Fortressmarker. A century later Norway was the weaker part in a personal union with Denmarkmarker, and Oslo's role was reduced to that of provincial administrative centre, with the monarchs residing in Copenhagenmarker. The fact that the University of Oslomarker was founded as late as 1811 had an adverse effect on the development of the nation.

Oslo was destroyed several times by fire, and after the fourteenth calamity, in 1624, King Christian IV of Denmark ordered it rebuilt at a new site across the bay, near Akershus Fortress and given the name Christiania. But long before this, Christiania had started to establish its stature as a centre of commerce and culture in Norway. The part of the city built from 1624 is now often called Kvadraturen because of its octagonal layout. In 1814 Christiania once more became a real capital when the union with Denmark was dissolved. Many landmarks were built in the 19th century, including the Royal Palacemarker (1825-1848); Stortingetmarker (the Parliament) (1861-1866), the Universitymarker, Nationaltheatretmarker and the Stock Exchange. Among the world-famous artists who lived here during this period were Henrik Ibsen and Knut Hamsun (the latter was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature). In 1850, Christiania also overtook Bergenmarker and became the most populous city in the country. In 1878 the city was renamed to Kristiania. The original name of Oslo was restored in 1925.
Christiania Torv is a square that contains some of Oslo's most historic buildings.


Oslo's centrality in the political, cultural and economical life of Norway continues to be a source of considerable controversy and friction. Numerous attempts at decentralization have not appreciably changed this during the last century. While continuing to be the main cause of the depopulation of the Norwegian countryside, any form of development is almost always opposed by neighbours, and—as a consequence—the growth of a modern urban landscape has all but stopped. Specifically, the construction of highrise in the city centre has been met with skepticism. It is projected, however, that the city will need some 20,000 additional apartments before 2020, forcing the difficult decision of whether to build tall or the equally unpopular option of sprawling out.

A marked reluctance to encourage the growth of the city for fear of causing further depletion of the traditional farming and fishing communities has led to several successive bursts of construction in both infrastructure and building mass, as the authorities kept waiting in vain for the stream of people to diminish. Neoclassical city apartments built in the 1850s to 1900s dotted with remnants of Christian IV's renaissance grid dominate the architecture around the city centre, except where slums were demolished in the 1960s to construct modernist concrete and glass low-rises, now generally regarded as embarrassing eyesores. The variety in Oslo's architectural cityscape does however provide for some striking and often hauntingly beautiful sights.While most of the forests and lakes surrounding Oslo are in private hands, there is great public support for not developing those areas. Parts of Oslo suffer from congestion, yet it is one of the few European capitals where people live with the wilderness literally in their back yard, or with access to a suburban train line that allows the city's many hikers and cross-country skiers to simply step off the train and start walking or skiing.

Geography

Oslo occupies an arc of land at the northernmost end of the Oslofjordmarker. The fjord, which is nearly bisected by the Nesoddenmarker peninsula opposite Oslo, lies to the south; in all other directions Oslo is surrounded by green hills and mountains. There are 40 islands within the city limits, the largest being Malmøyamarker ( ), and scores more around the Oslofjord. Oslo has 343 lakes, the largest being Maridalsvannet ( ). This is also a main source of drinking water for large parts of Oslo. Although Eastern Norway has a number of mighty rivers, none of these flows into the ocean at Oslo. Instead Oslo has two smaller rivers: Akerselva (draining Maridalsvannet) and Alna (Oslo's longest river). Akerselva traditionally separates Oslo's East and West end, and flows into the fjord in Bjørvika. River Alna flows through Groruddalen, Oslo's major suburb and industrial area. The highest point is Kirkeberget, at . Although the city's population is small compared to most European capitals, it occupies an unusually large land area, of which two thirds are protected areas of forests, hills and lakes. Its boundaries encompass many parks and open areas, giving it an airy and often very green appearance. It is not uncommon to encounter wild moose in relatively urban areas of Oslo, especially during wintertime.

Climate

Oslo has a humid continental climate (Dfb according to the Köppen climate classification system).Because of the city's northern latitude, daylight varies greatly from more than 18 hours in midsummer to around 6 hours in midwinter. Despite its northerly location, the climate is relatively mild throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream.

Oslo has pleasantly mild to warm summers with average high temperatures of and lows of around . Temperatures exceed quite often, and heatwaves are common during the summer. The highest temperature ever recorded was on 21 July 1901. Due to the fjord's being a relatively enclosed body of water, the water temperatures can get quite high during long warm periods. During the summer of 2008, the water reached a temperature of . Spring and autumn are generally chilly. Winters are cold and snowy with temperatures between up to . The coldest temperature recorded is in January 1942. Temperatures have tended to be higher in recent years.

Annual precipitation is with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Snowfall can occur from November to April, but snow accumulation occurs mainly from January through March. Almost every winter, ice develops in the innermost parts of the Oslofjord, and some winters the whole inner fjord freezes. As it is far from the mild Atlantic water of the west coast, this large fjord can freeze over, although this has become rare.

Parks and recreation areas

Oslo has a large number of parks and green areas within the city core, as well as outside it. The large park Vigeland Parkmarker is located a few minutes walk away from the city centre. This is the biggest and most reputed park in Norway.

  • St. Hanshaugen Parkmarker is an old public park on a high hill in central Oslo. The park has a small tower at the top and a stage used for outdoor concerts. 'St.Hanshaugen' is also the name of the surrounding neighbourhood as well as the larger administrative district (borough) that includes major parts of central Oslo.


  • Tøyen Park stretches out behind the Munch Museum, and is a vast, grassy expanse. In the north there is also the natural viewing point known as Ola Narr. The Tøyen area also includes the Botanical garden and Museum belonging to the University of Oslo.


Oslo (with neighbouring Sandvika-Asker) is basically built in a horseshoe shape on the shores of the Oslofjord and limited in most directions by hills and forests. This means that any point within the city is relatively close to the forest. There are two major forests with immediate access: Østmarka (literally "Eastern Forest", on the eastern perimeter of the city), and the very large Nordmarka (literally "Northern Forest", stretching from the northern perimeter of the city deep into the hinterland).

Swimming pools

The city of Oslo runs eight public swimming pools. Tøyenbadet is the largest indoor swimming facility in Oslo and one of the few pools in Norway offering a 50-metre main pool. The outdoor pool Frognerbadet also has the 50-metre range.
Royal Palace.


Politics and government

Oslo is the capital of Norway, and as such is the seat of Norway's national government. Most government offices, including that of the Prime Minister, are gathered at Regjeringskvartalet, a cluster of buildings close to the national Parliament—the Stortingmarker.

Constituting both a municipality and a county of Norway, the city of Oslo is represented in the Storting by seventeen Members of Parliament. Six MPs are from the Labour Party; the Conservative Party and the Progress Party have three each; the Socialist Left Party and the Liberals have two each; and one is from the Christian Democrats.

The combined municipality and county of Oslo has had a parliamentary system of government since 1986. The supreme authority of the city is the City Council (Bystyret), which currently has 59 seats. Representatives are popularly elected every four years. The City Council has five standing committees, each having its own areas of responsibility. These are: Health and Social Welfare; Education and Cultural Affairs; Urban Development; Transport and Environmental Affairs; and Finance. The council's executive branch (Byrådet) consists of a head of government (byrådsleder) and six commissioners (byråder, sing. byråd) holding ministerial positions. Each of the commissioners needs the confidence of the City Council and each of them can be voted out of office.

Since the local elections of 2003, the city government has been a coalition of the Conservative Party and the Progress Party. Based mostly on support from the Christian Democrats and the Liberals, the coalition maintains a majority in the City Council. After the 2007 local elections on 10 September, the conservative coalition remained in majority. The largest parties in the City Council are the Labour Party and the Conservatives, with 18 and 16 representatives respectively.

The Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City Council and the highest ranking representative of the city. This used to be the most powerful political position in Oslo, but following the implementation of parliamentarism, the Mayor has had more of a ceremonial role, similar to that of the President of the Storting at the national level. The current Mayor of Oslo is Fabian Stang.

Administrative divisions

Following the latest reform of 1 January 2004, the city is divided into fifteen boroughs (bydeler) that are to a considerable extent self governed. Each borough is responsible for local services not overseen by the City Council, such as social services, basic healthcare, and kindergartens.

  1. Gamle Oslo
  2. Grünerløkkamarker
  3. Sagenemarker
  4. St. Hanshaugenmarker
  5. Frognermarker
  6. Ullern
  7. Vestre Aker
  8. Nordre Aker
  9. Bjerkemarker
  10. Grorudmarker
  11. Stovnermarker
  12. Alnamarker
  13. Østensjømarker
  14. Nordstrandmarker
  15. Søndre Nordstrand
  16. Sentrum
  17. Marka


Sentrum (the city centre) and Marka (the rural/recreational areas surrounding the city) are separate geographical entities, but do not have an administration of their own. Sentrum is governed by the borough of St. Hanshaugen. The administration of Marka is shared between neighbouring boroughs.

Economy

Oslo Business Centre
Oslo Sjølyst
Oslo is an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe and is home to approximately 980 companies and 8,500 employees within the maritime sector, some of which are the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers, and insurance brokers. Det Norske Veritasmarker, headquartered at Høvikmarker outside Oslo, is one of the three major maritime classification societies in the world, with 16.5% of the world fleet to class in its register. The city's port is the largest general cargo port in the country and its leading passenger gateway. Close to 6,000 ships dock at the Port of Oslo annually with a total of 6 million tonnes of cargo and over five million passengers.The gross domestic product of Oslo totaled NOK268.047 billion (€33.876 billion) in 2003, which amounted to 17% of the national GDP. This compares with NOK165.915 billion (€20.968 billion) in 1995. The metropolitan area, bar Mossmarker and Drammenmarker, contributed 25% of the national GDP in 2003 and was also responsible for more than one quarter of tax revenues. In comparison, total tax revenues from the oil and gas industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounted to about 16%. The region has one of the highest per capita GDP in Europe, at NOK391,399 (€49,465) in 2003. If Norway were a member of the European Union, the capital region would have the fourth strongest GDP per capita, behind Inner London, Brussels-Capitalmarker and Luxembourgmarker.

Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world. As of 2006, it is ranked tenth according to the Worldwide Cost of Living Survey provided by Mercer Human Resource Consulting and first according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. The reason for this discrepancy is that the EIU omits certain factors from its final index calculation, most notably housing. Although Oslo does have the most expensive housing market in Norway, it is comparably cheaper than other cities on the list in that regard. Meanwhile, prices on goods and services remain some of the highest of any city.According to a report compiled by Swiss bank UBS in the month of August 2006, Oslo and London were the world's most expensive cities. Total pay packets were the biggest in Oslo along with Copenhagen and Zurich.

Demographics

Gronland street


An estimated 26% of Oslo's population consists of immigrants (about 152,000 inhabitants). Pakistanis make up 20,036 of the city's inhabitants, followed by Somalis (9,708), Swedesmarker (7,462), and Sri Lankan Tamils (7,128)—these being the four largest ethnic minority groups. Other large immigrant groups are people from Polandmarker, Vietnammarker, Turkeymarker, Moroccomarker, Iraqmarker and Denmarkmarker.

The population of Oslo is currently increasing at a record rate of nearly 2% annually (17% over the last 15 years), making it the fastest-growing Scandinavian capital. The increase is due, in almost equal degree, to high birth-rates and immigration. In particular, immigration from Polandmarker and the Baltic states has increased sharply since the accession of these countries to the EU in 2004.

Education

Institutions of higher education

Norwegian School of Management Nydalen
University of Oslo


Transport

Air



Sea

There are daily ferry connections to Kielmarker (Germanymarker), Copenhagenmarker (Denmarkmarker), Frederikshavnmarker (Denmarkmarker) and Nesoddenmarker.

Public ferries run daily to and from the islands scattered in the Oslo harbour basin.

Train

Oslo Sentralstasjonmarker is the main railway station in Oslo. From there, there are connections to far away destinations Trondheimmarker, Bergenmarker, Stavangermarker, Stockholmmarker (Swedenmarker), Gothenburgmarker (Swedenmarker) and Copenhagenmarker (Denmarkmarker), as well as several local and regional destinations in southern Norway and Sweden. In 2004 Norwegian Trains were Europe's third most punctual national train company. For the first 4 months in 2005 the punctuality was 92.9%. During winter in particular, weather conditions such as snow and blizzards may cause delays and cancellations on the routes crossing the central mountains.


Public transport

The public transportation system in Oslo is managed by the municipal transport company Ruter. This includes metro, tram, bus and ferry, but not the local train lines, which are operated by the state railway company NSB. All public transport in Oslo, including local trains, operates on a common ticket system, allowing free transfer within a period of one hour with a regular ticket. Tickets also transfer to the local and inter-city trains, unless a traveler intends to cross the city border. In 2004, 160 million journeys were made using public transport, of which 85% was handled by Oslo Sporveier's own subsidiaries and 15% by private bus and ferry operators under cost-based contracts.
A rental bicycle station in the city centre.
The tram system, Oslotrikken, is made up of six lines that criss-cross the inner parts of the city and extend outward toward the suburbs. Trams run partly on in the streets and partly on separate roads. The metro system—known as the T-bane—connects the eastern and western suburbs and comprises six lines which all converge in a tunnel beneath downtown Oslo. The metro lines are identified by numbers from 1 to 6, with two lines running into the municipality of Bærummarker in the west. The tramway lines are numbered 11 to 13 and 17 to 19.

A new, partially underground loop line was opened in August 2006, connecting Ullevålmarker in the northwest and Carl Berners plassmarker in the east. Two new stations, Nydalen and Storo, have been operational for a couple of years already; the third station, Sinsen, opened 20 August 2006, completing the loop. In conjunction with the opening of the circle line, there will be a major upgrade of the rolling stock, with delivery taking place between 2007 and 2010. An RFID ticketing system with automatic turnstile barriers has been under introduction for several years, but has been greatly delayed. The transition to the new system is now underway, with the new RFID cards available to the public.

A public bicycle rental programme has been in operation beginning in April every year since 2002. With an electronic subscription card, users can access bikes from over 90 stations across the city.

Road

A motorway leading into the city centre.
As Oslo is Norway's capital and biggest city, several national highways meet or passes through it. European route E6 runs through Oslo in the eastern suburbs on its way from Southern Sweden to Northern Norway. European route E18 runs through downtown Oslo (including a tunnel under Akershus festning) on its way from Stavanger and Kristiansand to Stockholm. European route E16 from Bergen doesn't go into Oslo proper, but ends on E18 at Sandvika a few kilometers west of Oslo. Oslo also has a system of "ring roads" connecting east and west. Ring 3, the outer one, runs from the E6 junction in the east via Ullevål to E18 on the border to Bærummarker municipality in the west. Ring 2 runs from Gamlebyen in the east to E18 at Skøyen in the west. Ring 1 is the downtown "through road". The ring roads make navigation easier and improve trafic flow. E18, E6, Ring 2 and Ring 3 are connected by an elaborate system of tunnels and bridges in the Økern-Ekeberg area. At present (2008) a new underwater tunnel for E18 is under construction in Bjørvika to divert traffic from the street level.

Access into the city centre requires the payment of a toll at one of 19 entry points around the ring road. It costs 25 NOK to enter the cordoned zone at all times of day, seven days a week. A 20%-price reduction is available to car owners using the AutoPASS-system. Since 2 February 2008, coins are no longer accepted at the Toll Station, and all cars must pass through the automatic lanes without stopping. Drivers fitted with the electronic AutoPASS system will be debited as they pass; all other drivers will receive an invoice in the mail.

Initially revenues from the road tolls funded the public road network, but since 2002 theses revenues finance mainly new developments for the public transport system in Oslo. There has been discussion whether to continue to use the cordon after 2007, based on the funding decisions, extensions, accommodation of time-differentiated pricing or replaced by another form of pricing altogether, perhaps to make congestion-pricing possible.

Media

The newspapers Aftenposten, Dagens Næringsliv, Finansavisen, Verdens Gang, Dagbladet, Dagsavisen, Morgenbladet, Vårt Land, Nationen and Klassekampen are published in Oslo. The main office of the national broadcasting company NRKmarker is located at Marienlyst in Oslo, near Majorstuen. TVNorge (TVNorway) is also located in Oslo, while TV2 (based in Bergenmarker) and TV3 (based in Londonmarker) operate branch offices in central Oslo. There is also a variety of specialty publications and smaller media companies.

Culture

The Nobel Peace Prize is handed out in Oslo every year by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.

Literature

Oslo National Theater
Several Norwegian authors from Oslo City have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, namely Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson in 1903, Knut Hamsun in 1920 and Sigrid Undset in 1928 for Kristin Lavransdatter. Though he was not awarded a Nobel Prize for his plays, as the first of these were awarded after he published his last play in 1899, playwright Henrik Ibsen is probably the most famous figure in Norwegian literature. Ibsen wrote plays such as Peer Gynt, A Doll's House and The Lady from the Sea.

Also of importance to the Norwegian literary culture is the Norse literature, and in particular the works of Snorre Sturlason , as well as the more recent folk tales, collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe in the 19th century.

Norwegian literature attained international acclaim in the 1990s with Jostein Gaarder's novel Sophie's world (Sofies verden) which was translated into 40 languages. Other noteworthy writers with an international profile include Erik Fosnes Hansen (Psalm at Journey's End) and Åsne Seierstad whose controversial work, The Bookseller of Kabul, was particularly successful in 2003.

Architecture

Oslo Plaza Tower
A Square in Oslo
Østbanen
Oslo, or Norway generally, has always had a tradition of modern building. Indeed, many of today's most interesting new buildings are made of wood, reflecting the strong appeal that this material continues to hold for Norwegian designers and builders.

Norway's conversion to Christianity some 1,000 years ago led to the introduction of stonework architecture, beginning with the construction of Nidaros Cathedralmarker in Trondheimmarker.

In the early Middle Ages, stave churches were constructed throughout Norway. Many of them remain to this day and represent Norway’s most important contribution to architectural history. A fine example is The Stave Church at Urnes which is now on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Another notable example of wooden architecture is the Bryggen Wharfmarker in Bergen, consisting of a row of narrow wooden structures along the quayside.

In the 17th century, under the Danish monarchy, cities such as Kongsbergmarker with its Baroque church and Rørosmarker with its wooden buildings were established.

After Norway’s union with Denmark was dissolved in 1814, Oslo became the capital. Architect Christian H. Grosch designed the oldest parts of the University of Oslomarker, the Oslo Stock Exchange, and many other buildings and churches.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the city of Ålesundmarker was rebuilt in the Art Nouveau style. The 1930s, when functionalism dominated, became a strong period for Norwegian architecture, but it is only in recent decades that Norwegian architects have truly achieved international renown. One of the most striking modern buildings in Norway is the Sami Parliament in Kárášjohkamarker designed by Stein Halvorson and Christian Sundby. Its debating chamber is an abstract timber version of a Lavvo, the traditional tent used by the nomadic Sami people.

Music

Rikard Nordraak, composer of the Norwegian national anthem, was born in Oslo in 1842.

Norway's principal orchestra is the Oslo Philharmonic, based at the Oslo Concert Hallmarker since 1977. Although it was founded in 1919, the Oslo Philharmonic can trace its roots to the founding of the Christiania Musikerforening (Christiania Musical Association) by Edvard Grieg and Johan Svendsen in 1879.

Sports

The Holmenkollen ski jump hill.
Oslo was the host city for the 1952 Winter Olympics. Except for the downhill skiing at Norefjellmarker, all events took place within the city limits. The opening and closing ceremonies were held at Bislett stadionmarker, which was also used for the speed skating events. In recent years, the stadium has been better known for hosting the annual Bislett Games track and field event in the IAAF Golden League. The stadium was rebuilt in 2004/2005 and was formally opened for the Bislett Games on 29 July 2005.

Holmenkollenmarker nordic skiing arena, with its centrepiece the ski jump, was an important venue during the 1952 Olympics. The arena has hosted numerous Nordic skiing and biathlon world championships since 1930, and its ski-jump competition is the second oldest in the world, having been contested since 1892. Holmenkollen has been selected once again to host the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in 2011. Thursday 16 October 2008, the work began on the dismantling of the ski jump, as a new ski jump is going to be built and is expected to be finished by the end of 2009.
During the summer months, the harbour becomes a venue for various maritime events, including the start of a large sailing regatta that attracts around 1,000 competing boats each year, and one race of the international Class 1 offshore powerboat racing circuit.

Two football clubs from Oslo, Vålerenga and Lyn, play in the Norwegian Premier League. In the 2005 season, the teams placed 1st and 3rd respectively. In addition, two teams from the conurbations are represented—Stabæk Fotball and Lillestrøm Sportsklubb. Oslo had two ice hockey teams in the highest division in the previous season, Vålerenga Ishockey and Furuset I.F., the former winning the cup and league double in 2007. Speed skating is also held at the Valle Hovinmarker venue, which in the summer is host to large popular music concerts.

Ullevaal stadionmarker, located in the borough of Nordre Aker, is the home of the Norwegian national football team. Built in 1926, it is the largest football stadium in Norway, and has served as the venue for the Norwegian Cup final since 1948. Both Lyn and Vålerenga use the stadium as their home ground.

Historical population

Year Population
1801 9,500
1825 15,400
1855 31,700
1875 76,900
1900 227,900
1925 255,700
1951 434,365
1960 471,511
1970 487,363
1980 454,872
1990 458,364
2000 507,467
2002 529,407
2006 538,411
2008 560,484
2009 578,870
Source: SSB1, SSB2


Conurbation population

Year Population
1999 763,957
2005 811,688
2006 825,105
2007 839,423
2008 856,915
2009 876,391


Notable residents

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Oslo is twinned or has cooperation agreements with the following cities/regions:



Oslo has a longstanding tradition of sending a Christmas tree every year to the cities of Washington, D.C.marker, New Yorkmarker, Londonmarker, Rotterdammarker, Antwerpmarker, and Reykjavíkmarker. Since 1947, Oslo sends a 65–80-foot (20–25 m) high spruce, which may be 50 to 100 years old (according to the sources), as an expression of gratitude for Britain's support to Norway during World War II which is usually placed in Trafalgar Squaremarker. For the 61st time, this spruce will have been lit by the Mayor of Oslo, Fabian Stang and The Lord Mayor of Westminster, Councilor Carolyn Keen, between 6 December 2007 and 4 January 2008, and it has received yet more special attention than before, expressing environmental concern.

See also



References

  1. Peder Claussøn Friis, Store Norske Leksikon (in Norwegian)
  2. Alna – elv i Oslo, Store Norske Leksikon (in Norwegian)
  3. Oslo temperatures
  4. Geography of Norway#climate
  5. City of Oslo parks
  6. City of Oslo parks
  7. Municipal swimming pools
  8. Oslo Teknopol Mal
  9. Dnv.com
  10. Yahoo! News
  11. 25 prosent av alle som bor i Oslo er innvandrere - Nyheter - Oslo - Aftenposten.no
  12. Polakker den største innvandrergruppen
  13. [1]
  14. Folkebibl.no
  15. Om 15 år kan det bo 100 000 flere i Oslo
  16. Ska-Wiki - Ska-Wiki
  17. Commission for Integrated Transport: Road Charging Scheme: Oslo
  18. Contemporary literature from Norway Cultural Profile. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
  19. The evolution of Norwegian architecture. Norway, the official site in the United States. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  20. Norwegian Architecture by Leslie Burgher. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  21. Table 1 Urban settlements. Population and area, by municipality. 1 January 2007
  22. Partners - Oslo kommune
  23. Aftenposten Newspaper: Oslo tree is London-bound
  24. Christmas in Trafalgar Square: «Recycling the tree» and «About the tree» (Greater London Authority website).
  25. Christmas tree recycling (City of Westminster Council website).


External links




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