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Oslo Airport, Fornebu ( ) was the main airport serving Oslomarker and Eastern Norway from 1 June 1939 to 7 October 1998. It was then replaced by Oslo Airport, Gardermoenmarker and the area has since been redeveloped. The airport was located at Fornebumarker in Bærummarker, from the city center. The airport had two runways, one 06/24 and one 01/19, and a capacity of 20 aircraft. In 1996, the airport had 170,823 aircraft movement and 10,072,054 passengers. The airport served as a hub for Scandinavian Airlines System, Braathens SAFE and Widerøe. In 1996, additional 21 airlines served 28 international destinations. Due to limited terminal and runway capacity, intercontinental and charter airlines used Gardermoen.

The airport opened as a combined sea and land airport, serving both domestic and international destinations. It replaced the land airport at Kjellermarker and the sea airport at Gressholmenmarker. In 1940, it was taken over by the German Luftwaffe, but civilian air services began again in 1946 and it was then taken over by the Norwegian Civil Airport Administration. The airport at first had three runways, each at , but these were gradually expanded, first the north-south runway and finally the east-west one to the current length in 1962. The same year the terminal moved to the south to the final location. Large-scale expansion to the terminal were made during the 1980s.

History

Background

A DNL Ju-52 at the seaplane base in 1939
Aviation in Oslo started in 1909, when Cederstrøm of Sweden had a flight show based at the fields at Etterstad. Following this, the Norwegian Army decided that it needed a military land airport, and established itself at Kjellermarker in Skedsmomarker outside Oslo in 1912. Kjeller Airportmarker served as the main airport for Norway until the 1930s, being the main base of the newly established Norwegian Army Air Service and the first place to have air services.

In 1918, the first Norwegian airline, Det Norske Luftfartrederi, was established, and plans were made to start flying to Trondheimmarker. The following year, civil aviation was for the first time discussed in the Norwegian Parliamentmarker. Norsk Luftfartsrederi wanted to start sea plane routes from Oslo, and applied to the state to be allowed to lease the island Lindøya for 99 years. The Oslo Port Authority recommended denying the application, since it would interfere with ship traffic and they were already negotiations with the state to purchase the island. The ministry recommended a ten-year lease. Sam Eyde, who was a member of parliament, recommended that the state should be responsible for all airports, and suggested a state-owned seaplane airport at Gressholmenmarker. But no money was granted for construction of the airport until 1926, when Gressholmen Airport opened. Gressholmen was served by Norsk Luftfartsrederi and Lufthansamarker.

During the late 1920s and early 1930s, the politicians became less satisfied with the solution. Kjeller was considered too far away from the city centre (about , but along the mainline railway), while transport to Gressholmen needed to be done by ferry. The politicians also wanted to have a combined land- and seaplane airport, and it had become clear that plans serving Gressholmen were interfering with ship traffic. A committee was established to look into the matter. While considering many locations, it made detail surveys of only two places: Ekebergmarker, located south-east of the city centre, and Fornebu, to the south-west.

Construction

At the time, Fornebu was a mostly unpopulated area. It had had a lumber mill until 1907 at Snarøyamarker (located on the southern tip). From 1921, Snarøya had received a coach service, and had be built with many single dwellings. About north-east of Fornebu is the town Lysaker, that had a railway station on the Drammen Line. The committee decided to purchase on the northern part of the peninsula. The Fornebu-solution would be more expensive, but would give a larger airport and better landing conditions. The formal decision to build the airport was made in 1934.

It was the municipality of Oslo that built the airport, having bought the land from the municipality of Bærum. Construction was to serve as crating work for the unemployed, and workers were selected based on how long they had been unemployed and the number of people in their family. Because the need for workplaces was greatest in the winter, most of the construction was done during the winters of 1935, 1936 and 1937. Not until 1937 was a normal 48-hour week through the year introduced. of rock was blasted, and along with garbage from Oslo used to fill inn the swamps and depressions. Due to the delays, plans were changed and three runways were built, two long and one long. The airport was equipped with a control tower, administration building, a hangar with a workshop and a service building. Docks for sea planes were constructed about to the south, on the east shore of the peninsula.

In 1934, there were three domestic airlines in Norway: Det Norske Luftfartsselskap (DNL), Norske Luftruter and Widerøes Flyveselskap. All three applied to the state for subsidies to operate routes. DNL applied for a ten-year concession with a annual subsidy to fly Oslo–Kristiansandmarker–Amsterdammarker, continuing northwards towards Ã…lesundmarker. Widerøe applied for NOK 265,000 per year for a three-year concession for the sea plane routes Oslo–Bergenmarker and Bergen–Trondheim. Norske Luftruter applied for NOK 250,000 per year for a route from Bergen to Copenhagenmarker via Kristiansand and Oslo. The following year, the parliament passed a long-term plan for construction of airport, that would be located in Oslo, Telemarkmarker, Kristiansand, Stavangermarker, Bergen, Ã…lesund and Trondheim. In each case, the municipalities would have to purchase land and build the airport, but the state would reimburse 50% of the investments. Due to the high cost burden on the municipalities, only Stavanger Airport, Solamarker and Kristiansand Airport, Kjevikmarker were operational by the time Fornebu opened.

Opening and war

The first airplane to land at Fornebu was a Junkers Ju 52 operated by Lufthansa in September 1938. The plane had flown a scheduled route to Kjeller, and the captain had taken the plane onward to Fornebu to try out the new airport. On 16 April 1939, the seaplane section was taken into regular use. The first plane was a Ju 52 operated by DNL to Copenhagen. The official opening took place on 1 June 1939. The first plane to land after the official opening was a Douglas DC-2 operated by KLM from Amsterdam. The first departure was provided by the Danish airline Det Danske Luftfartsselskab, when a Focke-Wulf Fw 200 took off to Copenhagen. The captain made a mistake, and took off from the parking space instead of the runway. In addition to these two routes, Lufthansa started flights to Germany and DNL's route to Amsterdam. During the fall, a DNL also flew from Perth, Scotlandmarker via Oslo to Stockholm, but this route was quickly cancelled.

Fornebu after the Luftwaffe had taken over the field
As part of the invasion of Norway by Nazi Germany on 9 April 1940, German Luftwaffe-aircraft landed at Fornebu. There was no attempt by the civilian airport authorities to hinder this, such as driving cars onto the runway, although several German aircraft collided with each other during the landing. A KLM-aircraft had a scheduled service that morning, and the captain was ordered to leave the passengers, take the crew return to Oslo. On 12 April, the airport was bombed by the British Royal Air Force. On 14 April, the KLM-captain was granted permission to fly back to Amsterdam with the crew, albeit without any passengers. The German military used Fornebu heavily during the war, but it was never of any strategic importance, since it was located far from any battle zones. During the war, the airport officially remained owned by the municipality. Ordered by German authorities, the main north-south runway was expanded to , and all facilities not yet built were completed. However, during the war all other runways than the main north-south were taken out of use. At the north end of the runway, the Luftwaffe built several hangars and a prison camp. Prisoners were during winter used to keep the runways free of snow, by marching along them and stomping the snow down.

In May 1945, as German forces were ousted from Norway, the airport was taken over by the Allies and the Royal Norwegian Air Force. None of the civilian airlines were in operation, and the Air Force itself started flying commercial flights. In addition to previous lines, a route was started to Northern Norway, although it had to be terminated for the winter. Due to a lack of qualified personnel, the international services had to be terminated too. In early 1946, management of the airport was transferred back to the municipality. Due to the technological development of aviation during the war, the runway needed to be expanded. The runway was sufficient for Douglas DC-3 aircraft, but insufficient for the larger Douglas DC-4 planes. The latter were all used by American Overseas Airways, DNL's North America-routes and British European Airways' route to Londonmarker, that were all transferred to Oslo Airport, Gardermoenmarker.

Expansion

In 1946, DNL launched plans to expand the north-south runway to by taking into use the whole peninsula. In addition, a second east-west runway should be built. The state took over ownership of the airport without compensation in 1946, albeit with the clause that if the airport ever should close, the real estate should be returned to the municipality. Stavanger Airport had been a candidate for intercontinental travel, but a state committee in 1949 decided that instead this should be shared between Fornebu and Gardermoen. Another committee was established in 1948, and in 1950 it recommended that all airport services in the Oslo region should be concentrated at Gardermoen, and that a new motorway be built to the airport. Among politicians there were two main ideologies. The first, which dominated in political circles, stated that Fornebu's close proximity to the city centre was a key to reaching a market in Oslo and for the growth of the airlines. The second emphasized that, in the long run, Fornebu could not fulfil the requirements of a central airport, and that a better location should be established.

Following the political processes, the north-south runway was extended to . With the completion of this, intercontinental traffic was moved from Gardermoen to Fornebu. In 1946, Overseas Scandinavian Airlines System had been established between DNL, DDL and the Swedish Aerotransport. The same year, shipowner Ludvig G. Braathen established Braathens South American and Far East (Braathens SAFE) that started with charter flights using DC-4s. The first civilian route was KLM that started the route Oslo–Kristiansand–Amsterdam in March 1946 and from 1 April DNLs route to Copenhagen, followed a week later with the route via Stavanger to London using DC-3s. The third DNL route was to Stockholm using Ju 52s, and then via Gothenburgmarker and Copenhagen to Zurich and Marseillesmarker. In May, DNL started routes to Trondheim and Tromsømarker, and later onwards to Kirkenesmarker. It also started a direct service to Copenhagen. In October, routes were established via Kristiansand to Amsterdam, Brusselsmarker and Parismarker. Finally, a route was started via Copenhagen to Prahamarker and to Stavanger. In 1946, DNL had 47,000 passengers (although not all flew through Fornebu). The company operated six DC-3s and five Ju 52s.

In 1947, Icelandair started flights to Reykjavíkmarker and the same year British European Airways transferred its London-route from Gardermoen to Fornebu. DNL bought three Short Sandringham seaplanes that were put into service along the coast as the "Flying Coastal Express". They remained in service from 1947 until May 1950, but proved expensive in operation. In 1949, Braathens SAFE introduced scheduled flights from Fornebu using DC-3s. It had long-haul flights to the Far East, with stops in Amsterdam, Genevamarker, Romemarker, Cairomarker, Basramarker, Karachimarker, Bombaymarker, Calcuttamarker and Bangkokmarker before arriving in Hong Kongmarker. Following the establishment of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) in 1949, all international concessions were transferred to that company, and Braathens SAFE started domestic services, although they kept their existing concessions and international routes until 1954.

Braathens SAFE's first domestic service was via Tønsberg Airport, Jarlsbergmarker to Stavanger, and later a route to Trondheim. These were both operated with Heron aircraft. At first the Trondheim route was flown to Lade, but were quickly transferred to the current airport at Værnesmarker. Loftleidir started flights to Reykjavík in 1952.

In 1953, work started with expanding the north-south runway to and building a new east-west runway that also was . The same year a new commission was established, that in 1957 recommended that the east-west runway be expanded to and the north-south runway to . Local residents and politicians were opposed to the expansion plans, and Akershus County Council voted against them. The ministry then chose to expand the east-west runway to only and leave the north-south runway untouched. The plans would allow the east-west runway to be epanded to in the future, if necessary. The north-south runway had difficult landing conditions, in part because of the residential areas north of the line. From 1959, ministry denied jet plans from using the then longer runway. In the 1950s, SAS started using Convair 440s, while Braathens SAFE took into use Fokker F-27s. Both companies later also took into use Douglas DC-6s.

In 1952, SAS started flights to Bodø Airportmarker and to Bergen Airport, Fleslandmarker in 1955. In 1955, Braathens SAFE also started flights to Kristiansand and Farsund Airport, Listamarker en-route on the Stavanger route and at Notodden Airportmarker the following year. That year also saw some of their Trondheim flights land at Hamar Airportmarker, and in 1957 at Røros Airportmarker. In 1958, Ålesund Airport, Vigramarker was opened, and operated by Braathens SAFE. The Røros stops were terminated in 1958, but reinstated in 1963 after the runway had been extended. The Hamar stops were permanently terminated in 1959.

In 1960, Finnair started flying to Helsinkimarker, although direct flights were not introduced until 1971. After 1962, the east-west runway became the main runway. Along with the runway expansion, a new service building, with a capacity for 2 million passengers, was built and opened in 1964. It was located about half kilometer south of the former terminal. Designed by Odd Nansens arkitektkontor, it had to stories, one for arrivals and one for departures, and two wings, one for domestic and one for international flights. It included a central hall that had a panorama view over the aircraft. The expanded allowed SAS to take into use the Caravelle jet planes on the Copenhagen routes, although it was occasionally also used to Bodø.

Cramped quarters

Three airports were opened in Finnmarkmarker in 1963, all served by SAS: Alta Airportmarker, Kirkenes Airport, Høybuktmoenmarker and Lakselv Airport, Banakmarker. The following year, SAS also started flights to Tromsø Airportmarker the following year. In 1966, Lufthansa started flights to Hamburgmarker, and later also introduced departures to Dusseldorfmarker, Frankfurtmarker and Munichmarker. During the 1960s, SAS introduced Caravelles on most of the domestic routes.

During the 1970s, Douglas DC-7s were also taken into use. Pan American had flights to New Yorkmarker from 1967 to 1973 and from 1976 to 1978. Braathens SAFE started taking delivery of Boeing 737-200s and Fokker F-28 in 1969, and these gradually took over most of the domestic routes. In 1970, Air France to Paris and Swissair started flying to Fornebu. They were supplemented by Aeroflot to Moscowmarker in 1972.

In 1971, a state committee recommended that Gardermoen be expanded to take a larger share of the traffic from Fornebu. At the same time, a new main airport was eventually to be built at Hobølmarker. From 1971, charter flights were moved to Gardermoen, although SAS and Braathens SAFE were granted dispensation so they only needed to serve one Oslo-airport. On 1 July 1971, Widerøe also started serving domestic routes to Fornebu, with the opening of regional airport in Sogn og Fjordanemarker. These routes were served using de Havilland Canada Twin Otter and later de Havilland Canada Dash 7 aircraft. Sandane was added in 1975. The last four primary airports were opened during the 1970s. Braathens SAFE started flights to Kristiansund Airport, Kvernbergetmarker in 1972, Molde Airport, Årømarker in 1972 and Harstad/Narvik Airport, Evenesmarker in 1973. In 1975, SAS started flights to Haugesund Airport, Karmøymarker.

During the 1980s, the airport was again deemed too small. In 1983, also the charter flights used by SAS and Braathens were forced to move to Gardermoen. Additional foreign services were also introduced, namely Sabena to Brussels in 1985, Dan-Air to London-Gatwick and Newcastle in 1986 and Alitalia to Milanmarker in 1988. During a period of reconstruction at Gardermoen, Trans World Airlines also served Fornebu, and the same year Pan American reintroduced its route to New York. Air Europe also started to fly from London-Gatwick to Fornebu. An additional story was added to the service building, allowing office space to be moved there and free up space for check-in and traveller service on the two main stories. Two satellites were built for the domestic terminal, one each for Braathens SAFE and SAS, allowing increased waiting area for travellers. The international terminal was expanded with a five-gate pier terminal with bridges to the aircraft. A multi-story parking house was also built.

Norsk Air started serving Fornebu following the opening of Fagernes Airport, Leirinmarker in 1987. The route was closed within a year, but taken up again by Coast Air in 1990. From 1996, the route was taken over by Teddy Air.

In 1989, Braathens SAFE started its first international scheduled service since 1960, from Fornebu to Billund in Denmark. Two years later, the company started flying to Newcastlemarker, after Dan-Air had withdrawn from the route, and to Malmömarker in Sweden. That year also saw the start of Norway Airlines, who started a base at Fornebu and offered flights to London-Gatwick, as well as to Stockholm in cooperation with Transwede and to Copenhagen in cooperation with Sterling. In 1992, both Norway Airlines and Dan-Air went bankrupt, and Braathens SAFE started flights to London-Gatwick. They terminated the Malmö route in 1994. After the deregulation, Braathens SAFE also introduced flights to Alicante, Malaga, Rome and Stockholm. Widerøe introduced international services to Gothenburgmarker and Berlinmarker.

In 1994, the domestic and international flights to the European Union were deregulated, and the number of international services increased and Fornebu received airlines such as Air Malta, Air Portugal, AirUK and LOT Polish Airlines. Other airlines to fly from Fornebu during the 1980s and 1990s includes Delta Airlines, Northwest Orient and Tower Air. Domestically, Braathens SAFE introduced flights to Bergen, Bodø, Harstad/Narvik and Tromsø.

Closing

After the closing, Fornebu has gradually been transformed.
Still, many of the buildings from the airport remain.


During the 1960s, a political debate started concerning if there should be built a new main airport for Oslo and Eastern Norway. A government report launched in 1970, suggested surveys for five locations: Gardermoenmarker, Hurummarker, Askimmarker, Nesoddenmarker and Åsmarker. Hobøl was preliminarily selected and areas reserved for a future airport. During the 1970s, the Labor Party became concerned that Hobøl was located too centrally in relation to the growth areas around Oslo, and wanted instead to use Gardermoen. Such a localization could force the population growth further north. Commercial interests and the airlines supported Hobøl. In 1983, Parliament decided to abandon the plans for Hobøl and continue with a divided solution. Fornebu would be expanded, and all charter traffic be moved to Gardermoen. From 1988, all international traffic would also be moved, making Fornebu a pure domestic airport.

Increased traffic in the mid-1980s changed the politician's interests, and in 1988 Parliament voted to build a new main airport at Hurum, located on the same side of Oslo as Fornebu, but further away. However, new weather data showed that Hurum was unsuitable, and the location was discarded. There were accusations that the data was fabricated to manipulate the political decision. In 1992, parliament made a final vote that started construction of a new airport at Gardermoen and Fornebu would be closed.Bredal, 1998: 23–29

Financing of the airport at Gardermoen would be done through a state load issued to a limited company owned by the Civil Airport Authority. This company would build and operate Gardermoen, but from 1 January 1997 it also took over operation of Fornebu. After the last plane took off from Fornebu on 7 August 1998, 300 people spent the night to transport 500 truckloads of equipment from Fornebu to Gardermoen. The new Oslo Airport, Gardermoen opened on the morning of 8 August 1998.

The opening of Gardermoen had strategic impact on aviation in Norway. Despite the deregulation of the market in 1994, the lack of free slots at Fornebu made it impossible to have free competition, since no new airlines could establish themselves and no new international airlines could fly to Fornebu. Gardermoen allowed this to happen, and from 1 August 1998, Color Air started with flights from Oslo, pressing down prices on domestic routes. Although the airline went bankrupt the following year, the losses for Braathens were so high that they were taken over by SAS. The gap was then filled by Norwegian Air Shuttle.

Facilites

At the time of closing, the airport consisted of a single terminal with three satellites: two domestic and one international. The service building had three stories, one for arrival, one for departure and one for administration. Airplane capacity at the airport was 20 craft. Five planes parked at the international terminal could be served with bridges, while passenger had to walk outdoors to get to domestic planes. The airport terminals are , of which are for the public.

At the north part of the airport, located where the former main terminal until 1964, has the offices of the Air Force and Fred. Olsens Flyveselskap, the main hangar for Braathens SAFE, as well as mechanical facilities for SAS and Fred. Olsen. The fire station and snowplowing facilities were also located there, along with the main radar center. All the terminal buildings built during until the early 1960s were still intact until the closing of the airport.

In 1989, about 5,500 people worked at Fornebu. Of these, 3,600 worked for the airlines, including ground services. The airport administration had 350 employees, inclduing administration, air control, fire fighters, metrology and maintenance. The remaining 500 people worked for other public offices, including the police and customs, as well as service employees working for private companies working at passenger services.

Fornebu had two runways: a main east-west runway and a secondary north-south. Only the main runway is used under ordinary weather conditions, with the north-south runway only used if there is strong winds from the north and for general aviation, helicopers and ambulance aircraft. The main runway is equipped with instrument landing system category 1. Under ordinary weather conditions, flights to Fornebu were to as soon as possible divert southwards along the fjord, to avoid noise pollusion to residential areas. However, when necessary, a direct approach could be made eastwards from Drammenmarker or westwards from Grefsenåsen. Until 1996, Oslo Air Traffic Control Center (Oslo ATCC) was located at Fornebu. It had the responsibility to oversee all south-eastern Norway, bordering to Dovremarker in the north, almost to Stavanger in the west, halfway to Stockholm to the west and almost to Denmark in the south.

Since Fornebu is located on a peninsula, all transport to the airport needed to go via Lysaker. There a branch from the motorway European Route E18 could access the airport. Lysaker Stationmarker is on the Drammen Line, and was served by both local and regional trains, including services to Oslo Central Stationmarker. In addition, Stor-Oslo Lokaltrafikk offered bus transport to the airport from Askermarker and Bærum, including Lysaker. A limited number of services were extended to Snarøya. An airport coach connected the airport to the city center.

Airlines and destinations

In 1996, the airport had 170,823 aircraft movement and 10,072,054 passengers. This made it the busiest airport in the country. It served as the main hub for Braathens SAFE, one of three main hubs for SAS and as one of many for Widerøe.

Prior to 1 April 1994, all air transport in Norway was restricted to airlines that had received concession from the ministry. On the primary domestic routes, the traffic was split between SAS and Braathens SAFE. Both had services to Trondheim and Stavanger. SAS had a monopoly to Bergen and Northern Norway (Alta, Bodø, Harstad/Narvik, Kirkenes, Longyearbyen and Tromsø), while Braathens SAFE had a monopoly to the other primary airports in Southern Norway (Haugesund, Kristiansand, Kristiansund, Molde, Røros and Ålesund). Widerøe had a monopoly on the regional state-supported routes (Brønnøysund, Florø, Førde, Sandane, Sogndal and Ørsta/Volda), and also served Stord and Sandefjord.

Following Norway joining the European Economic Area (EEA), the airline industry was deregulated, allowing any airline from an EEA to make domestic or international flights to Norway. However, by 1994 there was no available slots at Fornebu during the morning and evening rush hours, limiting the number of new routes that could be established. After the deregulation, Fornebu could not offer slots to new airlines, and SAS and Braathens could not establish as many competing routes as they wanted to. However, domestic services were provided by both SAS and Braathens SAFE to Stavanger, Bergen, Trondheim, Bodø, Harstad/Narvik, Tromsø and Longyearbyen. The remaining domestic airports were only served by the incumbent. In addition, Teddy Air offered services to Fagernes.

International services were provided by 21 airlines to 28 destinations. SAS had international flights to Amsterdam, Brussels, Copenhagen, Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Helsinki, London-Heathrow, Manchester, Munich, New York, Nice, Paris, Stockholm and Zurich. Braathens SAFE offered international services to Alicante, Billund, London-Gatwick, Malaga, Newcastle and Stockholm. Lufthansa offered flights to Dusseldorf, Frankfurt and Munich. Other European airlines that provided services to their main hubs included Aeroflot (Moscow-Sheremetyevo), Air France (Paris-Charles de Gaulle), Air Malta (Valetta), Air Portugal (Lisbon), AirUK, Alitalia (Milan), British Airways (London-Heathrow), Dan-Air (London-Gatwick), Delta Air Lines (New York-JFK), Icelandair (Reykjavík), KLM (Amsterdam), LOT Polish Airlines (Warsaw) and Sabena (Brussels).

Accidents and incidents

  • On 26 May 1946, a DNL Junkers Ju 52 en route to Stockholm crashed into the houses at Halden Terrasse after take-off, due to a technical error on the aircraft. All people onboard were killed, but no-one on the ground.
  • In 1949, a Dutch DC-3 crashed in Hurum while approaching Fornebu. All but one of the passengers, plus all the crew, died.
  • On 14 April 1963, Vickers Viscount TF-ISU Hrímfaxi of Icelandair Flugfélag Islands crashed at Nesøya on approach to Oslo-Fornebu Airport. All 12 people on board were killed.
  • On 23 December 1972, Braathens SAFE Flight 239 with a Fokker F-28 from Ã…lesund to Oslo crashed in Asker during approach to Fornebu. Forty people were killed, while five people survived. This was the first-ever fatal accident with a F-28, and until 1989 the deadliest air accident in Norway.


See Also



References

Notes

  1. Wisting, 1989: 10–12
  2. Wisting, 1989: 13–20
  3. Wisting, 1989: 30
  4. Wisting, 1989: 20–22
  5. Wisting, 1989: 22–26
  6. Wisting, 1989: 26–33
  7. Wisting, 1989: 31–35
  8. Wisting, 1989: 35–41
  9. Wisting, 1989: 42–46
  10. Wisting, 1989: 47–48
  11. Wisting, 1989: 48–49
  12. Wisting, 1989: 53–55
  13. Wisting, 1989: 67–68
  14. Wisting, 1989: 74
  15. Wisting, 1989: 69–70
  16. Tjomsland and Wilsberg, 1995: 45
  17. Wisting, 1989: 70–71
  18. Wisting, 1989: 712
  19. Wisting, 1989: 53–58
  20. Wisting, 1989: 71–72
  21. Tjomsland and Wilsborg, 1995: 105–106
  22. Tjomsland and Wilsborg, 1995: 114
  23. Tjomsland and Wilsborg, 1995: 106
  24. Wisting, 1989: 58–61
  25. Wisting, 1989: 72
  26. Wisting, 1989: 74–76
  27. Wisting, 1989: 72–73
  28. Wisting, 1989: 76
  29. Wisting, 1989: 63–64
  30. Arnesen, 1984: 117–119
  31. Malmø, 1997: 67
  32. Malmø, 1997: 65
  33. Wisting, 1989: 64–65
  34. Tjomsland and Wilsberg, 1995: 300
  35. Wisting, 1989: 80–83
  36. Tjomsland and Wilsberg, 1995: 295–304
  37. Malmø, 1997: 25–26
  38. Tjomsland and Wilsberg, 1995: 340
  39. Bredal, 1998: 17–20
  40. Wisting, 1989: 80
  41. Wisting, 1989: 99
  42. Wisting, 1989: 92
  43. Wisting, 1989: 60
  44. Bredal, 1998: 176
  45. Wisting, 1989: 94–97
  46. Malmø, 1997: 94
  47. Wisting, 1989: 90
  48. Malmø, 1997: 77
  49. Bredal, 1998: 164–165
  50. Wisting, 1989: 48
  51. Malmø, 1997: 118
  52. Tjomsland and Wilsberg, 1996: 48


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