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Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (September 10, 1897 in Windsheim – August 27, 1974 in Munichmarker) was a Germanmarker politician and 'left-wing' member of the German Nazi Party party who rejected some of Adolf Hitler's ideas and less socialist economic tendencies. Strasser subsequently formed his own faction within the Nazi Party, along with his brother, Gregor Strasser, and eventually broke away from the Nazi Party altogether, forming the Black Front.

Born in Bavariamarker, he took part in World War I and returned to Germanymarker in 1919 where he served in the Freikorps that put down the Bavarian Soviet Republic. At the same time, he also joined the Social Democratic Party. In 1920 he participated in the opposition to the Kapp Putsch. However, he grew increasingly alienated with that reformist-socialist party's stand, particularly when it put down a workers' uprising in the Ruhr, and he left the party later that year. In 1925 he joined the Nazi Party, which his brother had been a member of for several years, and worked for its newspaper as a journalist, ultimately taking it over with his brother. He took the 'socialist' element in the party's programme seriously enough to lead a very socialist-inclined faction of the party in northern Germany together with his brother Gregor and Joseph Goebbels. His faction advocated support for strike, nationalisation of banks and industry, and - despite acknowledged differences - closer ties with the Soviet Unionmarker. Some of these policies were opposed by Hitler, who thought they were too radical and too alienating from parts to the German people (middle class and some Nazi-supporting nationalist industrialists in particular), and the Strasser faction was defeated at the Bamberg Conference (1926), with Joseph Goebbels joining Hitler. Humiliated, he nonetheless, along with his brother Gregor, continued as a leading Left Nazi within the Party, until expelled from the NSDAP by Hitler in 1930.

Following his expulsion, he set up his own party, the Black Front, composed of radical ex-Nazis, in an attempt to split the Nazi Party. Here his lack of anti-Semitism was displayed by his willingness to associate with Jewish persons, such as an exile from Germany named Helmut Hirsch, who would later be executed for an attempted plot on Hitler. His party proved unable to counter Hitler's rise to power in 1933, and Strasser spent the years of the Third Reich in exile. The Nazi Left itself was annihilated during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934 (in which his brother perished), leaving Hitler as undisputed party leader and able to pacify both industrialists and the military into accepting his new National Socialist regime. In addition to the "Black Front", Strasser at this time headed the Free German Movement outside Germany which sought to enlist the aid of Germans all over the world in bringing about the downfall of Hitler and Nazism.

Strasser fled first to Austria then Praguemarker (here he resisted Hitler), Switzerland and France, and then, in 1940, he went to Bermudamarker by way of Portugalmarker, leaving a wife and two children behind in Switzerland. In 1941, he emigrated to Canadamarker, where he was the famed "Prisoner of Ottawa". During this time Goebbels denounced Strasser as the Nazis' "Public Enemy Number One" and a price of $500,000 was set on his head. He settled for a time in Montrealmarker. In 1942, he lived for a time in Clarence, Nova Scotia, on a farm owned by a German-speaking Czech, Adolph Schmidt, and then moved to nearby Paradise, Nova Scotiamarker, where he lived for more than a decade in a rented apartment above a general store. As an influential and uncondemned former Nazi Party member still faithful to many doctrines of National Socialism, he was prevented from returning to West Germanymarker after the war, first by the Allied powers and then by the West German government.

During his exile, he wrote articles on the Third Reich and Nazi leadership for a number of British, American and Canadian newspapers, including the New Statesman, and a series for the Montreal Gazette, which was ghostwritten by then Gazette reporter and later politician Donald C. MacDonald.

Strasser was allowed to return to Germany in 1955 by a ruling of the Federal Administrative Courtmarker (after having previously been denied entry by the West German government) and regained his citizenship settling in Munichmarker. He attempted to create his own, new, "nationalist and socialist"-oriented party in 1956, the German Social Union (often called a successor to the 1949-1952 forbidden Socialist Reich Party of Germany), but it was unable to attract support. For the rest of his life, Strasser continued to call for and propagate neo-Nazism until his death in Munichmarker in 1974.

Strasser is seen as a dissenting Nazi, but as such, he is associated with National Socialist racial thought (even though he claimed to have actively opposed such policies within the national socialist movement). He is cited as an influence by many movements similar to his own radical form of National Socialism, such as National Anarchist founder Troy Southgate and those of the American Strasserite group Folk And Faith.

See also


  1. "...but because a Black Fronter there, a Jewish doctor, had thrown open his sanitarium to us." Strasser, Otto: "Flight from Terror", page 297. National Travel Club, New York, 1943. Archived here:
  2. For example organizing the removal of Julius Streicher from Popular Liberty Party. Strasser, Otto: "Flight from Terror", pages 100 and 136. National Travel Club, New York, 1943. Archived here:

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