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The Republic of Perumarker is a sovereign country located in western South America. Peru is bordered on the north by Ecuadormarker and Colombiamarker, on the east by Brazilmarker, on the southeast by Boliviamarker, on the south by Chilemarker, and on the west by the Pacific Oceanmarker.

Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a medium Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 40%. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 28 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, European, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Peru:

General reference



Geography of Peru



: 2,995 km
: 1,800 km
: 1,420 km
: 1,075 km
: 171 km
* Coastline: South Pacific Oceanmarker 2,414 km


Environment of Peru





Natural geographic features of Peru



Regions of Peru

Ecoregions of Peru

Main article: Ecoregions in Peru


Administrative divisions of Peru

Main article: Administrative divisions of Peru




Regions of Peru
Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima.



Provinces of Peru
Districts of Peru
Municipalities of Peru


Demography of Peru

Main article: Demographics of Peru


Neighbours of Peru

Peru is bordered by:

Government and politics of Peru

Main article: Government of Peru and Politics of Peru




Branches of the government of Peru

Executive branch of the government of Peru



Legislative branch of the government of Peru



Judicial branch of the government of Peru



Foreign relations of Peru



International organization membership

The Republic of Peru is a member of:





Law and order in Peru

Main article: Law of Peru




Military of Peru

Main article: Military of Peru




Local government in Peru



History of Peru

Main article: History of Peru, Timeline of the history of Peru, and


By period



By subject



By type of event



Culture of Peru

Main article: Culture of Peru




Art in Peru



Religion in Peru



Sports in Peru

Main article: Sports in Peru




Economy of Peru

Main article: Economy of Peru










Education in Peru

Main article: Education in Peru


Infrastructure of Peru



See also



References



External links

Government


General reference


Other



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