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The Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاک بحریہ) is the naval branch of the military of Pakistan. It is responsible for Pakistan's 1,046 kilometer (650 mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important harbors. Navy day is celebrated on September 8 in commemoration of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.

History

The birth of the Royal Pakistan Navy came with the creation of Pakistanmarker on 14 August 1947. The Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee (AFRC) divided the Royal Indian Navy between both India and Pakistan. The Royal Pakistan Navy secured two sloops, two frigates, four minesweepers, two naval trawlers, four harbour launches and some 358 personnel (180 officers and 34 ratings), and given the high percentage of delta areas on the Pakistan coast the Navy was given a number of Harbour Defence Motor Launches.

The beginning

The Royal Pakistan Navy saw no action during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 as all the fighting was restricted to land warfare.In 1956 the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was proclaimed under the 1956 constitution. The prefix Royal was dropped and the service was re-designated as the Pakistan Navy, or "PN" for short. The PN Jack and Pakistan flag replaced the Queen's colour and the white ensign respectively. The order of precedence of the three services changed from Navy, Army, Air force to Army, Navy, Air Force. In February 1956, the British government announced supplying of several major surface combatants to Pakistan. These Warships, a cruiser and four destroyers were purchased with funds made available under the US Military Assistance Program. The acquisition of a few additional warships that is two destroyers, eight coastal minesweepers and an oiler (between 1956-63) was the direct result of Pakistan's participation in the anti-Communist defence pacts of SEATO and CENTO.

Indo-Pakistan war of 1965

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 the navy was involved in a conflict for the first time. Apart from carrying out an unsuccessful bombardment of the coastal town of Dwaraka - codenamed Operation Dwarka, the navy's submarine PNS Ghazi which was Pakistan's first submarine and remained the flagship submarine for Pakistan Navy till deployed against Indian Navy's western fleet at Bombaymarker (Mumbai) port.


Indo-Pakistan war of 1971

PNS Nazim which previously took part in the Vietnam and Korean wars with the USN
Karachimarker housed the headquarters of the Pakistani Navy and almost the entire fleet was based at Karachi Harbour. Karachi was also the hub of Pakistan's maritime trade, meaning that a blockade would be disastrous for Pakistan’s economy. The defence of Karachi harbour was therefore paramount to the Pakistani High Command and it was heavily defended against any airstrikes or naval strike. Karachi received some of the best defence Pakistan had to offer as well as cover from strike aircraft based at two airfields in the area. On December 4 the Indian Navy launched a fast naval strike Operation Trident on the port. The task group for the operation consisted of 3 OSA class Missile boats, escorted by two Anti-submarine patrol vessels. Nearing the Karachi port, they detected Pakistani presence and launched missiles, hitting PNS Muhafiz and PNS Khyber, which both sank. PNS Shahjahan was also severely damaged.

The success of this operation prompted another attack on Pakistan coast named Operation Python on the night of December 8, 1971. In rough seas a small strike group, consisting of missile boat Vinash and two multipurpose frigates, approached Karachi. In the ensuing battle, the Indian ships sank the Panamian vessel Gulf Star, while the Pakistan Navy's Dacca and the British ship SS Harmattan were badly damaged. The Pakistani fuel reserves for the sector were destroyed. The same day (8 December 1971), PNS Hangor, a Pakistani Daphné class submarine, sank an Indian frigate INS Khukri off the coast of Gujarat, India. This was the first sinkings by a submarine since World War II. 18 officers and 176 sailors of the Indian navy were killed in this operation. The same submarine also damaged another warship, INS Kirpan. Pakistan also attempted to counter the Indian missile boat threat by carrying out bombing raids over Okha harbour—the forward base of the missile boats.

With East Pakistan having been surrounded on all three sides by the Indian Army, the Navy was under immense pressure to protect the coast. The major threat from the PNS Ghazi—the only long range submarine—was nullified when it was sunk in the Bay of Bengalmarker, directly or indirectly through the depth charges dropped by the Indian Navy's destroyer INS Rajput or by its own antiship mine that came back due to the rough sea. This enabled an easy blockade on East Pakistan by the Indian Navy.

The damage inflicted by both Indian Navy and Indian Air Force on Pakistan Navy stood at seven gunboats, one minesweeper, two destroyers, three patrol crafts belonging to the coast guard, 18 cargo, supply and communication vessels, with some more crafts damaged, and large scale destruction inflicted on the naval base and Docks in the coastal town of Karachi. Three merchant navy ships—Anwar Baksh, Pasni, Madhumathi—and ten smaller vessels were captured. The total number of personnel losses came to about 1900 and 1413 servicemen were captured by Indian forces in Dhakamarker(Official Pakistan losses). In contrast the Indian Navy lost 212 personnel, a frigate (another frigate damaged) and a naval plane Breguet Alizé to the Pakistan Air Force (PAF). According to one Pakistan scholar, Tariq Ali, Pakistan Navy lost a third of its force in the war. The primary reason for this loss has been attributed to the central command's failure in defining a role for the Navy—or the military in general, in East Pakistan. Since then the Navy has sought to improve the structure and fleet by putting special emphasis on sub-surface warfare capability as it allows for the most efficient way to deny the control of Pakistani sea lanes to the adversary.

Post war

The Navy sought to diversify its purchases instead of depending solely on the United States, which had placed an arms embargo on both India and Pakistan. It sought more vessels from France and China. The Pakistan Navy thus became the first navy in South Asia to acquire land based missile capable long range reconnaissance aircraft. During the 1980s the Pakistan Navy enjoyed un-preceded growth. It doubled its surface fleet from 8 to 16 surface combatants in 1989. In 1982, the Reagan administration approved US$3.2 billion military and economic aid to Pakistan. Pakistan acquired eight Brooke and Garcia-class frigates from US Navy on a five year lease in 1988. A depot for repairs, ex-USS Hector followed the lease of these ships in April 1989. However after the Sovietmarker withdrawal from Afghanistanmarker in 1989 US President George Bush was advised to no longer certify that Pakistan was not involved in the development of nuclear weapons and the Pressler’s Amendment was invoked on 1 October 1990. The lease of the first Brooke class frigate expired in March 1993, the remaining in early 1994. This seriously impaired the Pakistan Navy, which was composed almost entirely of former US origin ships. Pakistan began to concentrate on self-reliance for its defense production.

Atlantique incident

The Atlantique Incident was a major international incident on 10 August 1999 where a Pakistan Navy plane (Breguet Atlantic) with 16 on board was shot down in the border area of the Kutchmarker region with Pakistan and India both claiming the aircraft to be in their respective airspace by Indian Air Force jets. The wreckage however, fell well within Pakistani territory, giving credence to the Pakistani claim. The Indian Air Force stated that the Atlantique was trying to return to Pakistani airspace after intruding more than 10 nautical miles and as such was headed towards Pakistan. At the speed of 400 knots at which the shootdown occurred most of the wreckage was expected to land at least 25 miles from the shootdown so Pakistani Army claims that the wreckage was found in Pakistan can be true even though the shootdown occurred in Indian Airspace. It resulted in escalated tensions between the two neighboring countries.However International Court of Justice did not decide in favour of Pakistan.

Tsunami relief activities

The Navy has been involved in some peacetime operations, most notably during the tsunami tragedy that struck on December 26, 2004. Pakistan sent vessels to Sri Lankamarker and the Maldivesmarker to help in rescue and relief work.

Personnel

Pakistan Navy Officers On Guard By the National Flag
The Pakistan Navy has around 24,000 active personnel and 5,000 in reserve. The force includes a small Naval Air Arm and the approximately 2,000 member paramilitary Maritime Security Agency, charged primarily with protecting Pakistan's exclusive economic zone(EEZ). The Navy also comprises the Special Services Group Navy, a marine commando unit as well as a Marine unit, both stationed at Karachi. The SSG(N) and Marines are believed to number around 1,000 in troop strength each. Pakistan Navy recently began inducting women for combat positions apart from the existing administrative posts, becoming one of the few Islamic Republics to do so.

Naval Headquarters

  • Admiral Noman BashirChief of Naval Staff
  • Vice Admiral Asaf Humayun — Vice Chief of Naval Staff (VCNS)
  • Vice Admiral Mushtaq Ahmed — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Material)
  • Vice Admiral Shahid Iqbal — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Training and Personnel)
  • Rear Admiral Abbas Raza — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Operations)
  • Rear Admiral Waqar Siddiq — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Supply)
  • Rear Admiral Saleem Akhtar — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Projects)
  • Rear Admiral Khawaja Ghazanfar Hussain — Naval Secretary
  • — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Projects-2)


Commands

  • Vice Admiral Muhammad Shafi — Commander Coast (COMCOAST)
  • Vice Admiral Azher Shamim Anwar — Commander Karachi (COMKAR)
  • Rear Admiral Mohammad Asif Sandila — Commander Logistics (COMLOG)
  • Rear Admiral Tanveer Faiz — Commander Pakistan Fleet (COMPAK)
  • Rear Admiral Tayyab Ali Dogar — Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST)
  • Commodore Shah Sohail Mehmood — Commander North (COMNOR)


External billets

  • Rear Admiral Khalid Amin — DG Maritime Technologies Complex (MTC), Islamabadmarker
  • Rear Admiral Mohammad Shafiq — Deputy DG, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), Islamabad
  • Rear Admiral Mohammad Zakaullah — Commander, Combined Task Force 150, Manamamarker, Bahrainmarker
  • Rear Admiral Shafqat Javed — Additional Secretary-III (Navy) at Ministry of Defence, Rawalpindimarker
  • Rear Admiral Azhar Hayat — General Manager (Operations), Karachi Port Trust (KPT)
  • Rear Admiral Sayyid Khawar Ali — DG Training and Joint Warfare at Joint Staff HQ, Chaklalamarker
  • Rear Admiral Tehseen Ullah Khan — DG Maritime Security Agency (MSA), Karachi
  • Rear Admiral Khan Hasham Bin Saddique — Commandant, National Security (NS) College at NDU Islamabad


List of Naval Chiefs

FM-90 On board PNS Zulfiqar
C-802 Anti Ship Missle on board PNS Zulfiqar


  1. Rear Admiral James Wilfred Jefford (August 15, 1947 - January 30, 1953)
  2. Vice Admiral Haji Mohammad Siddiq Choudri (January 31, 1953 - 28 February 1959)
  3. Vice Admiral Afzal Rahman Khan (March 1, 1959 - October 20, 1966)
  4. Vice Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan (October 20, 1966 - August 31, 1969)
  5. Vice Admiral Muzaffar Hassan (September 1, 1969 - December 22, 1971)
  6. Vice Admiral Hasan Hafeez Ahmed (March 3, 1972 - March 9, 1975)
  7. Admiral Mohammad Shariff (March 23, 1975 - March 21, 1979)
  8. Admiral Karamat Rahman Niazi (March 22, 1979 - March 23, 1983)
  9. Admiral Tariq Kamal Khan (March 23, 1983 - April 9, 1986)
  10. Admiral Iftikhar Ahmed Sirohey (April 9, 1986 - November 9, 1988)
  11. Admiral Yastur-ul-Haq Malik (November 10, 1988 - November 8, 1991)
  12. Admiral Saeed Mohammad Khan (November 9, 1991 - November 9, 1994)
  13. Admiral Mansurul Haq (November 10, 1994 - May 1, 1997)
  14. Admiral Fasih Bokhari (May 2, 1997 - October 2, 1999)
  15. Admiral Abdul Aziz Mirza (October 2, 1999 - October 2, 2002)
  16. Admiral Shahid Karimullah (October 3, 2002 - October 6, 2005)
  17. Admiral Afzal Tahir (October 7, 2005 - October 7, 2008)
  18. Admiral Noman Bashir (October 7, 2008 - present)


Organization

The supreme commander of the Navy is the Chief of the Naval Staff. Admiral Noman Bashir is the current Chief of the Navy.

The navy has six commands:
  • COMKAR (Commander Karachi) - Looks after the shore establishments of the Navy which provide services and training facilities for the PN. He also looks after the protocol at Karachi. His responsibilities also include harbour defence.
  • COMPAK (Commander Pakistan Fleet) - The command heads the surface, sub surface and aviation commands. In fact, this command is the war fighting machine having 4 dimensional components. Previously, it included the 25th Destroyer Squadron (with Gearing class D16O, D164-168).
  • COMCOAST (Commander COAST) - The special command of SSG(N), Marines and Coastal stations.
  • COMLOG (Commander Logistics) - This command looks after the repair, maintenance and logistic infrastructure of PN.
  • FOST (Flag Officer Sea Training) Conducts all types of operational training at Sea
  • COMNOR (Commander North) - Looks after the Naval installations in the north of Pakistan;
  • COMWEST (Commander WEST) - Looks after the Naval installations in the west of Pakistan. The naval bases are Ormaramarker, Pasnimarker, Gwadarmarker and Jiwanimarker.


Ranks

PN Officer Ranks
Rank Admiral(Adm) Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sub Lieutenant Midshipman
Uniform insignia


PN Sailor Ranks
Rank Master Chief Petty Officer Fleet Chief Petty Officer Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer Leading
Uniform insignia


Training institutions

Pakistan Navy has an academy of its own called the Pakistan Naval Academy, it is the home of initial training of officers of Pakistan Navy. The academy also has provided basic training to the officers of Allied Navies. The Chief of Naval Staff of Qatar Emiri Navy and many high ranking officers of Royal Saudi Navy as well as other navies in the Gulf were graduates of the PNA. The academy is a full fledged training institution catering to the needs to Pakistani junior Naval officers. The Navy also has its own navy war college called the Pakistan Navy War College specializing in imparting Naval Warfare techniques to officers of the Pakistan marine forces.

Other worthwhile training institutions are:

PNS Bahadur: conducts specialist courses.

PNS Himalaya: for basic training of sailors.

PNS Karsaz: It is the Largest and the most organized technical training Establishment of Pakistan Navy. The establishment has the previlige to host many heads of states since its commissioning. It is considered the mother unit of PNS MEHRAN, PNS JAUHAR, PNS BAHADUR, ASD and other PN units in that area. The unit celebrated its golden gubilee in 2003 under the command of Cdre M B Chaudhry.PNS KARSAZ also houses one of the most modern Special Children School which was built at the cost of Rs 88.00 Millions during 2003-5. Cdre M Bashir Chaudhry who was the commandant KARSAZ during this period was the force behind this project who collected the funds through philanthropists. Rangoon wala trust contributed the most. In fact PNS KARSAZ is a completeNaval unit which can operate independently in all spheres.

PNS Jauhar: for technical training of officers.

[[]]PNS Jauhar has been absorbed by the National University of Sciences and Technology and has become its constituent Pakistan Navy Engineering College, where officers and civilian students are offered degrees in Electrical, Mechanical and Electronics Enginee

Special Forces

Naval SSG operating in the Gulf of Oman

Special Services Group (N)

Special Service Group Navy (SSGN) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Navy. It is an elite special operations force supposed to be similar to the Royal Navy's Special Boat Service and United States Navy SEALS. Official numbers place the strength between 700 to 1,000, in 1 Company; however the actual strength is classified.

Marines

Pakistan Navy Marines division was re-established on April 14, 1990 with about 2000 men and plans to expand the force significantly by 2015. The naval marines are based at Port Qasimmarker naval base.

Fleet composition

PNS Zulfiqar
PNS Tippu Sultan
PNS Shahjahan
Mclanery (ASW) Class For Pakistan Navy (August 2010)
PNS Larkana Class Missile Boat
Babur Cruise Missile
Harpoon Block II test firing.
A Pakistan Navy Hover Craft
Ships with respect to their classes:





Submarines

A total of five active diesel electric submarines plus 3 midget submarines, MG110 are in the Naval inventory. These include:

submarine

All of the Pakistani SSKs have been equipped with AshMs which can be fired while submerged. The three Khalid class boats are capable of firing Exocet AshM, while the older Agostas and Daphnes have been equipped with US Harpoon AshMs. PNS/M Hamza (third Agosta-90B) is equipped with the MESMA Air Independent Propulsion system, PNS/M Khalid and PNS/M Saad will be upgraded with the same MESMA AIP system in the near future. The Pakistan Navy also plans to integrate the Boeing Harpoon Block II on to its Agosta-90Bs; and currently the Agosta-90Bs are capable of firing Blackshark torpedoes.

In mid-2006 the Pakistan Navy announced its requirement of three new SSK attack submarines to replace the two Agosta-70 submarines and rebuild its fleet - after retiring the four Daphne Class. The French naval firm DCN had offered its latest export design - the Marlin SSK - which is based on the Scorpene SSK, but also uses technology from the Barracuda nuclear attack submarine. However, the Pakistan Navy is said to have chosen the Type 214submarine. During the IDEAS 2008 exhibition, the HDW chief Walter Freitag told “The commercial contract has been finalised up to 95 per cent,” he said. The first submarine would be delivered to the Pakistan Navy in 64 months after signing of the contract while the rest would be completed successively in 12 months.

Pakistan is also seeking to enhance its strategic strike capability by developing naval variants of the Babur land attack cruise missile (LACM). The Babur LACM has a range of 700 km and is capable of using both conventional and nuclear warheads. Future developments of LACM include capability of being launched from submarines, surface combatants and aircraft.

Frigates

The Navy's six frigates include six ex-British Amazonclass (PNS Babur) ships. These are expected to retire between 2010 and 2020.In 2005 Pakistan ordered four F-22Plight frigates from China in a deal worth $750 million. The first has been commissioned and the remainder by 2013. One of the F-22Ps will be built in the Karachi Shipyard. The F-22Ps also have the ability to embark Harbin Z-9helicopters on deck. The F-22P is an improved version of the Type 053H3 Jiangwei II class light frigate, it has a displacement of at least 2500 tons. The first F-22P is called PNS Zulfiqar, and thus the F-22Ps will be called Zulfiqar Class.According to Janes the Pakistan Navy is expected to place a formal request to the U.S. for six Oliver Hazard Perry class frigatesto augment its surface fleet. These may replace the Type-21s and act as stop-gaps until new-built frigates and corvettes are commissioned. The weapons and systems on the PN FFG-7 have not yet been disclosed, but they could include the Mk 41 Vertical Launch Systemfor the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile(ESSM) as well as Mk 32torpedo tubes for Mk 46Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) torpedoes. The frigate USS McInerney with considerable anti-submarine warfare capability will be handed over in August 2010.According to Janes' IDEAS2004 interview with former Pakistan Navy Chief ex-Admiral Karimullah at least four additional new-built frigates will be acquired by the navy. The new frigate will be larger and superior to the F-22P; it will likely have a better air defence system and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capability; and use more advanced sensors, radar and electronics. Kanwa recently reported that the Pakistan Navy has shown recent interest in the Chinese Type 054A frigate. Another potential option could be the TKMS MEKOA-200 frigate.

Corvettes & missile boats

The Pakistan Navy operates four Jalalat class 200 ton missile boats each armed with four Chinese C-802anti-shipmissiles. The Jalalat II Class were locally produced using a German design. In November 2006 the Pakistan Navy ordered two MRTP-33 missile boats from Yonca-Onuk shipyards of Turkeymarker.The first will be delivered in 2008. The Navy has an overall requirement of eight MRTP-33s.

Aviation

Breguet Atlantique
Westland Lynx
Pakistan Naval Aviation is an important arm of the Pakistan Navy and assists in the surface and submarine flights to guarantee the safety of Pakistan sea borders.

Currently the PN Aviation Force consists of:



Future acquisitions include:

  • At least two second hand helicopters but in flying condition, to replace the Westland Sea King Mk45.
  • At least two brand new helicopters to replace the Aerospatiale SA-319B Alouette III


Others

The Pakistan Navy has one Poolster Class AOR and one Fuqing Class AOR auxiliary tankers as well as two Gwadar class coastal tankers. Three Eridan Class mine hunters are also in service with the PN; plans for additional mine hunters are underway.

The Navy plans to procure a single replenishment tanker as well as up to two mine countermeasure vessels.

PN Role in War on Terror

A member of Pakistan Navy Special Service Group is silhouetted by the setting sun aboard Pakistan Navy Ship PNS Babur (D 182) while under way in the Arabian Sea November 25, 2007.
The Pakistani Navy plays an active role in the multinational Combined Task Force 150. The command of the force was give to Pakistan from March 24, 2006 till February 25, 2008. Under Pakistan's leadership, CTF 150 coordinated patrols throughout their area of operations to help commercial shipping and fishing operate safely and freely in the region. Additionally, CTF 150 Coalition ships made 11 successful at-sea rescues and made the largest drug bust in the CTF 150 AOO since 2005. Pakistan has contributed 13 different ships to CTF 150 and the current one being PNS Tariq.

See also



Related lists


Notes

References



External links



Ship
Quantity
Service
entry
Comments
Frigates
F-22P Zulfiquar class
F-251 PNS Zulfiqar (commissioned)
F-252 PNS Saif (launched)
F-253 PNS Shamsheer (launched)
F-254 (under construction)





4









2009
2009










Tariq class
F181 PNS Tariq
F182 PNS Babur
F183 PNS Khaibar
F184 PNS Badr
F185 PNS Shah Jahan
F186 PNS Tippu Sultan





6













1990s















Oliver Hazard Perry class
USS McInerney
1

2010

Mine Hunters
3 Eridan class Mine Hunter vessels
  • M164 Mujahid
  • M166 Munsif
  • M167 Muhafiz
  • M168 Mahmood
Missile Boats
6 Jalalat class
  • P1023 PNS Jurrat
  • P1028 PNS Quwwat
  • P1022 PNS Jalalat
  • P1024 PNS Shujat
  • P1029 ?
  • P1030 ?
1 Larkana class
  • PNS Larkana
3 Sabqat class
  • P1025 PNS Azmat
  • P1026 PNS Deshmat
  • P1027 PNS Himmat
1 Hegu class
  • P1021 PNS Haibat
1 ?
  • PNS Rajshahi
Multi Role Tactical Platform
2 MRTP-33
  • PNS Zarrar
  • PNS Karrar
2 MRTP-15
  • P01 PNS ?
  • P02 PNS ?
Auxiliary
1 Fuqing class
  • A47 PNS Nasr
1 Poolster class
  • A20 PNS Moawin
2 Coastal tankers
  • PNS Kalmat
  • PNS Gawadar
1 Hydrographic Survey Vessel
  • PNS Behr Paima
1 Dredging Vessel
  • PNS Behr Khusha
2 Small tanker cum utility ship (STUS)
  • PNS ? (launched)
  • PNS ? (underconstruction)
Training vessel
1 Leander class frigate
  • F262 PNS Zulfiqar
Hover Crafts
4 Griffon class
Patrol boats
12 Gulf crafts
3 Agosta 90B class submarine
  • PNS/M Khalid
  • PNS/M Saad
  • PNS/M Hamza
2 Agosta 70
  • PNS/M Hasmat
  • PNS/M Hurmat

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