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Panipat ( , ) is an ancient and historic city in Panipat District, Haryanamarker state, Indiamarker. It is 90 km from Delhimarker on NH-1 and comes under the National Capital Region of Delhi. Three battles fought at the city were turning points in Indian history.

History

Panipat was one of the five cities (prasthas) founded by the Pandava brothers during the times of the Mahabharata; its historic name being Panduprastha. Panipat was the scene of three pivotal battles in Indian history.

The First Battle of Panipat was fought on 21 April 1526 between Ibrahim Lodhi, Sultan of Delhi, and the Timurid warlord Zaheeruddin Babur. Babur's force defeated Ibrahim's much larger force of over one lakh (one hundred thousand) soldiers.

The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556 between the forces of Akbar and Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu King of North India, who had captured the large states of Agramarker and Delhimarker defeating Akbar's forces. Hindu king, also known as Vikramaditya had won 22 battles against the Afghan rebels from 1553-1556, and had his coronation at Purana Quila in Delhimarker on 7th Oct. 1556 and had established Hindu Rajmarker in North India, before the 2nd battle of Panipat. Akbar and Bairam Khan did not participate in the war and were stationed 16 km from the battle field, with the instructions to run away to Kabulmarker in case of defeat. Hemu had a large army, and initially his forces were on winning spree, but suddenly Hemu was struck by an arrow in the eye and he lost his senses. On not seeing him in his Ohda on the back of elephant, his army fled. He was later captured and beheaded by the Mughals. His head was sent to Kabulmarker to be hanged outside Delhi Darwaza and torsoe was hanged outside Purana Quila in Delhi. Second battle of Panipat, thus ended the 'Hindu Raj' established by Hemu in north India, though for a short duration.

The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghanmarker king Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau of Punemarker. Ahmad Shah won it but with a very heavy casualty on both sides. The famous Urdu shayar Maulana Hali was born in Panipat.

Geography

Panipat is located at . It has an average elevation of 219 metres (718 feet).

Panipat is situated on Shershah Suri Marg (now known as G.T. road - N.H.1.), 90 KM from Delhi. The three sides of this Panipat touch other districts of Haryana - Karnal in the north, Jind in the west and Sonipat in the south. Panipat borders Uttar Pradesh across Yamuna in the east.

Panipat was the part of District Karnal until 31 October 1989. It was separated from Karnal, along with another subdivison, Assandh Tehsil. When the District was re-formed on 1 January 1992, Assandh Tehsil was excluded. The newly constructed flyover in the year 2008 is one of longest flyover in India on GT Road.

Demographics

 India census, Panipat had a population of 967,449. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Panipat has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 73%, and female literacy is 64%. In Panipat, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.


Industries

Panipat rail station


Panipat is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest centre for quality blankets and carpets in India and has a handloom weaving industry. The "Achar Pachranga" is a well known Indian pickle produced since 1925. The company was brought to Panipat in 1947 after the partition of India. Panipat also has heavy industry, with a refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation, a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant and a National Fertilizers Limited plant.

Some salient features of industry in Panipat include:

* Three major public sector projects: the Indian Oil Corporation oil refinery, the National Fertilizers Limited plant and the thermal power station.
*Biggest centre in the country for producing shoddy (recycled) yarn, and a large consumer of rags for reprocessing.
*Biggest centre in the country for producing low priced blankets, a traditional supplier of barrack blankets to the armed forces.
*Biggest centre in the country engaged in export of cotton durries, made-ups, throws and mats.
*Samalkha, a small town near Panipat, is known for foundry work and supply of agricultural machinery to neighbouring Uttar Pradeshmarker.
*Relatively high wages compared to the Indian national average - a worker earns Rs.130/- to 170/- per day on Handloom/ Powerloom.
*The town has infrastructure such as rail, road and inland container depots well suited to industry and export.




Places Of Interest

The main places of attraction are "Panipat Battles Museum", Hemu's 'Samadhi-sthal' and camp site of Babur and Akbar at village Sodhapur, the grave of Ibrahim Lodhi, Kabuli Bagh, Devi Mandir, Kala Amb, Salar Gunj Gate, and the tomb of the thirteenth century sufi saint Bu Ali Shah Qalandar.

'Kala Amb' is a memorial built in memory of the soldiers who died in the 3rd battle of Panipat. It is said that blood of the dead soldiers was mixed with the soil and the fruit of a mango tree became black in color and hence the name "Kala Amb," meaning "Black Mango." Although it is a variety of mango almost at the verge of extinction. This is now a picturesque sight with long plush lawn where people love to sit and gossip on weekends. Now various mega malls have also been built in Panipat, for example Mittal Mega Mall, Cinemax, Prime Angels, Reliance Mega Mart. There is also a flyover that aims to regulate the traffic going towards Delhi, extending from Yamuna Enclave to the end of Panipat NFL.

Education institutions in Panipat

General colleges

  • S D (PG) College
  • I B College
  • Arya College
  • Govt. PG college (NC College of Engineering), Israna
  • Asia pacific institute of information technology(affliated to staffordshire university,UK)


Engineering colleges & Management Colleges

  • INC (The Icfai National College), G.T.Road, Panipat, A prime destination for MBA Education.
  • N C College of Engineering, Israna (Ravinder Bhatia's College) NCCE
  • Panipat Institute of Engineering & Technology, Samalkha PIET
  • S.D. Institute of Technology and Management, Israna SDIT
  • N.C.College of Engineering for women, Israna.
  • Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology (APIIT SD INDIA) APIIT
  • Sansi Institute of Theft Technology, Vikash Nagar, Panipat
  • Garg Institute of Information Technology Panipat


Gallery



Image:Stone bearing testimony, Panipat.jpg|Inside the Panipat Battle fieldImage:War Memorial at Panipat.jpg|Pillar set up in memory of Battle of PanipatImage:Rail Shed Panipat Station.jpg|Rail station shed at Panipat

References

  1. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Panipat


Famous handloom industries in Panipat:1.Paliwal exports2.Harisons and Harlaj3.Sheena exports4.Raj overseas

New Panipat ==External links==


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