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A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from wood pulp and other ingredients using a Fourdrinier Machine or similar apparatus.

History

In 105 AD the first papermaking process was created in Chinamarker by the Han Dynasty Chinese court eunuch Tsai Lun. The technology spread from East Asia to the Islamic world after the Battle of Talasmarker.

The earliest known paper mill is known to have operated in Baghdadmarker, modern-day Iraqmarker, as early as 794. After Baghdad, the paper-making process spread to Damascus, Egypt, and Morocco, and by the 10th century paper had replaced papyrus, wood, silk and parchment as the cheapest and most widespread writing substrate in the Islamic world.

In Europe the first mention of rag-paper is in the tract of Peter, Abbot of Cluny (1112 - 1150 AD), while the oldest recorded document on paper in Christian Europe is the eleventh century Missal of Silos, the paper for which was probably made in Islamic Spainmarker. One of the first known paper mills in Europe was in Xativamarker near Valenciamarker, Catalan Countriesmarker, established around 1151 AD by the Muslim Moors.

Characteristics

Paper mills can be fully integrated mills or nonintegrated mills. Integrated mills consist of a pulp mill and a paper mill on the same site. Such mills receive logs or wood chips and produce paper. It is a common misconception that paper mills are sources of odors. Pulp mills and the pulping section of integrated mills (particularly if using the kraft process) commonly have associated odors; nonintegrated mills purchase wood pulp, usually in dry bales known as market pulp, and produce little, if any, odor.

The modern paper mill uses large amounts of energy, water, and wood pulp in a highly efficient and extremely complex series of processes, using modern and sophisticated controls technology to produce a sheet of paper that can be used in incredibly diverse ways. Modern paper machines are very large and can be 500 feet (~150 m) in length, produce a sheet 400 inches (~10 m) wide, and operate at speeds of more than 60 mph (100 km/h). The two main suppliers of paper machines are Metso and Voith.

See also



Notes



External links

T.H.E. Journal [49794]
  • List of paper mills on paper and print monthly[49795]



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