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Other meanings: Paraná, Argentina, Paraná Rivermarker


Paraná ( ) is one of the states of Brazilmarker, located in the South of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulomarker state, on the east by the Atlantic Oceanmarker, on the south by Santa Catarina statemarker and the Misiones Provincemarker of Argentinamarker, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguaymarker, with the Paraná Rivermarker as its western boundary line. Cut by the Tropic of Capricorn, Paraná has what is left of the araucaria forest, one of the most important subtropical forests of the world. At the border with Argentinamarker is the National Park of Iguaçu, considered by UNESCOmarker as Patrimony of Humanity and the spectacle of the Cataratas do Iguaçu attracts about 700 thousand tourists per year. At only 40 km (24 miles) from there, at the border with Paraguaymarker, the largest dam in the world was built, the Hidroelétrica de Itaipu. The State Park of Vila Velha near the city of Ponta Grossamarker, is another attraction, with great rocky formations sculpted by the erosion of rain and wind. Curitibamarker, the capital, is famous for its high quality of life , compared to the Brazilian average, and the Ilha do Mel, next to the historical Paranaguámarker, is another destination for eco-tourists.

History

Paraná was first settled by gold prospectors from São Paulomarker and formed part of the captaincy and province of São Paulomarker.

The first missions of the Jesuits on the Paraná were situated just above the Guaíra Falls in this state and had reached a highly prosperous condition when the Indian slave hunters of São Paulomarker (called Bandeirantes) compelled them to leave their settlements and emigrate in mass to what is now the Argentine territory of Misiones. Their principal mission was known as Ciudad Real.

The territory was set apart from São Paulo in 1853. Pedro II of Brazil did so as a punishment for São Paulo support of the insurrection of 1842.

Waves of European immigrants started arriving after 1850, mainly Germans, Italians, Poles and Ukrainians. The development of the state is closely linked to the arrival of the immigrants.

By the early 20th century, the state had two railway systems: the Paranaguá to Curitiba (69 miles) (111 km) with an extension to Ponta Grossa (118 miles) (190 km) and branches to Rio Negro (55 miles) (89 km), Porto Amazonas (6 miles) (10 km) and Antonina (10 miles) (16 km); and the São Paulo and Rio Grande, which crosses the state from northeast to south-west from União da Vitória, on the Iguaçu, to a junction with the Sorocabana line of São Paulo at Itararé. The junction of the two systems was at Ponta Grossa, north-west of Curitiba.

Geography

Paraná is bounded on the north by São Paulomarker state, on the east by the Atlantic Oceanmarker, on the south by Santa Catarina statemarker and the Misiones Provincemarker of Argentinamarker, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguaymarker, with the Paraná Rivermarker as its western boundary line.

The state has two geographic regions, a narrow coastal zone that is home to the Serra do Mar coastal forests, and a high plateau (2500 to 3000 ft.) (750 to 1000 m) whose precipitous, deeply eroded eastern escarpments are known as the Serra do Mar or Serra de Cubatão. The southern and central portions of the state is covered by the Araucaria moist forests, and has large tracts of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis), known in Brazil as erva mate, used to make a tea called Chimarrão. The plateau slopes westward to the Paraná river, is well watered and moderately fertile, and has a remarkably uniform climate of a mild temperate character; the lower western and northern portions of the state are covered by the Paraná-Paraíba interior forests ecoregion.
The largest rivers in the state comprise the Paranapanema and its tributaries the Cinza and Tibaji, the Ivaí, Piquiri, Jejuy-guassu, and the Iguaçumarker with its principal tributary the Rio Negro. The Paranapanema and a small tributary, the Itarare', form the boundary line with São Paulo west of the Serra do Mar, and the Iguaçu and Negro, the boundary line with Santa Catarina and Argentina - both streams having their sources in the Serra do Mar and flowing westward to the Parana'. The other streams have shorter courses, and all are obstructed by falls and rapids. Twenty miles above the mouth of the Iguaçu are the Iguaçu Fallsmarker, 215 ft. (66 m) high, broken into twenty or more falls separated by rocks and islands, and surrounded by a wild, unsettled and wooded country. The surface of the plateau is undulating and the greater part is adapted to agricultural and pastoral purposes.

Demographics

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 10,535,000 people residing in the state. The population density was .

Urbanization: 84.5% (2006); Population growth: 1.4% (1991-2000); Houses: 3,177,000 (2006).

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 7,406,105 White people (70.3%), 2,686,425 Pardo (Brown) people (25.5%), 316,050 Black people (3.0%), 115,885 Asian or Amerindian people (1.1%).

People of Polish descent predominate in the central and south regions, mainly around Curitibamarker (see: Morska Wola). Italians predominate in the capital, Curitiba and in the coast. People of Ukrainian descent predominate in a few cities, such as Prudentópolis; many Ukrainians are found throughout the state. Germans predominate in a few cities, such as Rolândia. The Portuguese and their descendants are present in large numbers in almost all towns.

People of mixed-race ancestry predominate in a few towns in the north. There is a sizeable Muslim Lebanese and Syrian community around Foz do Iguaçumarker. In the north, Japanese people are very numerous.

The main cities of the state are:

Economy

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 41.6%, followed by the industrial sector at 40%. Agriculture represents 18.4% of GDP (2004). Paraná exports: soybean 34.2%, vehicles 21.4%, wood 10%, frozen meat 8.2%, others agriculture products 8.8% (2002).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 5.9% (2005).

Its per capita GDP in 2005 was R$12,339, or US$5,400, 8th in Brazil and comparable to that of Turkeymarker .

Trivia

Vehicles: 3,808,298 (March/2007); Mobile phones: 5.9 million (April/2007); Telephones: 2.7 million (April/2007);Cities: 399 (2007).

Education

Educational institutions



Infrastructure

International airports

Afonso Pena International Airportmarker is Curitiba's main airport. It is located in the nearby city of São José dos Pinhais and all commercial flights operate from this airport. It is integrated into Curitiba's transportation system, with rapid buses and executive buses connecting the airport to the city.Small aircraft may also use the Bacacheri airport, which today hosts a flight school and a national airbase.

Foz do Iguaçu International Airportmarker. Brazilmarker’s main airlines serve the city daily, connecting it with the rest of the country and foreign cities. Regional routes also serve local traffic.The airport is equipped for both visual and instrument operations, and has received charter flights from various continents. Its runway can serve jumbo jet such as the Boeing 747/100 and 747/200.At Foz do Iguaçumarker there are currently four daily flights by Varig, two by Vasp, two by Tam and one by Ocean Air.The combination of transport by highway, air, river and railway makes Foz do Iguaçu an excellent, perhaps unique, location in the Southern Cone of the Americas.Its geographic location makes it a natural port for Mercosur. In the future it also will be an obligatory port of entrance and exit of the bi-ocean central corridor.

Highways

BR-116,BR-153,BR-158,BR-163,BR-272,BR-277,BR-280,BR-369,BR-373,BR-376,BR-467,BR-469,BR-476,BR-487.

Social care



Paraná has one of the highest standards of living in Brazil with relatively low crime levels, a special attention given to education and health and a Human Development Index of ~0.820, the 5th highest in Brazil.

Sports

Curitiba provides visitors and residents with various sport activities. There are several soccer clubs based in Curitiba, such as:

Stadiums



Curitibamarker is one of the 18 remaining candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazilmarker is the only South American bidder.

Album

Image:PicoParana2006-3.jpg|Pico ParanáImage:Museu Oscar Niemeyer 7 Curitiba Brasil.jpg|Art Museum designed by Oscar NiemeyerImage:ItaipuAerea2AAL.jpg|Itaipu damImage:VilaVelhaParanaTaca3.JPG|Vila Velha stone formationImage:Bus_Stops_3_curitiba_brasil.jpg|Bus station in Curitiba

Image:Brejatuba.JPG|Brejatuba beach



References

See also




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