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Paris Métro Line 14 of Parismarker Métro crosses the center of Paris and currently runs between the Saint Lazaremarker and Olympiadesmarker stations. It is the twelfth busiest line on the network. It was the second automated line in the Île-de-Francemarker after Orlyval, but the first fully integrated into the Paris metro network. Before being put into commercial service, it was known by its project name, Meteor, an acronym of Métro Est-Ouest Rapide.

Chronology

  • October 15, 1998: The new line 14 was inaugurated between Madeleine and Bibliothèque F. Mitterrand.
  • December 16, 2003: Line 14 was extended north from Madeleine to Saint-Lazare.
  • June 26, 2007: Line 14 was extended south from Bibliothèque François Mitterrandmarker to Olympiadesmarker.


The Meteor Project

The Meteor project had the following objectives:

  • To reduce the burden on RERmarker line A, which was overloaded on the section crossing Paris;
  • To connect East Paris with West Paris without using an existing RER line;
  • To improve service to the left bank of the Seinemarker, especially in the XIIIe arrondissementmarker.


The French government started the project in 1989 and the tunnels were dug between 1993 and 1995. It was opened to the public in 1998 and had its first automatic run in October 1998.

Before the current line 14 was built, there was another line 14 that existed until 1976. It corresponded to the southern section of the current line 13 (connecting Invalidesmarker with Porte de Vanvesmarker.)

Some features of Line 14's train control system are run under the OpenVMS Operating System. Its control system is noted in the field of software engineering of critical systems because safety properties on some safety-critical parts of the systems were proved using the B-Method, a formal method.

Line 14 has some unusual design features — its floor tiling is not bitumenized, and platform edge doors at stations prevent passengers from falling onto the track or from committing suicide.

The southern extension of the line to Olympiadesmarker in June 2007, an area of high rise towers in the XIIIe arrondissement that was not served very well, was not a real extension: the tunnel was built at the same time as the rest of the line, but it was used as a train maintenance area, so a new maintenance area was constructed. The building of this extension caused the collapse of the courtyard of an elementary school; fortunately, on that day, no children were present. For various reasons, the underground of much of Paris is quite fragile and considerable care must be exercised before tunnelling work. (See Catacombs of Parismarker.)

Technology

Signaling System

Météor as CBTC (Communication-based Train Control) system was supplied by Siemens Transportation Systems including monitoring from an operations control centre, equipment for 7 stations and equipment for 19 six-car trains, resulting in a headway of 85 seconds.

Future



There are plans to extend the line from Olympiadesmarker to Maison Blanchemarker, with a connection to Line 7's Villejuifmarker branch possible.

Line 14 will also be extended north from Saint-Lazaremarker. The solution adopted crosses between the branches of line 13 with stations at Porte de Clichymarker on the Asnières - Gennevilliers branch and Mairie de Saint-Ouenmarker on the Saint-Denis branch.

The former line 14

The first line 14 was actually planned as line C of the Nord-Sud Company (line A being today's line 12 and line B being today's line 13). Unfortunately, the Nord-Sud company went bankrupt in 1930 and was taken over by the other company operating Paris metro: the CMP (which later became the RATP). The CMP subsequently implemented Line C as line 14. In the 1970s, the line was incorporated to the line 13.

Chronology

  • January 21, 1937: The line 14 was inaugurated between Bienvenüe and Porte de Vanves.
  • July 27, 1937: The line was extended northbound from Bienvenüe to Duroc. The section between Invalides and Duroc which used to be served by line 10 was transferred to line 14.
  • November 9, 1976: Line 14 was incorporated into line 13, which became a complete north-south line.


Stations renamed

  • October 6, 1942: Bienvenüe was renamed as Montparnasse - Bienvenüe (today on line 13).


Map and Stations

Map of Paris Métro Line 14.





List of stations

Station Connections observations
Saint-Lazaremarker Lines 3, 9, 12, 13

RER E

Transilien Saint-Lazare

Gare Saint-Lazaremarker grande Line
Madeleinemarker Lines 8 and 12 near the Église de la Madeleinemarker
Pyramidesmarker Line 7 named after Battle of the Pyramids and actually matching with the glass pyramids built in the Cour du Louvre
Châteletmarker Lines 1, 4, 7 and 11

RER A, B and D
named after Place du Châteletmarker
Gare de Lyonmarker Line 1

RER A and D

Transilien Lyon

Gare de Lyon (national rail)
named after railway station to Lyonmarker
Bercymarker Line 6

Gare de Bercymarker (national rail)
Cour Saint-Émilionmarker
Bibliothèque François Mitterrandmarker RER C named after François Mitterrand
Olympiadesmarker named after Les Olympiadesmarker


Tourism

Metro line 14 passes near several places of interest:

Trivia

  • The subway of Lausannemarker (new m2 line) uses a shortened version of the trains used on line 14, with only two cars per train.
  • The line is the deepest of the regular Métro lines, mainly because the higher subterranean levels of the city were already crowded with other Métro lines and infrastructure.
  • Stations are audibly announced twice at each stop on the line.
  • Visible indicators near the doors alert the hearing-impaired to door closure.
  • All trainsets on line 14 allow passengers to walk from one end of the train to the other inside the train.
  • All stations are accessible to wheelchairs on Line 14.
  • Line 14 uses the "SAET" system, which consists in using "moving block" signalling as opposed to traditional "fixed block" signalling. The purpose of this system is to generate a greater train frequency and to avoid the "traffic jams" that traditional signalling would cause. The RERmarker A, which is the urban rail line experiencing the heaviest traffic in the western world, also use moving blocks, but with the partially automated SACEM system. Line 13 and Line 1, both among the busiest metro lines in Paris, should be converted to moving blocks, line 1 fully automated with SAET, line 13 with the partially automated "Ouragan" system, in the upcoming years. The SAET system allows the simultaneous use of automatic and non-automatic trains on the line.
  • The immersed tunnel needed to cross the river Seinemarker was built by Spie Batignolles.


Gallery

Image:Station de Bibiotheque Nationale Ligne 14 - Quais 02-03-06.jpg|Bibliothèque François MitterrandmarkerImage:Ligne-14-Chatelet-1.jpg|ChâteletmarkerImage:Metro-Paris-Ligne-4-2-Stati.jpg|ChâteletImage:Cour Saint Emilion mezzanine.jpg|Cour Saint-ÉmilionmarkerImage:Metro-Paris-ligne-14-statio.jpg|Gare de LyonmarkerImage:Gare de Lyon 14 Jardin exotique.JPG|Gare de Lyon exotic gardenImage:Metro Paris - Ligne 14 - station Olympiades 05.jpg|OlympiadesmarkerImage:Metro Paris - Ligne 14 - station Olympiades 06.jpg|OlympiadesImage:Metro Paris - Ligne 14 - station Olympiades 07.jpg|OlympiadesImage:Ligne-14-Pyramides1.jpg|PyramidesmarkerImage:Paris Metro St Lazare.jpg|Saint-LazaremarkerImage:ChateletPorteBleue.JPG|Mysterious blue door above Châtelet station

See also



References



External links




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