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Paul Bourget (1852-1935).

Paul Charles Joseph Bourget (September 2, 1852December 25, 1935), was a French novelist and critic.


He was born in Amiensmarker in the Sommemarker département of Picardiemarker, Francemarker. His father, a professor of mathematics, was later appointed to a post in the college at Clermont-Ferrandmarker, where Bourget received his early education. He afterwards studied at the Lycée Louis-le-Grandmarker and at the École des Hautes Études. During 1872–1873 he produced a volume of verse, Au bord de la mer, which was followed by others, the last, Les Aveux, appearing in 1882. Meanwhile he was making a name in literary journalism, and in 1883 he published Essais de psychologie contemporaine, studies of eminent writers first printed in the Nouvelle Revue, and now brought together.

In 1884 Bourget paid a long visit to Britainmarker, where he wrote his first published story (L'Irréparable). Cruelle Enigme followed in 1885; then André Cornelis (1886) and Mensonges (1887) - inspired by Octave Mirbeau's life - were received with much favour. Le Disciple (1889) showed the novelist in a graver attitude; while in 1891 Sensations d'Italie, notes of a tour in that country, revealed a fresh phase of his powers. In the same year appeared the novel Coeur de femme, and Nouveaux Pastels, "types" of the characters of men, the sequel to a similar gallery of female types (Pastels, 1890). His later novels include La Terre promise (1892); Cosmopolis (1892), a psychological novel, with Romemarker as a background; Une Idylle tragique (1896); La Duchesse bleue (1897); Le Fantasme (1901); Les Deux Sœurs (1905); and some volumes of shorter stories—Complications sentimentales (1896), the powerful Drames defamille (1898), Un Homme fort (1900), L'Etape (1902), a study of the inability of a family raised too rapidly from the peasant class to adapt itself to new conditions. This powerful study of contemporary manners was followed by Un Divorce (1904), a defence of the Roman Catholic position that divorce is a violation of natural laws, any breach of which inevitably entails disaster. Études et portraits, first published in 1888, contains impressions of Bourget's stay in Englandmarker and Irelandmarker—especially reminiscences of the months which he spent at Oxfordmarker; and Outre-Mer (1895), a book in two volumes, is his critical journal of a visit to the United Statesmarker in 1893. He was admitted to the Académie française in 1894, and in 1895 was promoted to be an officer of the Légion d'honneur, having received the decoration of the order ten years before.

Literary significance and criticism

As a writer of verse Bourget was merely experimenting, and his poems, which were collected in two volumes (1885–1887), are chiefly interesting for the light which they throw upon his mature method and the later products of his art. It was in criticism that his genius showed itself. The habit of close scientific analysis which he derived from his father, the sense of style produced by a fine ear and moulded by a classical education, the innate appreciation of art in all its forms, the taste for seeing men and cities, the keen interest in the oldest not less than the newest civilizations, and the large tolerance not to be learned on the boulevard—all these combined to provide him with a most uncommon equipment for the critic's task. It is not surprising that the Sensations d'Italie (1891), and the various psychological studies, are in their different ways scarcely surpassed throughout the whole range of literature.

Bourget's reputation as a novelist is assured in some academic and intellectual circles but while they were widely popular in his time, his novels have long been largely forgotten by the general reading public. Deeply impressed by the singular art of Henry Beyle (Stendhal), he struck out on a new course at a moment when the realist school reigned without challenge in French fiction. His idealism had a character of its own. It was constructed on a scientific basis, and aimed at an exactness, different from, yet comparabIe to, that of the writers who were depicting with an astonishing faithfulness the environment and the actions of a person or a society. With Bourget, observation was mainly directed to the secret springs of human character. At first his purpose seemed to be purely artistic, but when Le Disciple appeared, in 1889, the preface to that remarkable story revealed in him an unsuspected fund of moral enthusiasm. After that, he varied between his earlier and his later manner, but his work in general was more seriously conceived. From first to last he painted with a delicate brush the intricate emotions of women, whether wronged, erring or actually vicious; and he described the ideas, passions and failures of the young men of Francemarker.

Bourget has been charged with pessimism, and with undue delineation of one social class, but there is no despair in his own outlook upon human destiny as a whole. The early stories sometimes dwell to excess on the mere framework of opulence; but the pathology of moral irresolution, of complicated affairs of the heart, of the ironies of friendship, in which the writer revels, can be more appropriately studied in a cultured and leisured society than amid the simpler surroundings of humbler men and women. Bourget's writing is singularly graceful. His knowledge of foreign literature gives him a greater flexibility and a finer allusiveness than most of his contemporaries could achieve. The precision which makes for some dull pages of the novels is an almost unmixed merit in the critical essays. As a critic, either of art or letters, Bourget was outstanding.

One of his poems was the inspiration for an art song by Claude Debussy titled Beau Soir.Other settings by Debussy of poems by Bourget include 'Romance' and 'Les Cloches'.

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