for "the British Peace", modelled after
) was the period of relative peace
when the British Empire
controlled most of the key
naval trade routes and enjoyed unchallenged sea power
to a period of British imperialism after
the 1815 Battle of
Waterloo, which led to a period of overseas British
Britain dominated overseas markets and managed
to influence and almost dominate Chinese markets after the Opium Wars
The Empire's strength was guaranteed by dominance of a Europe
lacking in strong nation states
the presence of the Royal Navy
on all of
the world's oceans and seas. In 1905, the Royal Navy was superior
in strength to the next two largest navies combined (known as the
'two power rule
This led to the spread of the English
, the British Imperial system
, and rules for commodity markets
based on English common law
The Pax Britannica
was weakened by the breakdown of the
continental order established by the Congress of Vienna
. Relations between the
Great Powers of Europe were strained to breaking point by issues
such as the decline of the Ottoman
Empire, which lead to the Crimean
War, and later the emergence of new nation states in the form
of Italy and Germany after the
of these two wars involved Europe's largest states and armies.
industrialisation of Germany, the
Japan, and the United States of America further contributed to the decline of British
industrial supremacy following the 1870s.
- The phrase was used by the British author Jan Morris as the title of the middle volume of a
trilogy about the rise and fall of the British Empire. The book surveyed the Empire
at the time of Queen
Victoria's Diamond Jubilee on
22 June, 1897. The first
volume of the trilogy was Heaven's Command, the last
Farewell the Trumpets.
- Pax Britannica is the title of a 1949 book by the
British writer and commentator F.
arguing that continuation of the British
Empire – in a fast process of dissolution at the time of
writing – was essential for the stability of the world.
- The phrase was used as the title of a 1985 Charles Roberts/Origins Award-winning board wargame by Greg Costikyan which, while out of print, is still popular as a play-by-mail and play-by-email game. The
game has rules governing the acquisition of colonial territories,
and declaration of war on other countries, but all wars only take
place in the Third World.
- The 1990 Album of the London industrial music group Test Dept was called Pax Britannica.
- One of the series of novels from Abaddon Books is called "Pax Britannia."
The Pax Britannica lasted for approximately a century. It ended
with the outbreak of the First World