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Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had won a victory against Protestantism in the Schmalkaldic War of 1547. Many Protestant princes were unhappy with the religious terms of the Augsburg Interim imposed after this victory. In January 1552, led by Maurice of Saxony, many formed an alliance with Henry II of France at the Treaty of Chambord. In return for French funding and assistance, Henry was promised lands in eastern Germany. In the ensuing Princes' War, Charles was driven out of Germany into Italy by the Protestant alliance, while Henry captured the fortresses of Metzmarker, Verdunmarker and Toulonmarker.

In August 1552, weary from three decades of religious civil war, Charles guaranteed Lutheran religious freedoms in the Peace of Passau. The implementation of the Augsburg Interim was cancelled. The Protestant princes taken prisoner during the Schmalkaldic War, John Frederick of Saxony and Philip of Hesse, were released. A precursor to the Peace of Augsburg of September, 1555, the Peace of Passaumarker effectively surrendered Charles V's lifelong quest for European religious unity.


  1. M Rady, The Emperor Charles V, (1988), p86
  2. M Jones, Clash of empires, (2000), p26

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