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A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends an armed conflict. It is different from an armistice, which is an agreement to cease hostilities, or a surrender, in which an army agrees to give up arms.

Elements of treaties

There are many possible issues which may be included in a peace treaty, and a treaty's content usually depends on the nature of the conflict being concluded. Some of these may be:



Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one international treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party.

In modern times certain intractable conflict situations may first be brought to a cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. A peace treaty also is often not used to end a civil war, especially in cases of a failed secession, as it implies mutual recognition of statehood. In cases such as the American Civil War, it usually ends when the armies of the losing side surrender and the government collapses.

By contrast, a successful secession or declaration of independence is often formalized by means of a peace treaty.

Role of UN

Since the founding of the United Nations after World War II this organization has sought to act as a forum for resolution in matters of international conflict and is often instrumental in peace processes and peace treaties. The number of international treaties and obligations member states are involved in which they seek to limit and control behavior during wartime has perhaps made the idea of total war less tenable. This has meant that formal declarations of war are frequently not undertaken and also a peace treaty at the end is also not entered in to. The Korean War is an example of a war which was suspended with a cease-fire but never closed with a treaty.

Famous peace treaties

Ancient history

One of the earliest recorded peace treaties was concluded between the Hittite and Egyptian empires after the ca.1274 BC Battle of Kadesh. The battle took place in what is modern-day Syriamarker, the entire Levant being at that time contested between the two empires. After an extremely costly four-day battle, in which neither side gained a substantial advantage, both sides claimed victory. The lack of resolution led to further conflict between Egypt and the Hittites with Ramesses II capturing the city of Kadesh and Amurru in his 8th Year. However, the prospect of further protracted conflict between the two states eventually persuaded both their rulers, Hatusiliš III and Ramesses to end their dispute and sign a peace treaty. Both sides could not afford the possibility of a longer conflict since they were threatened by other enemies: Egypt was faced with the task of defending her long western border with Libya against the incursion of Libyan tribesmen by building a chain of fortresses stretching from Mersa Matruh to Rakotis while the Hittites faced a more formidable threat in the form of the Assyrian Empire which "had conquered Hanigalbat, the heartland of Mitanni, between the Tigris and the Euphrates" rivers that had previously been a Hittite vassal state.

The peace treaty was recorded in two versions, one in Egyptian hieroglyphs, the other in Akkadian, using cuneiform script; fortunately, both versions survive. Such dual-language recording is common to many subsequent treaties. This treaty differs from others, however, in that the two language versions are differently worded. Although the majority of the text is identical, the Hittite version claims that the Egyptians came suing for peace, while the Egyptian version claims the reverse. The treaty was given to the Egyptians in the form of a silver plaque, and this "pocket-book" version was taken back to Egypt and carved into the Temple of Karnakmarker.

The Treaty was concluded between Ramesses II and Hatusiliš III in Year 21 of Ramesses' reign. (c.1258 BC) Its eighteen articles calls for peace between Egypt and Hatti and then proceeds to maintain that their respective gods also demand peace. It contains many elements found in more modern treaties, although it is perhaps more far-reaching than later treaties' simple declaration of the end of hostilities. It also contains a mutual-assistance pact in the event that one of the empires should be attacked by a third party, or in the event of internal strife. There are articles pertaining to the forced repatriation of refugees and provisions that they should not be harmed; this might be thought of as the first extradition treaty. There are also threats of retribution, should the treaty be broken.

This treaty is considered of such importance in the field of international relations that a reproduction of it hangs in the United Nations headquarters.

Modern history

Famous examples include the Treaty of Paris , signed after Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Waterloomarker, and the Treaty of Versailles, formally ending the First World War. The latter treaty is possibly the most notorious of peace treaties, in that it is "blamed" by some historians for the rise of National Socialism in Germany and the eventual outbreak of the Second World War. The costly reparations that Germany was forced to pay the victors, the fact that Germany had to accept sole responsibility for starting the war, and the harsh restrictions on German rearmament were all listed in the treaty and caused massive resentment in Germany. Whether the Treaty of Versailles can be blamed for starting another war or not, shows the difficulties involved in making peace.

Another famous example would be the series of peace treaties known as the Peace of Westphalia. It initiated modern diplomacy, involving the modern system of nation-states. Subsequent wars were no longer over religion, but rather revolved around issues of state. This allowed Catholic and Protestant powers to ally, leading to a number of major realignments.

See also



References

  1. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books: 1992, pp.256-257
  2. Grimal, op. cit., p.256
  3. Grimal, op. cit., p.257


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