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The peanut, or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is a species in the legume family (Fabaceae) native to South America, Mexico and Central America. It is an annual herbaceous plant growing tall. The leaves are opposite, pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal leaflet), each leaflet 1 to 7 cm (⅜ to 2¾ in) long and 1 to 3 cm (⅜ to 1 inch) broad. The flowers are a typical peaflower in shape, 2 to 4 cm (¾ to 1½ in) across, yellow with reddish veining. After pollination, the fruit develops into a legume long, containing 1 to 4 seeds, which forces its way underground to mature.

Peanuts are known by many local names, including earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas, monkey nuts and pig nuts; Monkey nuts is often used to mean the entire pod.

History

Texture detail


The domesticated peanut is an amphidiploid or allotetraploid, meaning that it has two sets of chromosomes from two different species. The wild ancestors of the peanut were thought to be A. duranensis and A. ipaensis, a view recently confirmed by direct comparison of the peanut's chromosomes with those of several putative ancestors. This domestication might have taken place in Argentina or Bolivia, where the wildest strains grow today. In fact, many pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Moche, depicted peanuts in their art.

Evidence demonstrates that peanuts were domesticated in prehistoric times in Perumarker. Archeologists have (thus far) dated the oldest specimens to about 7,600 years before the present. Cultivation spread as far as Mesoamerica where the Spanish conquistadors found the tlalcacahuatl (Nahuatl = "cacao", whence Mexican Spanish, cacahuate and French, cacahuète) being offered for sale in the marketplace of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). The plant was later spread worldwide by European traders.

The legume gained Western popularity when it came to the United States from Africa. It had become popular in Africa after being brought there from Brazilmarker by the Portuguese around 1800.

Cultivation

Peanut shells, with one split open revealing two seeds with their brown seed coats


The orange veined, yellow petaled, pea-like flower of the Arachis hypogaea is borne in auxiliary clusters above ground. Following self-pollination, the flowers fade and wither. The stalk at the base of the ovary, called the pedicel, elongates rapidly, and turns downward to bury the fruits several inches in the ground, where they complete their development. When the seed is mature, the seed coat (mesocarp) changes color from white to a reddish brown. The entire plant, including most of the roots, is removed from the soil during harvesting.

The pods act in nutrient absorption. The fruits have wrinkled shells that are constricted between pairs of the one to four (usually two) seeds per pod. The mature seeds resemble other legume seeds such as beans, but they have paper-thin seed coats, rather than the usual, hard legume seed coats.

Peanuts grow best in light, sandy loam soil. They require five months of warm weather, and an annual rainfall of or the equivalent in irrigation water.

The pods ripen 120 to 150 days after the seeds are planted. If the crop is harvested too early, the pods will be unripe. If they are harvested late, the pods will snap off at the stalk, and will remain in the soil.

Peanuts are particularly susceptible to contamination during growth and storage. Poor storage of peanuts can lead to an infection by the mold fungus Aspergillus flavus, releasing the toxic substance aflatoxin. The aflatoxin-producing molds exist throughout the peanut growing areas and may produce aflatoxin in peanuts when conditions are favorable to fungal growth.

Harvesting occurs in two stages. First a machine is used to cut off the main root of the peanut plant by cutting through the soil just below the level of the peanut pods. The machine lifts the "bush" from the ground and shakes it, then inverts the bush, leaving the plant upside down on the ground to keep the peanuts out of the dirt. This allows the peanuts to dry slowly to a bit less than a third of their original moisture level over a period of 3–4 days.

After the peanuts have dried sufficiently, they are thresh, removing the peanut pods from the rest of the bush. How peanuts are Grown - Harvesting - PCA. Retrieved 2009-02-10.

Cultivation in China and India

The peanut was introduced to China by Portuguese traders in the 1600s and another variety by American missionaries in the 1800s. They became popular and are featured in many Chinese dishes, often being boiled. During the 1980s peanut production began to increase greatly so that as of 2006 China was the world's largest peanut producer. A major factor in this increase has been China's move away from a communist economic system toward a free market system so that farmers are free to grow and market their crops as they decide..

Production

China leads in production of peanuts having a share of about 32.95% of overall world production, followed by India (18%) and the United States of America (6.8%).

Top ten producers of peanuts - 2008/2009
Country Production (Million Metric Tons)
14.30
6.25
2.34
1.55
1.25
1.00
0.85
0.71
0.58
0.50
World 34.43
Source: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service: Table 13 Peanut Area, Yield, and Production


Cultivars

Thousands of peanut cultivars are grown, with four major Cultivar Groups being the most popular: Spanish, Runner, Virginia, and Valencia. There are also Tennessee Red and Tennessee White groups. Certain Cultivar Groups are preferred for particular uses because of differences in flavor, oil content, size, shape, and disease resistance. For many uses the different cultivars are interchangeable. Most peanuts marketed in the shell are of the Virginia type, along with some Valencias selected for large size and the attractive appearance of the shell. Spanish peanuts are used mostly for peanut candy, salted nuts, and peanut butter. Most Runners are used to make peanut butter.

Peanut leaves and freshly dug pods
The various types are distinguished by branching habit and branch length. There are numerous varieties of each type of peanut. There are two main growth forms, bunch and runner. Bunch types grow upright, while runner types grow near the ground.

Each year new cultivars of peanuts are bred and introduced. Introducing a new cultivar may mean change in the planting rate, adjusting the planter, harvester, dryer, cleaner, sheller, and method of marketing.

Spanish group

The small Spanish types are grown in South Africa, and in the southwestern and southeastern U.S. Prior to 1940, 90% of the peanuts grown in Georgia, USAmarker were Spanish types, but the trend since then has been larger seeded, higher yielding, more disease resistant cultivars. Spanish peanuts have a higher oil content than other types of peanuts and in the U.S. are now primarily grown in Oklahomamarker and Texasmarker.

Cultivars of the Spanish group include "Dixie Spanish", "Improved Spanish 2B", "GFA Spanish", "Argentine", "Spantex", "Spanette", "Shaffers Spanish", "Natal Common (Spanish)", "White Kernel Varieties", "Starr", "Comet", "Florispan", "Spanhoma", "Spancross", "OLin", "Tamspan 90", "AT 9899-14", "Spanco" "Wilco I", "GG 2", "GG 4" and "TMV 2".

Runner group

Since 1940, the southeastern U.S. region has seen a shift to production of Runner group peanuts. This shift is due to good flavor, better roasting characteristics and higher yields when compared to Spanish types leading to food manufacturers' preference for use in peanut butter and salting. Georgia's production is now almost 100% Runner type.

Cultivars of Runners include "Southeastern Runner 56-15", "Dixie Runner", "Early Runner", "Virginia Bunch 67", "Bradford Runner", "Egyptian Giant" (also known as "Virginia Bunch" and "Giant"), "Rhodesian Spanish Bunch" (Valencia and Virginia Bunch), "North Carolina Runner 56-15", "Virugard", "Georgia Green", "Tamrun 96", "Flavor Runner 458", "Tamrun OL01", "Tamrun OL02" and "AT-108".
Roasted peanuts as snack food


Virginia group

The large seeded Virginia Group peanuts are grown in the following US states: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and parts of Georgia. They are increasing in popularity due to demand for large peanuts for processing, particularly for salting, confections, and roasting in the shells.

Virginia Group peanuts are either bunch or running in growth habit. The bunch type is upright to spreading. It attains a height of , and a spread of , with rows that seldom cover the ground. The pods are borne within 5 to 10 cm of the base of the plant.

Cultivars of Virginia type peanuts include NC 7, NC 9, NC 10C, NC-V 11, VA 93B, NC 12C, VA-C 92R, Gregory, VA 98R, Perry, Wilson, Hull, AT VC-2 and Shulamit.

Valencia group

Valencia Group peanuts are coarse, and they have heavy reddish stems and large foliage. In the U.S. large commercial production is primarily in Eastern New Mexicomarker, especially in and around Portales, New Mexicomarker, but they are grown on a small scale elsewhere in the South as the best flavored and preferred type for boiled peanuts. They are comparatively tall, having a height of and a spread of . Peanut pods are borne on pegs arising from the main stem and the side branches. Most of the pods are clustered around the base of the plant, and only a few are found several inches away. Valencia types are three seeded and smooth, with no constriction between the seeds. Seeds are oval and tightly crowded into the pods. There are two strains, one with flesh and the other with red seeds. Typical seed weight is 0.4 to 0.5 g.

Tennessee Red and Tennessee White groups

These are alike, except for the color of the seed. The plants are similar to Valencia types, except that the stems are green to greenish brown, and the pods are rough, irregular, and have a smaller proportion of kernels.

Uses

Peanuts are found in a wide range of grocery products.
Edible peanuts account for two-thirds of the total peanut use in the United States. Popular confections include salted peanuts, peanut butter (sandwiches, candy bars, and cups), peanut brittle, and shelled nuts (plain/roasted). Salted peanuts are usually roasted in oil and packed in retail size, plastic bags or hermetically sealed cans. Dry roasted, salted peanuts are also marketed in significant quantities. Peanuts are often a major ingredient in mixed nuts because of their inexpensiveness compared to Brazil nuts, cashews, walnuts, and so on. The primary use of peanut butter is in the home, but large quantities are also used in the commercial manufacture of sandwiches, candy, and bakery products. Boiled peanuts are a preparation of raw, unshelled green peanuts boiled in brine and typically eaten as a snack in the southern United States where most peanuts are grown. More recently, peanuts can be fried, where they can be eaten both shell and nut. Also peanuts are used in cosmetics, nitroglycerin, plastics, dyes and paints (See George Washington Carver).

Peanut Oil

Peanut oil is often used in cooking, because it has a mild flavor and its relatively high cooking temperature. It's high monounsaturated content makes it heart-healthy and resistant to rancidity.There are several types of peanut oil including: aromatic roasted peanut oil, refined peanut oil, extra virgin or cold pressed peanut oil and peanut extract. Studies have shown that refined peanut oil is safe for peanut allergic individuals because the protein is destroyed during the processing. In fact, refined peanut oil is exempt from allergen labeling laws.

Peanut Flour

Peanut flour is popular with culinary chefs because its high in protein content makes it an ideal flavor enhancer. Peanut flour is also used as a gluten-free solution and is lower in fat than peanut butter.

Cuisine

Peanuts are common ingredients in Peruvian Creole cuisine reflecting the marriage of native ingredients and ingredients introduced by Europeans. In one example peanuts are roasted along with hot peppers (both native to South America) and blended with roasted onions, garlic, and oil (all of European origin) to make a smooth sauce poured over boiled potatoes. This dish is especially famous in the city of Arequipa and is known as "papas con ocopa". Another example combines a similar mixture with sautéed seafood or boiled and shredded chicken in the form of a fricassee. These dishes are generally known as "Ajis" such as "Aji de Pollo" "Aji de Mariscos". One may find that not all cooks use peanuts in seafood "ajis". The combination of ground roasted peanuts suggests some Moorish and Middle Eastern influence in modern Peruvian cuisine, presumably through the Spanish conquistadores. It is well documented that Arab cuisine makes extensive use of ground and pastes of almonds, pine nuts and other nuts combined with rice, meats and vegetables to arrive to dishes like Rice Pilaf. In the Levantine, traditional Arab, Catalan, and Basque cuisines there is also a wide use of ground nuts. Although the peanut is not a nut it may be argued that the Spanish used the peanut along with local Peruvian ingredients to emulate their ancestral cuisine in the absence of almonds and pine nuts. Peanuts are also widely used in Southeast Asian cuisine, particularly Indonesia, where it is typically made into a spicy sauce. Peanuts originally came to Indonesia from the Philippinesmarker, where the legume came from Mexico in times of Spanish colonization.Common Indonesian peanut-based dishes include gado-gado, pecel, karedok and ketoprak, all vegetable salads mixed with peanut sauce, and the peanut-based dipping sauce for satay. Boiled peanuts are a popular Chinese snack and appetizer. Peanuts are also used in the Malimarker meat stew maafe, and in many sauces for South American meat dishes, especially rabbit.

Malnutrition

Peanuts are used to help malnutrition. Plumpy Nut and Medika Mamba are a high protein, high energy and high nutrient peanut-based paste that were developed to be used as a therapeutic food to aid in famine relief. Organizations like the World Health Organization, UNICEF, Project Peanut Butter and Doctors Without Borders have used these products to help save malnourished children in developing countries.

Other Uses

Like snack in Indiamarker

Peanuts or peanut shells are boiled in little salt water and eat them after good boil. And Indians roast peanut or peanut shells to brown color and eat them. or Indians roast peanut shells in oil with chillies and eat them. You get them in Indian grocery shops in India and world.

Peanuts are also very widely sold for garden bird feeding. Low grade or culled peanuts not suitable for the edible market are used in the production of peanut oil.

Peanuts have a variety of industrial end uses. Paint, varnish, lubricating oil, leather dressings, furniture polish, insecticides, and nitroglycerin are made from peanut oil. Soap is made from saponified oil, and many cosmetics contain peanut oil and its derivatives. The protein portion of the oil is used in the manufacture of some textile fibers.

Peanut shells are put to use in the manufacture of plastic, wallboard, abrasives, and fuel. They are also used to make cellulose (used in rayon and paper) and mucilage (glue).

Peanut plant tops are used to make hay. The protein cake (oilcake meal) residue from oil processing is used as an animal feed and as a soil fertilizer.

Peanuts can also be used like other legumes and grains to make a lactose-free milk-like beverage, Peanut milk

Nutritional value

Health benefits

Peanuts are nutrient rich, providing over 30 essential nutrients and phytonutrients. Peanuts are a good source of niacin, folate, fiber, magnesium, vitamin E, manganese and phosphorus. They also are naturally trans fat, sodium free and provide seven grams of protein per serving, the most protein of any nut.

While peanuts are considered high in fat, they primarily contain “good” fats also known as unsaturated fats. One serving of peanuts contains 11.5 g unsaturated fat and 2 g of saturated fat. In fact, peanuts have been linked well enough to their heart healthy benefits, in 2003, the Food and Drug Administration released a health claim recognizing peanuts in helping maintain your cholesterol.

The claim states:Scientific evidence suggests, but does not prove, that eating 1.5 ounces per day of most nuts, including peanuts as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease.

Some brands of peanut butter are fortified with Omega-3 in the form of flaxseed oil to balance the ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6.

Niacin

Peanuts are a good source of niacin and thus contribute to brain health, brain circulation and blood flow.

Peanuts and antioxidants

Recent research on peanuts and nuts in general has found antioxidants and other chemicals that may provide health benefits. New research shows peanuts rival the antioxidant content of many fruits. Roasted peanuts rival the antioxidant content of blackberries and strawberries, and are far richer in antioxidants than apples, carrots or beets. Research conducted by a team of University of Florida scientists, published in the journal Food Chemistry, shows that peanuts contain high concentrations of antioxidant polyphenols, primarily a compound called p-coumaric acid, and that roasting can increase peanuts' p-coumaric acid levels, boosting their overall antioxidant content by as much as 22%.

Peanuts as a source of resveratrol

Peanuts are a significant source of resveratrol, a chemical studied for potential anti-aging effects and also associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced cancer risk.

It has recently been found that the average amount of resveratrol in one ounce of commonly eaten peanuts without the skin (15 whole peanut kernels) is 73 μg. This means that ounce for ounce, peanuts contain almost 30 times as much resveratrol as grapes, which often are touted as being one of the few good sources of the antioxidant.

Peanuts and coenzyme Q10

Peanuts are a source of Coenzyme Q10 along with oily fish, beef, soybeans and spinach.

Health concerns

Allergies

Shelled Peanuts with skin


Although many people enjoy foods made with peanuts, some people (0.6% - 1% of the US population) have mild to severe allergic reactions. For some people with peanut allergy, exposure can cause fatal anaphylactic shock. For these individuals, eating a small amount of peanut or just breathing the dust from peanuts can cause a fatal reaction. An allergic reaction also can be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed peanuts, making the avoidance of such food difficult.

A theory of the development of peanut allergy has to do with the way that peanuts are processed in North America versus other countries like China and India. Peanuts are widely eaten in China and India but peanut allergies are almost unheard of there. According to a 2003 study, roasting peanuts, as more commonly done in North America, causes the major peanut allergen Ara h2 to become a stronger inhibitor of the digestive enzyme trypsin, making it more resistant to digestion. Additionally, this allergen has also been shown to protect Ara h1, another major peanut allergen, from digestion - a characteristic further enhanced by roasting.

Another theory, called the Hygiene Hypothesis, states that a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents like germs and parasites, could be causing the increase of food allergies.

Recent (2008) studies comparing age of peanut introduction in Great Britain with introduction in Israel appear to show that delaying exposure to peanuts can dramatically increase the risk of developing peanut allergies.

Though the allergy can last a lifetime, another 2003 study indicates that 23.3% of children will outgrow a peanut allergy.

Peanut allergy has been associated with the use of skin preparations containing peanut oil among children, but the evidence is not regarded as conclusive. Peanut allergies have also been associated with family history and intake of soy products.

Some school districts have banned peanuts,. There are experimental techniques which appear to have desensitized some allergic individuals.. The most popular technique, oral immunotherapy, works to create desensitization in those peanut allergic by feeding them small amounts of peanut until their body builds a defense to it.

Research indicates that refined peanut oil will not cause allergic reactions in most people with peanut allergies. However, crude (unrefined) peanut oils are strongly flavoured, and have been shown to contain protein, which may cause allergic reactions.

In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 60 people with proven peanut allergy were challenged with both crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. The authors conclude that “Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided.” They also state that, “Refined peanut oil does not seem to pose a risk to most people with peanut allergy.” However, they point out that refined peanut oil can still pose a risk to peanut-allergic individuals if oil that has previously been used to cook foods containing peanuts is reused.

Peanuts and aflatoxin

Peanuts may be contaminated with the mold Aspergillus flavus which produces a carcinogenic substance called aflatoxin. Lower quality specimens, particularly where mold is evident, are more likely to be contaminated. USDA tests every truckload of raw peanuts for aflatoxin, any containing aflatoxin levels of more than 20 parts per billion are destroyed. The Peanut Industry has manufacturing steps in place to ensure all peanuts are inspected for aflatoxin. Peanuts are also processed at a high temperature to ensure any microorganisms are killed.

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) program

Peanut flower
George Washington Carver is often credited with inventing 300 different uses for peanuts (which, contrary to popular belief, did not include peanut butter but did include salted peanuts). Carver was one of many USDA researchers who encouraged cotton farmers in the South to grow peanuts instead of, or in addition to cotton, because cotton had depleted so much nitrogen from the soil, and one of the peanut's properties as a legume is to put nitrogen back into the soil (a process known as nitrogen fixation). Rising demand for peanuts in the early 1900s was not due to Carver's products but to a shortage of plant oils during World War I and the growing popularity of peanut butter, roasted peanuts and peanut candies. Peanut products originating around the early 1900s include many brands still sold today such as Cracker Jack (1893), Planters peanuts (1906), Oh Henry! candy bar (1920), Baby Ruth candy bar (1920), Butterfinger candy bar (1923), Mr. Goodbar candy bar (1925), Reese's Peanut Butter Cup (1925), Peter Pan (1928).

Peanuts were designated by the U.S. Congress to be one of America's basic crops. In order to protect domestic industry by keeping prices artificially high, the United States Department of Agriculturemarker (USDA) aids peanut farmers through commodity programs. In the 2008 Farm Bill, the marketing quota for peanuts was eliminated and the Price Support Program was switched to a Direct and Counter-Cyclical Payment Program. Direct and counter-cyclical payments provide benefits to producers with eligible historical production of peanuts whenever the effective price is less than the targeted price.

Trade



The major producers/exporters of peanuts are the United States, Argentinamarker, Sudanmarker, Senegalmarker, and Brazilmarker. These five countries account for 71% of total world exports. In recent years, the United States has been the leading exporter of peanuts. The major peanut importers are the European Union (EU), Canada, and Japan. These three areas account for 78% of the world's imports.

Although India and China are the world's largest producers of peanuts, they account for a small part of international trade because most of their production is consumed domestically as peanut oil. Exports of peanuts from India and China are equivalent to less than 4% of world trade.

Ninety percent of India's production is processed into peanut oil. Only a nominal amount of hand-picked select-grade peanuts are exported. India prohibits the importation of all oil seeds, including peanuts.

The European Union is the largest consuming region in the world that does not produce peanuts. All of its consumption is supplied by imports. Consumption of peanuts in the EU is primarily as food, mostly as roasted-in-shell peanuts and as shelled peanuts used in confectionery and bakery products.

The average annual U.S. imports of peanuts are less than 0.5% of U.S. consumption. Two thirds of U.S. imports are roasted, unshelled peanuts. The major suppliers are Taiwanmarker, Malaysiamarker, Hong Kong, Mainland China, and Canada. The principal suppliers of shelled peanut imports are Argentinamarker and Canada. Most of Canada's peanut butter is processed from Chinese peanuts. Imports of peanut butter from Argentina are in the form of a paste and must be further processed in the U.S. Other minor suppliers of peanut butter include Malawimarker, China, India, and Singaporemarker.

Approximately 50% of all peanuts produced in the United States are grown within a radius of Dothan, Alabamamarker. Dothan is home to the National Peanut Festival established in 1938 and held each fall to honor peanut growers and celebrate the harvest.

See also







Footnotes

  1. http://www.wordwebonline.com/en/MONKEYNUT
  2. Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  3. Timothy H. Sanders, Robert W. McMichael, Jr., Keith W. Hendrix (2000): Occurrence of resveratrol in edible peanuts. J Agric Food Chem 48:1243 -1246. link
  4. Soheila J. Maleki, Olga Viquez, Thomas Jacks, Hortense Dodo, Elaine T. Champagne, Si-Yin Chung and Samuel J. Landry. "The major peanut allergen, Ara h 2, functions as a trypsin inhibitor, and roasting enhances this function." Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112.1 (July 2003): 190-195.
  5. Food allergy advice may be peanuts, Science News magazine, December 6, 2008
  6. Høst A et al. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. 2008. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Vol. 19, p. 1-4
  7. David M. Fleischer, Mary Kay Conover-Walker, Lynn Christie, A. Wesley Burks and Robert A. Wood. "The natural progression of peanut allergy: Resolution and the possibility of recurrence." Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112.1 (July 2003): 183-189.
  8. Lack G, Fox D, Northstone K, Golding J. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348:977–985 on-line
  9. ibid. (for "family history" and "use of soy products")
  10. Hoffman DR, Collins-Williams C. Cold-pressed peanut oils may contain peanut allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93:801-2.
  11. Hourihane JO, Bedwani SJ, Dean TP, Warner JO. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts. British Medical Journal 1997 314: 1084 (12 April) online
  12. Morinaga & Co., Proportion of aflatoxin B1 contaminated kernels and its concentration in imported peanut samples 2001 Aug;42(4):237-42. (PMID 11817138)
  13. List of By-Products From Peanuts By George Washington Carver (as compiled by the Carver Museum)
  14. Handy, R.B. 1895. Peanuts: Culture and Uses. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 25.
  15. Newman, C.L. 1904. Peanuts. Fayetteville, Arkansas: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
  16. Beattie, W.R. 1909. Peanuts. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 356.
  17. Ferris, E.B. 1909. Peanuts. Agricultural College, Mississippi: Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station.
  18. Beattie, W.R. 1911. The Peanut. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 431.
  19. Rich, J.P. 1915. Uses of the Peanut on the Home Table. Farmer's Bulletin 13. University of Texas, Austin.
  20. Carver, G.W. 1916. How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption. Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 31. on-line
  21. Pages 412-413 of "Crop Production: Evolution, History, and Technology." by C. Wayne Smith, 1995. (ISBN 0-471-07972-3)


References



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