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Pederasty or paederasty ( , ) is a (usually erotic) relationship between an older man and an adolescent boy outside his immediate family. The word pederasty derives from Greek ( ) "love of boys", a compound derived from (pais) "child, boy" and (erastēs) "lover".

Historically, pederasty has existed as a variety of customs and practices within different cultures. The status of pederasty has changed over the course of history, at times considered an ideal and at other times a crime.In the history of Europe, its most structured cultural manifestation was Athenian pederasty, and became most prominent in the 6th century BC. Greek pederasty's various forms were the subject of philosophic debates in which the carnal type was unfavorably compared with erotic yet spiritual and moderate forms.

The legal status of pederasty in most countries is currently determined by whether or not the boy has reached the local age of consent. Illegal forms of pederasty for the purposes of law enforcement fall under child sexual abuse.

Expressions

Anthropologists propose three subdivisions of homosexuality as age-structured, egalitarian and gender-structured. Pederasty is the archetypal example of male age-structured homosexuality.Geoffrey Gorer and others distinguish pederasty from pedophilia, which he defined as a separate fourth type that he described as "grossly pathological in all societies of which we have record." According to Gorer, the main characteristic of homosexual pederasty is the age difference (either of generation or age-group) between the partners. In his study of native cultures, pederasty appears typically as a passing stage in which the adolescent is the beloved of an older male, who may act as a mentor. He remains as such until he reaches a certain developmental threshold, after which he in turn takes on an adolescent beloved of his own. This model is judged by Gorer as socially viable, i.e. not likely to give rise to psychological discomfort or neuroses for all or most males. He adds that in many societies, such as ancient Greece, pederasty has been the main subject of the arts and the main source of tender and elevated emotions.

Pederasty has been used for the purpose of coming-of-age rituals, the acquisition of virility and manly virtue, education, and development of military skill and ethics. These were often paralleled by the commercial use of boys for sexual gratification, going so far as enslavement and castration. The evanescent beauty of adolescent boys has been a topos in poetry and art, from Classical times to the Middle East, the Near East and Central Asia, imperial China, pre-modern Japanmarker, the European Renaissance and into modern times.

The Western model of age-similar homosexual relations, contemporary in modern industrialized societies, is seen by researchers as a departure from this norm. It was rarely the pattern in other times and places. Unlike the other models, it ‘assumes that homosexuality is not merely a behavior, but something innate to a person’s real being.’

Age range

Some modern observers restrict the age of the younger partner to "generally between twelve and seventeen", though historically the spread was somewhat greater. The younger partner must, in some sense, not be fully mature; this could include young men in their late teens or early twenties.

While relationships in ancient Greece involved boys from 12 to about 17 or 18 (Cantarella, 1992), in Renaissance Italy, the boys were typically between 14 and 19, and in Japan the younger member ranged in age from 11 to about 19 (Saikaku, 1990; Schalow, 1989).

Historical synopsis

Man and youth.
Cretan ex-voto from Hermes and Aphrodite shrine at Kato Syme; Bronze, ca. 670-650 BC


In antiquity, pederasty was seen as an educational institution for the inculcation of moral and cultural values by the older man to the younger, as well as a form of sexual expression. It entered representation in history from the Archaic period onwards in Ancient Greece, though Cretan ritual objects reflected an already formalized practice date to the late Minoan civilization, around 1650 BC. According to Plato, in ancient Greece, pederasty was a relationship and bond – whether sexual or chaste – between an adult man and an adolescent boy outside his immediate family. While most Greek men engaged in sexual relations with both women and boys, exceptions to the rule were known, some avoiding relations with women, and others rejecting relations with boys. In Rome, relations with boys took a more informal and less civic path, with older men either taking advantage of dominant social status to extract sexual favors from their social inferiors, or carrying on illicit relationships with freeborn boys.

Analogous relations were documented among other ancient peoples, such as the Thracians, the Celts. According to Plutarch, the ancient Persians, too, had long practiced it, an opinion seconded by Sextus Empiricus who asserted that the laws of the Persians "recommended" the practice.Herodotus, however, asserts they learned copulation with boys (παισὶ μίσγονται) from the Greeks, by the use of that term reducing their practice to what John Addington Symonds describes as the "vicious form" of pederasty, as opposed to the more restrained and cultured one valued by the Greeks. Plutarch, however, counters Herodotus by pointing out that the Persians had been castrating boys long before being exposed to the mores of the Greeks.

Opposition to the carnal aspects of pederasty existed concurrently with the practice, both within and outside of the cultures in which it was found. Among the Greeks, a few cities prohibited it, and in others, such as Sparta, only the chaste form of pederasty was permitted, according to Xenophon and others. Likewise, Plato's writings devalue and finally condemn sexual intercourse with the boys one loved, while valuing the self-disciplined lover who abstained from consummating the relationship.

Judaism and Christianity condemned sodomy (while defining that term variously, but including relations between males). Islam also prohibited the practice, as did the Baha'i Faith.

Within this blanket condemnation of sodomy, pederasty in particular was a target. The second-century preacher Clement of Alexandria used divine pederasty as an indictment of Greek religion and the mythological figures of Herakles, Apollo, Poseidon, Laius, and Zeus: "For your gods did not abstain even from boys. One loved Hylas, another Hyacinthus, another Pelops, another Chrysippus, another Ganymedes. These are the gods your wives are to worship!" Early legal codes prescribed harsh penalties for violators. The law code of the Visigothic king Chindasuinth called for both partners to be "emasculated without delay, and be delivered up to the bishop of the diocese where the deed was committed to be placed in solitary confinement in a prison." These punishments were often linked to the penance given after the Sacrament of Confession. At Romemarker, the punishment was burning at the stake since the time of Theodosius I (390). Nonetheless the practice continued to surface, giving rise to proverbs such as With wine and boys around, the monks have no need of the Devil to tempt them, an early Christian saying from the Middle East.

Pederasty was notable in Moorish Spainmarker. It was present in Tuscany and northern Italymarker during the Renaissance. It also was documented in medieval and Tsarist Russiamarker.

Elsewhere, it was practiced in pre-Modern Japan until the Meiji restoration.

Sexual expression between adults and adolescents is not well studied. Since the 1990s, it has been often been conflated with pedophilia. Nonetheless, such relationships have raised issues of morality and functionality, agency for the youth, and parental authority. They also raise issues of legality in those cases where the minor is below the age of consent. Homosexual pederasty was

deemed beneficial by ancient philosophers, Japanese samurai, and modern writers such as Oscar Wilde. In many societies, it was justified on the grounds that love was the best foundation for teaching courage as well as civic and cultural values, and that man-boy relations were superior to relations with a woman.

Etymology and usage

“Pederasty” derives from the combination of “ ” (the Greek stem for boy or child) with “ ” (Greek for lover; cf. “eros”). Late Latin “pæderasta” was borrowed in the sixteenth century directly from Plato’s classical Greek in The Symposium. (Latin transliterates “ ” as “ae”.) The word first appeared in the English language during the Renaissance, as “pæderastie” (e.g. in Samuel Purchas' Pilgrimage.), in the sense of sexual relations between men and boys. Beside its use in the classical sense, the term has also been used as a synonym for anal sex, irrespective of the nature of the partner. A nineteenth century sex treatise discusses men practicing the "insertion of the penis into the anus of women," as "pederasty with their wives."

The commonly accepted reference definitions of pederasty refer to a sexual relationship, or to copulation, between older and younger males. The OED offers: "Homosexual relations between a man and a boy; homosexual anal intercourse, usually with a boy or younger man as the passive partner." The concise OED has: “Sexual intercourse between a man and a boy.” When describing pederasts, some focus solely on the mechanics of copulation, such as the Merriam-Webster (on-line edition): “one who practices anal intercourse especially with a boy”. Other dictionaries offer a more general definition, such as "homosexual relations between men and boys" or "homosexual relations, especially between a male adult and a boy or young man." The limitation of pederasty to anal sex with a boy is contested by sexologists. Francoeur regards it as "common but incorrect," while Haeberle describes it as "a modern usage resulting from a misunderstanding of the original term and ignorance of its historical implications."

Academic and social studies sources propose more expansive definitions of the term. The Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture offers “The erotic relationship between an adult male and a youth, generally one between the ages of twelve and seventeen, in which the older partner is attracted to the younger one who returns his affection.” The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality suggests "Pederasty is the erotic relationship between an adult male and a boy, generally one between the ages of twelve and seventeen, in which the older partner is attracted to the younger one who returns his affection, whether or not the liaison leads to overt sexual contact."

Social class factors

In Athens, the slaves were expressly forbidden from entering into pederastic relations with the free-born boys. In medieval Islamic civilization, pederastic relations "were so readily accepted in upper-class circles that there was often little or no effort to conceal their existence."

The ancient world



The Greeks

Main articles: Pederasty in Ancient Greece and Philosophy of Greek pederasty


Plato was an early critic of sexual intercourse in pederastic relationships, proposing that men's love of boys avoid all carnal expression and instead progress from admiration of the lover's specific virtues to love of virtue itself in abstract form. While copulation with boys was often criticized and seen as shameful and brutish, other aspects of the relationship were considered beneficial, as indicated in proverbs such as A lover is the best friend a boy will ever have.

The pederastic relationship had to be approved by the boy's father. Boys entered into such relationships in their teens, around the same age that Greek girls were given in marriage. The mentor was expected to teach the young man or to see to his education, and to give him certain appropriate ceremonial gifts.



The physical dimension ranged from fully chaste to sexual intercourse. Pederastic art shows seduction scenes as well as sexual relations. In the seduction scenes the man is standing, grasping the boy's chin with one hand and reaching to fondle his genitals with the other. In the sexual scenes, the partners stand embracing face to face, the older of the two engaged in intercrural sex with the younger, who (usually but not always) does not show arousal. Anal sex is almost never shown, and then only as something eliciting surprise in the observers. The practice was ostensibly disparaged, the Athenians often naming it jocularly after their Dorian neighbors ("cretanize," "laconize," "chalcidize"). While historians such as Dover and Halperin hold that only the man experienced pleasure, art and poetry indicate reciprocity of desire, and other historians assert that it is "a modern fairy tale that the younger eromenos was never aroused."

Pederastic couples were said to be feared by tyrants, because the bond between the friends was stronger than that of obedience to a tyrannical ruler. Plutarch gives as examples the Athenians Harmodius and Aristogeiton. Others, such as Aristotle, claimed that the Cretan lawgivers encouraged pederasty as a means of population control, by directing love and sexual desire into relations with males.

The Romans

Jupiter abducting Ganymede; 1st c.
CE Roman statue


From the early Republican times of Ancient Rome, it was perfectly normal for a man to desire and pursue boys. However, penetration was illegal for free born youths; the only boys who were legally allowed to perform as a passive sexual partner were slaves or former slaves known as "freedmen", and then only with regard to their former masters. For slaves there was no protection under the law even against rape.

The result was that in Roman times, pederasty largely lost its function as a ritual part of education and was instead seen as an activity primarily driven by one's sexual desires and competing with desire for women. The social acceptance of pederastic relations waxed and waned during the centuries. Conservative thinkers condemned it — along with other forms of indulgence. Tacitus attacks the Greek customs of "gymnasia et otia et turpes amores" (palaestrae, idleness, and shameful loves). The emperors, however, indulged in male love — most of it of a pederastic nature — almost to a man. As Edward Gibbon mentions, of the first fifteen emperors, "Claudius was the only one whose taste in love was entirely correct" — the implication being that he was the only one not to take men or boys as lovers.

Other writers spent no effort censuring pederasty per se, but praised or blamed its various aspects. Martial appears to have favored it, going as far as to essentialize not the sexual use of the catamite but his nature as a boy: upon being discovered by his wife "inside a boy" and offered the "same thing" by her, he retorts with a list of mythological personages who, despite being married, took young male lovers, and concludes by rejecting her offer since "a woman merely has two vaginas."

Christianity

The Old Testament book of Leviticus decrees death as the punishment for a number of sexual improprieties including carnal relations between men. However, few factions of Christianity interpret Levitical law as applying to contemporary society.

Within some early second century Christian communities even speech about pederasty was suppressed: "Conversation about deeds of wickedness is appropriately termed filthy (shameful) speaking, as talk about adultery and pederasty and the like," and was to be "put to silence."

There are two pericopes found in two of the synoptic gospels (Matthew 8:5-13 and Luke 7:1-10) which recount the same story in slightly different terms. The same basic story is found in each book, which recounts the healing of a "beloved slave," (it is this translation that leads to the argument below, alternatives are "dear" or "valuable"). According to T. W. Jennings, professor of biblical and constructive theology at the Chicago Theological Seminarymarker, this translation supports the inference that the centurion's servant healed by Jesus was the centurion's beloved, and this narrative "as Jesus' acceptance of, and even collaboration in a pederastic relationship."

Countering this is the traditional response which points out the high level of conjecture required by this argument, and sees its conclusion as unwarranted, and theologically untenable.

Other venues

Pederasty in ancient times was not the exclusive domain of the Greeks and Romans. Athenaeus in the Deipnosophists states that the Celts also partook and despite the beauty of their women, preferred the love of boys. Some would regularly bed down on their animal skins with a lover on each side. Other writers also attest to Celtic pederasty: Aristotle (Politics, II 6.6. Athen. XIII 603a.), Strabo (iv. 199), and Diodorus Siculus (v. 32)). Some moderns have interpreted Athenaeus as meaning that the Celts had a boy on each side, but that interpretation is questioned by Hubbard, who reads it as meaning that they had a boy one side and a woman on the other. (Hubbard, 2003; p. 79) The Sibylline oracles claim that only the Jews were free from this impurity:
[The Jews] are mindful of holy wedlock,

and they do not engage in impious intercourse with male children,

as do Phoenicians, Egyptians and Romans,

spacious Greece and many nations of other,

Persians and Galatians and all Asia, transgressing

the holy law of immortal God, which they transgressed.

Persian pederasty and its origins was debated even in ancient times. Herodotus claimed they had learned it from the Greeks: "From the Greeks they have learned to lie with boys." However, Plutarch asserts that the Persians used eunuch boys to that end long before contact between the cultures. In either case, Plato claimed they saw fit to forbid it to the inhabitants of the lands they occupied, since "It does not suit the rulers that their subjects should think noble thoughts, nor that they should form the strong friendships and attachments which these activities, and in particular love, tend to produce."

Post-classical and modern forms

The Middle East and Central Asia



In pre-modern Islam there was a "widespread conviction that beardless youths possessed a temptation to adult men as a whole, and not merely to a small minority of deviants."

In central Asia the practice is reputed to have long been widespread, and remains a part of the culture, as exemplified by the proverb, Women for breeding, boys for pleasure, but melons for sheer delight. In the Ottoman Empire culture, young male dancers, usually cross-dressed in feminine attire, were called Köçek.



In post-Islamic Persia, where, as Louis Crompton claims, "boy love flourished spectacularly", art and literature also made frequent use of the pederastic topos. These celebrate the love of the wine boy, as do the paintings and drawings of artists such as Reza Abbasi (1565 1635). Western travelers reported that at Abbas' court (some time between 1627 and 1629) they saw evidence of homoerotic practices. Male houses of prostitution amrad khaneh, "houses of the beardless", were legally recognized and paid taxes.

Osman Agha of Temeşvarmarker who fell captive to the Austrians in 1688 wrote in his memoirs that one night an Austrian boy approached him for sex, telling him "for I know all Turks are pederasts".

In 1770s, Âşık Sadık the poet wrote, in an address to the Sultan: Lût kavmi döğüşür, put kavmi bozar. Askerin lûtîdir, bil Padişahım ("The people of Lot fight, the people of idolatry spoil. Know, my Sultan, that your soldiers are sodomites"). Studies of Ottoman criminal law, which is based on the Sharia, reveal that persistent sodomy with non-consenting boys was a serious offense and those convicted faced capital punishment.

China



Men's sexual interest in youths was reflected in prostitution, with young male sex workers fetching higher prices than their female counterparts as recently as the beginning of the twentieth century. In Tianjinmarker there were thirty-five male brothels, housing 800 boys, and men from the area were assumed to be expert in anal relations. Though the superintendent of trade at Guangzhoumarker issued an annual warning to the population against permitting westerners access to boy prostitutes ("do not indulge the Western barbarian with all our best favors"), Europeans were increasingly welcomed in the boy brothels.

Japan

In Japan, the practice of shudō(衆道), "the Way of the Young", paralleled closely the course of European pederasty. It was prevalent in the religious community and samurai society from the mediaeval period on, and eventually grew to permeate all of society. It fell out of favor around the end of the 19th century, concurrently with the growing European influence.

Its legendary founder is Kūkai, also known as Kōbō Daishi, the founder of the Shingon school of Buddhism, who is said to have brought the teachings of male love over from China, together with the teachings of the Buddha. Monks often entered into love relationships with beautiful youths known as " chigo (稚児)", which were recorded in literary works known as "chigo monogatari (「稚児物語」)".

Korea

One of the earliest mentions of male attraction to boys is that of Gongmin of Goryeo (r. 1351–1374), the 31st king of the Goryeo dynasty, who was famous for his predilection for falling in love with young boys. After the death of his wife in 1365, he is reputed to have spent his time in the practice of Buddhism and relations with boys, establishing an organization for their recruitment.

Paul Michaut, a French physician writing in 1893, described Korea as a country where "[p]ederasty is general, it is part of the mores; it is practiced publicly, in the street, without the least reprobation." He associated its prevalence with that of syphilis, which was likewise general.

North America

"Of the Koniagas of Kodiak Islandmarker and the Thinkleets we read, 'The most repugnant of all their practices is that of male concubinage. A Kodiak mother will select her handsomest and most promising boy, and dress and rear him as a girl, teaching him only domestic duties, keeping him at women's work, associating him with women and girls, in order to render his effeminacy complete. Arriving at the age of ten or fifteen years, he is married to some wealthy man who regards such a companion as a great acquisition. These male concubines are called Achnutschik or Schopans' (the authorities quoted being Holmberg, Langsdorff, Billing, Choris, Lisiansky and Marchand). The same is the case in Nutka Sound and the Aleutian Islandsmarker, where 'male concubinage obtains throughout, but not to the same extent as amongst the Koniagas.' The objects of unnatural affection have their beards carefully plucked out as soon as the face-hair begins to grow, and their chins are tattooed like those of the women. In Californiamarker the first missionaries found the same practice, the youths being called Joya."

Central America

Though early Mayans are thought to have been strongly antagonistic to same-sex relationships, later Mayan states employed pederastic practices. Their introduction was ascribed to the god Chin. One aspect was that of the father procuring a younger lover for his son. Juan de Torquemada mentions that if the (younger) boy was seduced by a stranger, the penalty was equivalent to that for adultery. In the 16th century,Bernal Diaz reported seeing statues of male pairs making love in the temples at Cape Catoche, Yucatanmarker.

Europe

Pederastic eros in the West, while remaining mostly hidden, has nevertheless revealed itself in a variety of settings. Legal records are one of the more important windows into this secret world, since for much of the time pederastic relations, like other forms of homosexual relations, were illegal. The expression of desire through literature and art, albeit in coded fashion, can also afford a view of the pederastic interests of the author.

Reflecting the conflicted outlook on male loves, some northern European writers ascribed pederastic tendencies to populations in southern latitudes. Richard Francis Burton evolved his theory of the Sotadic zone, an area bounded roughly by N. Lat. 43° N. Lat. 30°, stretching from the western shores of the Mediterranean Seamarker to the Pacific Oceanmarker. Likewise, Wilhelm Kroll, writing in the Pauly-Wissowa encyclopaedia in 1906, asserted that "The roots of pederasty are found first of all in the existence of a contrary sexual feeling that is probably more frequent in southern regions than in countries with moderate climates."

The Renaissance

The Renaissance was a period that saw a rediscovery or renewed interest in the philosophy and art of the Classical period. The Roman Catholic Church suppressed homosexual and pederastic expressions of attraction, especially through the machinery of the Inquisition, most infamously the Spanish Inquisition. The Church could not repress all expressions of pederastic desire. According to an encyclopedia of GLBTQ culture, "The most conventional object of homoerotic desire [in art] was the adolescent youth, usually imagined as beardless."

Albania

As late as the mid-1800s, Albanianmarker young men between 16 and 24 seduced boys from about 12 to 17. In the literature, the lover is called ashik and the beloved, dyllber. A Geg married at the age of 24 or 25, and then he usually, but not always, gave up boy-love.

Russia

Medieval Russia was known for its tolerance towards homosexuality. . As well as other forms of homosexuality, pederasty was very common. The beardless youth was seen as alternative to women. When an adolescent began to shave, he might be invited to sodomy by men.

The banya, traditional Russian-style bath houses, in particular were places where men would go to have sex with teenage boys who worked there. The boys used birch branches on the men, and rubbed their backs.Later on, from the 18th-century onwards, the bath houses still thrived. In addition, cadet schools, the Page Corps, and the Imperial School of Jurisprudence were hotbeds of homosexual activity between boys.

Russia's laws were lenient compared to those of Western Europe. Homosexuality was only made illegal for soldiers at the beginning of the 18th century; it was prohibited for the rest of society in the 1830s. The new laws were not strictly enforced. At the end of the 19th century, St. Petersburg had a thriving homosexual culture.

England



In Englandmarker into the 20th century, public boarding schools were limited to boys and all the teachers were male. Some upper class boys were sent to boarding school by age 7 or 8, and they studied there through the adolescent years. Some teachers justified homosexual relationships based on the Classics, both between the older and younger boys, and between teachers and boys. However, there were some scandals around such relationships. In the mid-19th century, William Johnson Cory, a renowned master at Eton from 1845 until his forced resignation in 1872, evolved a style of pedagogic pederasty which influenced a number of his pupils. His Ionica, a work of poetry reflecting his pederastic sensibilities, was read in intellectual circles and “made a stir” at Oxford in 1859. Oscar Browning, another Eton master and former student of Cory, followed in his tutor’s footsteps, only to be likewise dismissed in 1875. Both are thought to have influenced Oxford don Walter Pater, whose aesthetics promoted pederasty as the truest expression of classical culture.

Also in 19th-century England, pederasty was a theme in the work of several writers known as the "Uranian poets". Although most of the writers of Uranian poetry and prose are today considered minor literary figures, the prominent Uranian representatives --- Walter Pater, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and Oscar Wilde -- are figures of worldwide renown. Hopkins and Wilde were both deeply influenced by Pater's work. Wilde wrote of pederastic and homoerotic culture—though not in the "elevated" pederastic sense that it held for Pater and Hopkins -- in a number of works. In the case of Hopkins, "Hopkins often was, it must be admitted, strikingly Ruskinian in his love of Aristotelian particulars and their arrangements; however, it was at the foot of Pater -- the foremost Victorian unifier of ‘eros, pedagogy, and aesthetics’ -- that Hopkins would ever remain." Another notable late 19th-century writer on pederasty was John Addington Symonds, whose essays, "A Problem in Greek Ethics" and "A Problem in Modern Ethics", were among the first defenses of homosexuality in the English language.

Reaction and retrenchment

The end of the 19th century saw increasing conflict over the issue of social acceptance of pederasty. A number of other pederastic scandals erupted around this time, such as the one involving the Germanmarker industrialist Friedrich Alfred Krupp, which drove him to suicide, by some reports. In the same vein, in a work that was to influence the evolution of communism's attitude towards same-sex love, the German political philosopher Friedrich Engels, Karl Marx's collaborator, denounced the ancient Greeks for "the abominable practice of sodomy" and for degrading "their gods and themselves with the myth of Ganymede".

The Wandervogel movement, a youth organization emphasizing a romantic view of nature, began in 1896, the same year that the journal Der Eigene went to press. It was published by a twenty-two-year-old German (Adolf Brand), and it advocated classical pederasty as a cure for the moral flabbiness of German youth. Influenced by the ideas of Gustav Wyneken, the Wandervogel movement was open about its homoerotic tendencies. Affection between males was supposed to be expressed in a nonsexual way. The founding of Young Wandervogel happened largely as a reaction to the public scandal about these erotic tendencies, which were said to alienate young men from women.

Until the 1970s, English "public schools" were boarding schools whose male teachers educated young and adolescent boys only. They emphasized study of Greek and Latin classics. The all-male environment encouraged “hotbeds of pederasty” into the twentieth century. C. S. Lewis when talking about his life at Malvern Collegemarker, an English public school, acknowledged that pederasty "was the only counterpoise to the social struggle; the one oasis (though green only with weeds and moist only with foetid water) in the burning desert of competitive ambition."

Eventually, pederasty was decreased in British public schools, due to the introduction of female teachers and co-education, which gave boys a heterosexual output. Child abuse was no longer hushed up due to society's concerns with protecting children. Parents had more control over who had responsibility for the children, and men with pedophile or pederastic tendencies were barred from teaching jobs.

Modern expressions

Liminal same-sex love — relations with young people on the threshold of becoming adults — whether for pleasure or to further social goals, is no longer widely practiced in the West, despite its lawful status in many countries. Feminist and postmodern theory describe such relations as an abuse of power when the older partner is in a position of educational, religious, economic, or other form of institutional authority over the younger partner. Pederasty is widely censured, whether legally or illegally expressed. Instances of it, or of homosexual behavior among public men, have had severe political repercussions (for example, the Mark Foley scandal, or "Pagegate". The scandal about apparent abuse of pages in the United Statesmarker in 2006, may have contributed to the Democratic capture of the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate in the following fall elections). The United States appears to be moving towards a more restrictive approach to such relationships. In 1983, for instance, Democratic Congressman Gerry Studds admitted having had an affair with a 17-year-old page and was censured by the House of Representatives, but he continued his career in Congress.

Some "gay-positive" writers, in their work of interpreting Christian teachings, have concluded that Paul's criticism of same-sex love do not target those for whom such affections come naturally, but rather those who indulge such pleasures by choice, with the example given being "the Hellenistic practice of erotic behavior with young males." Their work suggests that religious opposition to same sex relations should restrict itself to pederastic relationships, with their presumed abuse of power. A position paper of the Anglican Church rejects that contention, claiming that,

The Catholic Church has been rocked in the 21st century by long-delayed accounts of child-sex abuse. After resistance to revelations, it is working to control activities of its priests. On February 2, 1961 the Vatican issued a document, “Instruction on the Careful Selection and Training of Candidates for the States of Perfection and Sacred Orders,” barring from the priesthood anyone who has "perverse inclinations to homosexuality or pederasty", but that was not sufficient for the times.

Child abuse issues

Though pederasty was once accepted in many cultures, some modern observers have retrospectively labeled it abusive. Enid Bloch argues that many Greek boys who were involved in paederastic relationships may have been harmed by the experience, if the relationship included anal sex. Bloch writes that the boy may have been traumatized by knowing that he was violating social customs. According to her, the "most shameful thing that could happen to any Greek male was penetration by another male." In this respect, Bloch is in accord with Greek sexual morality, which also recognized a difference between ethical pederasty, which excluded anal sex, and "hubristic" pederasty, which was believed to debase the boy as well as the man who penetrated him.

Bloch further argues that vases showing "a boy standing perfectly still as a man reaches out for his genitals" indicate the boy may have been "psychologically immobilized, unable to move or run away." Many vases, however, show the boys responding warmly to the man's advances, placing their hands around the man's neck or on his arm, a gesture thought to indicate affection and reciprocity. Many other vases show the boy running away.

Academic controversy

An unspoken ban of talking about pederasty in academia was broken only in 1905 by the German historian Erich Bethe with his study Dorian Boy-Love: Its Ethic, Its Idea. In the USA, as late as 2005, Haworth Press withdrew from publication a volume on homosexuality in classical antiquity titled Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West. This was in response to criticism from American right-wing groups that objected to book's depiction of classical pederasty. They particularly objected to a chapter by the American academic Bruce Rind, which integrated observations from history, anthropology, and zoology, and which some readers interpreted as advocating pedophilia.

The publisher, in a letter to the editors, attempted to exonerate Rind from the accusation. He conceded that the article was sound but stood by his decision to withdraw it "to avoid negative press" and "economic repercussions." Later Haworth reversed course and announced that the book and journal would be published, but without Rind's controversial essay. Mr. Rind's essay is to be published in a future "supplementary volume" of The Journal of Homosexuality, together with counterarguments advanced by his critics.

See also



Further reading

General


Ancient Greece
See bibliography of Greek pederasty

Europe
  • Michael Matthew Kaylor. Secreted Desires: The Major Uranians: Hopkins, Pater and Wilde (2006), a 500-page scholarly volume that considers the major Victorian writers of Uranian poetry and prose (the author has made this volume available in a free, open-access, PDF version).
  • Rigoletto, Sergio. "Questioning Power Hierarchies: Michael Davidson and Literary Pederasty in Italy" in Studies in Social and Political Thought Issue 13 - March 2007


Japanmarker
See bibliography of Japanese pederasty

North and South America


Muslim Lands
See bibliography of pederasty in the Middle East and Central Asia

Pederasty and child sexual abuse
See bibliography of child sexual abuse

References

  1. The homoerotic photograph By Allen Ellenzweig; p.43
  2. http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definition/pederasty
  3. "Queering Anthropology", Theo Sandfort e.a. (eds) Lesbian and Gay Studies, London/NY: Routledge, 2000
  4. Geoffrey Gorer, The Danger of Equality and other Essays pp.186-187
  5. Dr Neil Whitehead and Briar Whitehead: "My Genes Made Me Do it - a scientific look at sexual orientation", www.mygenes.co.nz/Ch6.pdf
  6. David Menasco, "Pederasty", Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures: Volume 2; p.672
  7. Pederasts and others: urban culture and sexual identity in nineteenth ... By William A. Peniston; p111
  8. Bruce Rind, "Biased Use of Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspectives on Male Homosexuality in Human Sexuality Textbooks", Journal of Sex Research, Nov, 1998[1]
  9. Bruce L. Gerig, "Homosexuality in the Ancient Near East, beyond Egypt", in HOMOSEXUALITY AND THE BIBLE, Supplement 11A, 2005
  10. Plato, Phaedrus; passim
  11. J.K. Dover, Greek Homosexuality; passim
  12. Crompton, op.cit., pp.79-82
  13. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 10.67-85
  14. Jeremy Bentham, "Offences Against One's Self", Journal of Homosexuality, v.3:4(1978), p.389-405; continued in v.4:1(1978)
  15. Herodotus, Histories, I.135
  16. J. A. Symonds, A Problem in Greek Ethics; V.
  17. Plutarch, On the Malice of Herodotus;13
  18. Xenophon, Constitution of the Lacedaemonians, 2.12-14
  19. Plato, Phaedrus, passim
  20. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation to the Greeks 2.28P
  21. The Library of Iberian Resources, The Visigothic Code: (Forum judicum) ed. S. P. Scott, Book III: Concerning Marriage, Title V: Concerning Incest, Apostasy, and Pederasty
  22. Abbott, E., A History of Celibacy, New York, 2000; p.101
  23. Arié, Rachel. España musulmana (Siglos VIII-XV) in Historia de España, ed. Manuel Tuñón de Lara, III. Barcelona: Labor, 1984.
  24. Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and male Culture in Renaissance Florence, Oxford, 1996
  25. Guido Ruggiero, The Boundaries of Eros: Sex Crime and Sexuality in Renaissance Venice, Oxford, 1985
  26. Urban Gay Histories up to 1600
  27. T. Watanabe & J. Iwata, The Love of the Samurai: A Thousand Years of Japanese Homosexuality, London: GMP Publishers, 1987
  28. Marguerite Johnson, Terry Ryan, Sexuality in Greek and Roman Society and Literature: A Sourcebook p.110
  29. Liddell and Scott, 1968 p.585
  30. Richard Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis. p.397; Arcade, 1998
  31. Oxford English Dictionary, "pederasty".
  32. Definition of pederasty, Oxford Dictionary Online
  33. Definition of Pederasty, Merriam Webster Online Dictionary
  34. Collins English Dictionary, Desktop edition; Harper Collins Publishers, Glasgow 2004
  35. American Heritage Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1987
  36. Robert T. Francoeur, Ed. The Complete Dictionary of Sexology p.470; Continuum Publishing, NY 1995
  37. Erwin Haeberle, Critical Dictionary of Sexology[2]; accessed 10/12/2008
  38. Pederasty, An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture, Vern L. Bullough
  39. The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, Warren Johansson
  40. Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam, Chicago and London, 1974; 2:146
  41. Aeschines, "Against Timarchos" 127
  42. Plato, Phaedrus, 231
  43. Greek homosexuality, Hein van Dolen
  44. Aristotle, Politics 2.1272a 22-24 "and the lawgiver has devised many wise measures to secure the benefit of moderation at table, and the segregation of the women in order that they may not bear many children, for which purpose he instituted association with the male sex."
  45. Craig A. Williams, Roman Homosexuality p.23
  46. Tacitus, Annales, 14.20
  47. Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, footnote on p. 76, vol. 1
  48. Martial, Epigrams, XI.43
  49. http://www.gnpcb.org/esv/search/?q=lev+20%3A13&src=esv.org
  50. Clement of Alexandria, The Paedagogos, II.6
  51. Theodore W. Jennings, Jr., Man Jesus Loved: Homoerotic Narratives from the New Testament, Pilgrim Press, 2003
  52. "Did Jesus Approve of a Homosexual Couple in the Story of the Centurion at Capernaum?", Robert A. J. Gagnon, Ph.D
  53. Where is boasting? By Simon J. Gathercole; p.175
  54. Herodotus, Histories, I.135, tr. David Grene; p.97
  55. Plutarch, De Malig. Herod. xiii.ll
  56. Plato, Symposium, 182c, trans. Tom Griffith
  57. El-Rouayheb, 2005. Op.cit. p.115
  58. Sir Richard Burton, Kama Sutra: the Hindu art of lovemaking, intro. Pathan proverb, also reported in similar forms from the Arab countries, Iran and North Africa.
  59. Janet Afary & Kevin Anderson, Foucault and the Iranian Revolution: Gender and the Seductions of Islamism, (University of Chicago Press, 2005
  60. Temeşvarlı Osman Ağa, Gâvurların Esiri, Istanbul, 1971
  61. Hulki Aktunç, Erotologya, Istanbul, 2000
  62. Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience, Ronald Hyam; p.141
  63. T. Watanabe & J. Iwata, The Love of the Samurai. A Thousand Years of Japanese Homosexuality, pp.31-2
  64. Homosexuality in the Korean Social Context
  65. "[T]he non-contaminated subjects are the exception." (Proschan, Frank, "Syphilis, Opiomania, and Pederasty": Colonial Constructions of Vietnamese (and French) Social Diseases", Journal of the History of Sexuality — Volume 11, Number 4, October 2002, pp. 610–636)
  66. (Bancroft, i. 415 and authorities Palon, Crespi, Boscana, Motras, Torquemada, Duflot and Fages). (R. F. Burton, Terminal Essay)
  67. Pete Sigal, "The Politicization of Pederasty among the Colonial Yucatecan Maya", Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Jul., 1997), pp. 1-24
  68. Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships, p.6
  69. Richard Burton, Arabian Nights "Terminal Essay"
  70. Wilhelm Kroll, "Knabenliebe" [boy-love or pederasty], article in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopaedie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, vol. 11, cols. 897-906
  71. An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender & Queer Culture, European Art: Renaissance, Patricia Simmons
  72. J.G. von Hahn, Albanische Studien, 1854, p.166
  73. On Being Orthodox and Gay, Nicholas Zymaris, May 1997
  74. Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe, Islamic Homosexualities, p.188-191
  75. Gay Urban Histories since 1600
  76. Brian Reade, Sexual Heretics; p.)
  77. Naomi Wood, "Creating the Sensual Child: Paterian Aesthetics, Pederasty, and Oscar Wilde's Fairy Tales", Marvels & Tales - Volume 16, Number 2, 2002, pp. 156-170
  78. Michael Kaylor, Secreted Desires: The Major Uranians: Hopkins, Pater and Wilde, 2006, pp. 292-295
  79. Brian Reade, 1970, op.cit., p.28
  80. Michael Kaylor, Secreted Desires, 2006, p. 289
  81. http://www.sacred-texts.com/lgbt/pge/index.htm
  82. Karl Marx, Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State
  83. H. Montgomery Hyde, The Love That Dared Not Speak Its Name, pp.110-112; Boston: Little, Brown, 1970
  84. C.S. Lewis, Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life Harvest Books (1966) p.106
  85. John Fortier, "Pagegate to cost GOP a seat", The Hill, October 4, 2006
  86. "Warning Signs", New York Sun, Editorial, October 4, 2006
  87. "Vatican document reaffirms policy on gays", msnbc.com (retrieved 28 Oct 2008)
  88. David Cohen, "Sexuality, Violence, and the Athenian Law of 'Hubris'"; Greece and Rome, Second Series, V.38;#2; Oct. 1991pp.171-188
  89. DeVries, Keith (1997) "The 'Frigid Eromenoi' and Their Wooers Revisited: A Closer Look at Greek Homosexuality in Vase Painting", in Duberman, Martin (Ed.) Queer Representations: Reading Lives, Reading Cultures, New York: New York University Press, p14-24
  90. "For this lust is not entirely free of violence, and there can be something slightly frightening about it (after all, the boy in Ill. 19 is running away)" Glenn W. Most, "The Athlete's Body in Ancient Greece", Stanford Humanities Review V.6.2 1998
  91. Georges Dumézil, Preface inHomosexuality in Greek Myth by Bernard Sergent, Boston, 1984
  92. Kathryn Rutz, vice president for editorial development at Haworth, said in an e-mail message that the press had received about 20 e-mail messages in the 24-36 hours after the WorldNetDaily article appeared, and that the flurry of messages prompted a “vigorous” discussion among the press’ top officials. “Issues on the table,” she said, “included freedom of speech, consequences of negative publicity, personal objections to the subject matter, and resistance to what might appear to be caving in to a particular group with its own right-wing agenda.” Ultimately, Rutz said, the decision to cancel the book was based on the fact that “the final article by Bruce Rind is construed by some as being sympathetic to pederasty,” which she emphasized that the press does not “in any way support or endorse.” Rutz said the decision “can on one level be considered a business decision. Our customer base is large and the number of disciplines we cover is large. Because 95 percent of our customers would likely be opposed to anything even remotely construed as sexual abuse apologetics, publishing this paper would be a bad business decision.”"Doug Lederman,"Pressure Prompts Publisher to Punt," in Inside Higher Ed Sept. 27,2005[3]
  93. Article in the Halifax The Chronicle Herald
  94. [4]
  95. http://www.sussex.ac.uk/cspt/1-6-1-2-13.html



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