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Edison Arantes do Nascimento, KBE (born 23 October 1940, Três Coraçõesmarker, Minas Geraismarker), best known by his nickname Pelé (Brazilian , usual ) is a Brazilianmarker football player. He was given the title "Athlete of the Century" by the International Olympic Committeemarker. In 1999 Time Magazine named Pelé one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century. While his birth certificate shows his first name as Edison, he prefers to call himself Edson, but it is as Pelé that he has become a sporting legend.

In his native Brazil, Pelé is hailed as a national hero. He is known for his accomplishments and contributions to the game of football in addition to being officially declared football ambassador of the world by FIFAmarker and a national treasure by the Brazilian government. He is also acknowledged for his vocal support of policies to improve the social conditions of the poor (when he scored his 1,000th goal he dedicated it to the poor children of Brazil). During his career, he became known as "The King of Football" (O Rei do Futebol), "The King Pelé" (O Rei Pelé) or simply "The King" (O Rei). He is also a member of the American National Soccer Hall of Fame.

Spotted by football star Waldemar de Brito, Pelé began playing for Santos at 15 and his national team at 16, and won his first World Cup at 17. Despite numerous offers from European clubs, the economic conditions and Brazilian football regulations at the time benefited Santos, thus enabling them to keep Pelé for almost two decades until 1974. Pelé played as an inside forward, striker, and what later became known as the playmaker position. Pelé's technique and natural athleticism have been universally praised and during his playing years he was renowned for his excellent dribbling and passing, his pace, powerful shot, exceptional heading ability, and prolific goalscoring.

He is the all-time leading scorer of the Brazil national football team and is the only footballer to be a part of three World Cup-winning teams. In 1962 he was on the Brazilian squad at the start of the World Cup but because of an injury suffered in the second match, he wasn't able to play the remainder of the tournament. In November 2007 FIFAmarker announced that he would be awarded the 1962 medal retroactively, making him the only player in the world to have three World Cup winning medals.

Since his retirement in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has undertaken various acting roles and commercial ventures.

Early years

Pelé was born in Três Corações, Brazil, the son of a Fluminense footballer Dondinho (born João Ramos do Nascimento) and Maria Celeste Arantes. He was named after the American inventor Thomas Edison, however his parents decided to remove the 'i' and call him 'Edson'. But there was a mistake on the birth certificate, leading many documents to show his name as 'Edison', not 'Edson', as he is actually called. He was originally nicknamed Dico by his family. He did not receive the nickname "Pelé" until his school days, when it is claimed he was given it because of his pronunciation of the name of his favorite player, local Vasco da Gama goalkeeper Bilé, which he misspoke but the more he complained the more it stuck. In his autobiography, Pelé stated he had no idea what the name means, nor did his old friends. Apart from the assertion that the name is derived from that of Bilé, the word has no known meaning, although it is the name of a Hawaiian volcano goddess and it does resemble the Irish language word peil, meaning football.

Growing up in poverty in Baurumarker, São Paulomarker, Pelé earned extra money by working in tea shops as a servant. Taught to play by his coach, he could not afford a proper football and usually played with either a sock stuffed with newspaper, tied with a string or a grapefruit.In an interview with British magazine Loaded, Pele revealed that his father caught him smoking at a young age. His father advised, "Listen, if you want to play sport, you have to be in good health."

In 1954, several members of the Ameriquinha team, including Pelé, were invited to join the Baquinho boys' team to be managed by former Brazilian international Waldemar de Brito, who played in the 1934 World Cup in Italy.

At the age of fifteen, he joined the Santos FC junior team. He played for one season before joining the senior team.

Club career


In 1956, de Brito took Pelé to Santosmarker, an industrial and port city in the state of São Paulomarker, to try out for professional club Santos Futebol Clube telling the directors at Santos that the 15-year-old would be "the greatest football player in the world."

During his time at Santos, Pelé played alongside many gifted players, including Zito, Pepe, and Coutinho; the latter partnered him in numerous one-two plays, attacks, and goals.

Pelé made his debut for Santos in 7 September 1956, scoring one goal in a 7–1 friendly victory over Corinthians. When the 1957 season started, Pelé was given a starting place in the first team and, at the age of just 16, became the top scorer in the league. Just ten months after signing professionally, the teenager was called up to the Brazil national team. After the World Cup in 1962, wealthy European clubs such as Real Madrid, Juventus and Manchester United tried to sign the young player, but the government of Brazil declared Pelé an "official national treasure" to prevent him from being transferred out of the country.

On 19 November 1969, Pelé scored his 1000th goal in all competitions. This was a highly anticipated moment in Brazil. The goal, called popularly O Milésimo (The Thousandth), occurred in a match against Vasco da Gama, when Pelé scored from a penalty kick, at the Maracanãmarker Stadium.

Pelé states that his most beautiful goal was scored at Rua Javari stadiummarker on a Campeonato Paulista match against São Paulo rivals Juventus on 2 August 1959. As there is no video footage of this match, Pelé asked that a computer animation be made of this specific goal. In March 1961, Pelé scored the gol de placa (goal worthy of a plaque), a goal against Fluminense at the Maracanã which was regarded as so spectacular that a plaque was commissioned with a dedication to the most beautiful goal in the history of the Maracanã.

In 1967, the two factions involved in the Nigerian Civil War agreed to a 48-hour ceasefire so they could watch Pelé play an exhibition game in Lagosmarker.

New York Cosmos

After the 1972 season (his 17th with Santos), Pelé retired from Brazilian club football although he continued to occasionally suit up for Santos in official competitive matches. Two years later, he came out of semi-retirement to sign with the New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League (NASL) for the 1975 season. Though well past his prime at this point, Pelé is credited with significantly increasing public awareness and interest in soccer in the United States. (Previously, a video clip of Pelé scoring with a bicycle kick for the Brazilian National Team was part of the opening video montage of the popular sports TV series ABC's Wide World of Sports and was probably many Americans' initial viewing of the sport.) He led the Cosmos to the 1977 NASL championship, in his third and final season with the club.

On 1 October 1977, Pelé closed out his legendary career in an exhibition match between the Cosmos and Santos. Santos arrived in New York and New Jersey after previously defeating the Seattle Sounders 2–0. The match was played in front of a capacity crowd at Giants Stadiummarker and was televised in the United States on ABC's Wide World of Sports as well as throughout the world. Pelé's father and wife both attended the match. Pelé gave a brief pre-match speech during which he asked the crowd to say the word "love" with him three times. He played the first half for the Cosmos and the second half for Santos. Reynaldo scored the first goal for Santos, kicking the ball into the net after it had deflected off the crossbar. Pelé then scored his final goal on a direct free kick, driving the ball past the diving Santos goalkeeper. At halftime, the Cosmos retired Pelé's number 10. Pelé presented his Cosmos shirt to his father, who was escorted to the field by Cosmos captain Werner Roth. During the second half, Cosmos striker Ramon Mifflin, who had replaced Pelé when he switched sides at halftime, scored on a deflected cross, and the Cosmos won the match 2–1. After the match, Pelé was embraced by the Cosmos players, including longtime rival Giorgio Chinaglia, and then ran around the field while holding an American flag in his left hand and a Brazilian flag in his right hand. Pelé was soon lifted by several Cosmos players and carried around the field.

National team career

Pelé's first international match was a 2–1 defeat against Argentina on 7 July 1957. In that match, he scored his first goal for Brazil aged 16 years and 9 months to become the youngest player to score in International football.

1958 World Cup

His first match in the World Cup was against USSR in the first round of the 1958 FIFA World Cup. He was the youngest player of that tournament, and at the time the youngest ever to play in the World Cup. He scored his first World Cup goal against Wales in quarterfinals, the only goal of the match, to help Brazil advance to semifinals, while becoming the youngest ever World Cup goalscorer at 17 years and 239 days. Against France in the semifinal, Brazil was leading 2–1 at halftime, and then Pelé scored a hat-trick, becoming the youngest in World Cup history to do so.

On 19 June 1958 Pelé became the youngest player to play in a World Cup final match at 17 years and 249 days. He scored two goals in the final as Brazil beat Sweden 5–2. His first goal, a lob over a defender followed by a precise volley shot, was selected as one of the best goals in the history of the World Cup. When the match ended, he passed out on the field, and had to be attended by the medical staff. He then recovered, and was visibly compelled by the victory, in tears as being congratulated by his teammates. He finished the tournament with six goals in four matches played, tied for second place, behind record-breaker Just Fontaine.

1962 World Cup

In the first match of the 1962 World Cup, against Mexico, Pelé assisted on the first goal and then scored the second one to go up 2–0 after a run past four defenders. He injured himself while attempting a long-range shot against Czechoslovakia. This would keep him out of the rest of the tournament, and forced coach Aymoré Moreira to make his only lineup change of the tournament. The substitute was Amarildo, who performed well for the rest of the tournament. Yet it was Garrincha who would take the leading role and carry Brazil to their second World Cup title.

1970 World Cup

When Pelé was called to the national team in early 1969, he first refused, but then accepted and played in six World Cup qualifying matches, scoring six goals. The 1970 tournament in Mexico was to be Pelé's last. Brazil's squad for the tournament featured major changes in relation to the 1966 squad. Players like Garrincha, Nilton Santos, Djalma Santos, and Gilmar had already retired, but the team, with Pelé, Rivelino, Jairzinho, Gérson, Tostão, and Clodoaldo, is widely considered one of the greatest football teams ever.

In the first match, against Czechoslovakia, Pelé gave Brazil a 2–1 lead after controlling Gerson's long pass with his chest. In this match, Pelé audaciously attempted to lob goalkeeper Ivo Victor from the half-way line, only narrowly missing the Czech goal. Brazil went on to win the match, 4–1. In the first half of the match against England, he nearly scored with a header that was spectacularly saved by Gordon Banks. In the second half, he assisted Jairzinho for the only goal of the match. Against Romania, he opened the score on a direct free kick goal, a strong strike with the outside of his right foot. Later on the match he scored again to put the score 3–1. Brazil won by a final score of 3–2. In quarterfinals against Peru, Brazil won 4–2, with Pelé assisting Tostão on his team's third goal. In the semi-finals, Brazil faced Uruguay for the first time since the 1950 World Cup final round match. Jairzinho put Brazil ahead 2–1, and Pelé assisted Rivelino for the 3–1. During that match, Pelé made one of his most famous plays. Tostão gave Pelé a through ball, and Uruguay's goalkeeper Ladislao Mazurkiewicz took notice of it. The keeper ran off of his line to get the ball before Pelé, but Pelé got there first, and without touching the ball, he caused it to go past the keeper, to the latter's left, while Pelé went right. Pelé went around the goalkeeper and took a shot while turning towards the goal, but he turned in excess as he shot, and the ball drifted just wide of the far post.

Brazil played Italy in the final, with Pelé scoring the opener on a header over defender Tarcisio Burgnich. He then made assists on Jairzinho's and Carlos Alberto's goals, the latter one after an impressive collective play. Brazil won the match 4–1, keeping the Jules Rimet Trophy indefinitely. Burgnich, who marked Pelé during the match, was quoted saying "I told myself before the game, he's made of skin and bones just like everyone else — but I was wrong".

Pelé's last international match was on 18 July 1971 against Yugoslavia in Rio de Janeiromarker. With Pelé on the field, the Brazilian team's record was 67 wins, 14 draws, and 11 losses, and went on to win three World Cups. Brazil never lost a match while fielding both Pelé and Garrincha.

South American Championship

Pelé also played in the South American Championship. In the 1959 competition he was top scorer with eight goals, as Brazil came second in the tournament..


On 21 February 1966, Pelé married Rosemeri dos Reis Cholby. He has two daughters Kelly Cristina (13 January 1967) and Jennifer (1978) as well as a son Edson ("Edinho" – little Edson, 27 August 1970). The couple divorced in 1978.

His eldest son Edinho was arrested for drug possession in 2005.

Since April 1994 Pelé has been married to psychologist and gospel singer Assíria Lemos Seixas, who gave birth on 28 September 1996 to twins Joshua and Celeste through fertility treatments.




The tally of 31 team trophies makes him, together with the Portuguese Vítor Baía, the player with most career titles.


  • Athlete of the Century, elected by world wide journalists, poll by French daily L'Equipe: 1981

  • Athlete of the Century, elected by International Olympic Committee: 1999

  • Athlete of the Century, by Reuters News Agency: 1999

  • UNICEF Football Player of the Century: 1999

  • FIFAmarker Player of the Century : 2000 (view : )

In December 2000, Pelé and Maradona shared the prize of FIFA Player of the Century by FIFAmarker. The award was originally intended to be based upon votes in a web poll, but after it became apparent that it favoured Diego Maradona, many observers complained that the Internet nature of the poll would have meant a skewed demographic of younger fans who would have seen Maradona play, but not Pelé. FIFA then appointed a "Family of Football" committee of FIFA members to decide the winner of the award. The committee chose Pelé. Since Maradona was winning the Internet poll, however, it was decided he and Pelé should share the award.

  • Football Player of the Century, elected by France Football's Golden Ball Winners : 1999

A consensus of media and expert polls rank Pelé as the greatest footballer of all time.

Career statistics

Goalscoring and appearance record

Pelé's goalscoring record is often reported as being 1280 goals in 1363 games. This figure includes goals scored by Pelé in non-competitive club matches, for example, international tours Pelé completed with Santos and the New York Cosmos, and games Pelé played in for armed forces teams during his national service in Brazil.

The tables below record every goal Pelé scored in major club competitions for Santos and the New York Cosmos. During much of Pelé's playing career in Brazil there was no national league championship. From 1960 onwards the Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) were required to provide meritocratic entrants for the then-new Copa Libertadores, a South American international club competition broadly equivalent to the European Cup. To enable them to do this, the CBF organised two national competitions: the Taça de Prata and Taça Brasil. A national league championship, the Campeonato Brasileiro, was first played in 1971, alongside traditional state and interstate competitions such as the Campeonato Paulista and the Torneio Rio-São Paulo.

The number of league goals scored by Pelé is listed as 589 in 605 games. This number is the sum of the goals scored by Pelé in domestic league-based competitions: the Campeonato Paulista (SPS), Torneio Rio-São Paulo (RSPS), Taça de Prata and Campeonato Brasileiro. The Taça Brasil was a national competition organised on a knockout basis.

Club Season Domestic League Competitions Domestic League

Domestic Cup International Club Competitions Official

Total inc.

SPS RSPS T. de Prata Camp. Brasil. T. Brasil Copa Libertadores Intercontinental Cup
Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals
Santos 1956 0* 0* 0* 0* 2* 2* 2* 2*
1957 14+15* 19+17* 9 5 38* 41* 29* 16* 67* 57*
1958 38 58 8 8 46 66 14* 14* 60* 80*
1959 32 45 7 6 39 51 4* 2* 40* 47* 83* 100*
1960 30 33 3 0 33 33 0 0 0 0 0 0 34* 26* 67* 59*
1961 26 47 7 8 33 55 5* 7 0 0 0 0 36* 48* 74* 110*
1962 26 37 0 0 26 37 5* 2* 4* 4* 2 5 13* 14* 50* 62*
1963 19 22 8 14 27 36 4* 8 4* 5* 1 2 16 16* 52* 67*
1964 21 34 4 3 25 37 6* 7 0* 0* 0 0 16* 13* 47* 57*
1965 30 49 7 5 37 54 4* 2* 7* 8 0 0 18* 33* 66* 97*
1966 14 13 0* 0* 14* 13* 5* 2* 0 0 0 0 19* 16* 38* 31*
1967 18 17 14* 9* 32* 26* 0 0 0 0 0 0 32* 26* 65* 56*
1968 21 17 17* 11* 38* 28* 0 0 0 0 0 0 38* 28* 73* 55*
1969 25 26 12* 12* 37* 38* 0 0 0 0 37* 38* 61* 57*
1970 15 7 13* 4* 28* 11* 0 0 0 0 28* 11* 54* 47*
1971 19 8 21 1 40 9 0 0 0 0 40 9 72* 29*
1972 20 9 16 5 36 14 0 0 0 0 36 14 74* 50*
1973 19 11 30 19 49 30 0 0 0 0 49 30 66* 52*
1974 10 1 17 9 27 10 0 0 0 0 27 10 49* 19*
All 412 470 53 49 56* 36* 84 34 605* 589* 33 30 15 17 3 7 656 643 1120 1087

  • A dark grey cell in the table indicates that the relevant competition did not take place that year.
  • * indicates this number was inferred from a Santos fixture list from and this list of games Pelé played.

Club Season NASL Other Total
Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals
NY Cosmos 1975 9 5 14* 10* 23* 15*
1976 24 15 18* 11* 42* 26*
1977 31 17 11* 6* 42* 23*
All 64 37 43* 27* 107* 64*

Some historical perspective

Pelé and Bill Clinton in 1997
  • Pele's 1281 goals are recognized by FIFA as the highest total achieved by a professional footballer. All of these goals have been checked by more than one recognized statistic institution. Pele played between 1957 and 1973 not just in official championships but also in short term International Tournaments between European and South American teams – a very common event in 1960s. However some critics claim that the goals scored in those tournaments should not count because they consider the short term tournaments to be "friendlies".
  • Pelé is in third place on the list of all-time top goalscorers in international matches between National Teams; in 92 appearances for the Brazil national football team, he scored 77 goals. He is in fourth place behind Ronaldo, Gerd Müller, and Just Fontaine on the list of goalscorers in World Cup matches, with 12 goals. He has been part of three World Cup-winning teams, although he did not play in the 1962 final because of injury and did not receive a medal until 2007. He is one of only two players to have scored in four World Cups (the other being Uwe Seeler, who did it in the same four tournaments). Pelé is one of only four footballers to have achieved the feat of scoring in two different World Cup final matches, sharing that honor with Paul Breitner, Vavá, and Zinedine Zidane. He is one of five players to have scored twice from direct free kicks in World Cups (The others are Rivelino, Teófilo Cubillas, Bernard Genghini, and David Beckham).
  • Because of the sheer size of Brazil and the problems and costs related to air travel at the time, until 1959 there was nothing that could be called a National Football Tournament between the best teams from across the whole of Brazil. Generally the Brazilian football season was occupied first by state championships (between teams of the same state), followed by the Torneio Rio-São Paulo, a competition between the teams from the two strongest states in the country, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. And last but not least, from 1959, by the national team competition. This league system provided all the players (i.e., no foreign-based players) for the 1958, 1962 and 1970 Brazil World Cup Champions.
  • Given the global economic conditions and the football regulations at the time (especially in Brazil) the only players who left the Brazilian leagues for the European ones were usually those who could not get a regular place in one of the top teams or who were at the end of their careers. Sometimes a great player who was eclipsed by a more talented footballer in his position, in an era when substitutions during the matches were not allowed, made this change. Current regulations restricting players from playing in the World Cup for more than one country were not yet introduced. For this reason, some argue that Brazil had the world's strongest league during the years of Pelé's career. It must be added that contrary to most European national championships – which had only two or three leading teams – there were 11 direct competitors for the national cup: Santos, Botafogo, Palmeiras, Flamengo, Corinthians, São Paulo FC, Vasco, Fluminense, Bahia, Cruzeiromarker and Atléticomarker. Despite this, Santos won it five times in a row.
  • At that time the Santos team spent a third or sometimes almost half of the year in the São Paulo State League, even when running for the South American Teams Cup or other international tournaments. Before Pelé's era the cup of the São Paulo League was monopolized by the so-called "Iron Trio", the three most prestigious teams of São Paulo citymarker, the capital of São Paulomarker: Corinthians, Palmeiras and São Paulo FC.
  • Some of the best players were spread among teams all across Brazil, for example Didi, Garrincha, Zagallo and Jairzinho played in the Rio de Janeiro League, Tostão, Piazza and Dario played in the Minas Gerais League and Figueroa in the Rio Grande do Sul League. In the São Paulo league while Footballers like Carlos Alberto, Zito, Pepe and Gilmar ( this one from the 1960s ) played with Pelé for Santos; there were however many others playing for Santos' rivals like Rivelino, Dino Sani, Luizinho and later Garrincha by Corinthians; Gérson, Pedro Rocha and Pablo Forlán by São Paulo FC; Félix, Djalma Santos and Zé Maria by Portuguesa and Leão, Luís Pereira, Leivinha, Julinho, Vavá and Ademir da Guia by Palmeiras just to mention a few. All of these great teams and players played against Pelé between 1957 and 1974.

Television Personality Bob Costas spoke on Pele:There are three people in the World who can could be recognized anywhere. The Pope, Mohammed Ali, and Pele".

German defender Franz Beckenbauer:"He is as close to perfection a football player can be."

England World Cup winner George Cohen:"Marking him was a nightmare. He was never in the spot the ball was played to him; he arrived there. Which meant usually he had left his marker for dead. He just manufactured these things in his mind. With all the brashness and arrogance if you like he said 'I can do anything'."

After football

Prime Licensing, the company created and owned by the long time friend and fashion businessman Jose Alves de Araujo, now manages the Pele brand including contracts with Puma AG, Pelestation, QVC, Fremantle Media, Pele L'uomo and Pele Arena coffee houses, amongst others.

The most notable area of Pelé's life since football is his ambassadorial work for various bodies. In 1992, Pelé was appointed a United Nations ambassador for ecology and the environment.

He was awarded Brazil's Gold Medal for outstanding services to the sport in 1995, Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso appointed him to the position of "Extraordinary Minister for Sport" and he was appointed a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador. During this time he proposed legislation to reduce corruption in Brazilian football, which became known as the Pelé law. Pelé left his position in 2001 after he was accused of involvement in a corruption scandal, although nothing has been proved so far. In 1997 he was given an honorary British knighthood.

Pelé at Bramall lane, celebrating Sheffield's 150th anniversary
Pelé scouted for Premier League Fulham in 2002. He was chosen to do the draw for the qualification groups for the 2006 FIFA World Cup finals.

Pelé has published several autobiographies, starred in documentary and semi-documentary films and composed various musical pieces, including the entire soundtrack for the film Pelé in 1977. He appeared, alongside other footballers of the 1960s and 1970s, Michael Caine, and Sylvester Stallone, in the 1981 film Escape to Victory, about an attempted escape from a World War II Nazi POW Camp. Pelé was featured in a video game with the Atari 2600 Pelé's Soccer.

Pelé signed a major autobiographical book deal in 2006, resulting in a giant-sized, 45 cm × 35 cm, 2,500 unit limited-edition collectible "Pelé", created by UK luxury publishers, Gloria, as the first-ever football "big book". In the same period, Pelé received a lifetime achievement award from the BBC and in June 2006, helped inaugurate the 2006 FIFA World Cup finals, alongside supermodel Claudia Schiffer. Pelé has also helped to promote viagra and raise the awareness of impotency.

Pelé was guest of honour at the world's oldest football club, Sheffield's 150th anniversary match v Inter Milan in November 2007. Inter won 5–2 in front of an appreciative crowd of nearly 19,000 at Bramall Lanemarker. As part of his visit, Pelé opened an exhibition which included the first public showing in 40 years of the original hand written rules of football.

In 2009, he cooperated with Ubisoft on arcade football game Academy of Champions for the Wii and also appeared in the game as a coach to the player.

Acting and film career

  • Os Estranhos (1969) (TV series)
  • O Barão Otelo no Barato dos Bilhões (1971)
  • A Marcha (1973)
  • Os Trombadinhas (1978)
  • Escape to Victory (1981)
  • A Minor Miracle (1983)
  • Pedro Mico (1985)
  • Os Trapalhões e o Rei do Futebol (1986)
  • Hotshot (1987)
  • Solidão, Uma Linda História de Amor (1990)
  • Mike Bassett: England Manager (2001)
  • ESPN SportsCentury (2004)
  • Pelé Eterno (2004) - a documentary about Pelé's career

See also


  2. Robert L. Fish; Pelé (1977). My Life and The Beautiful Game: The Autobiography of Pelé, Chapter 2. Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York. ISBN 0-385-12185-7
  3. Anibal Massaini Neto (Director/Producer), (2004). Pelé Eterno [Documentary film]. Brazil: Anima Producoes Audiovisuais Ltda. International: Universal Studios Home Video.
  4. Edison Arantes do Nascimento (2006). Pelé: The Autobiography, Sleeve. Simon & Schuster UK Ltd, London. ISBN 0-7432-7582-9
  5. LANCENET:// O Campeão da Rede
  6. The mark was surpassed by Northern Ireland's Norman Whiteside in the 1982 FIFA World Cup.
  7. Andrei S. Markovits, Steven L. Hellerman. (2001) Offside: Soccer and American Exceptionalism, Princeton University Press. p. 229. ISBN 0-691-07447-X.
  8. Pelé, King of futbol, ESPN
  9. The only international match Garrincha lost was against Hungary in 1966, 1–3, which Pelé did not play in because of injury. See Garrincha's bio at the International Football Hall of Fame web site.
  10. The 1973 Paulista was held jointly with Portuguesa.
  11. The 1964 Torneio Rio-São Paulo was held jointly with Botafogo.
  12. Pelé: ENGLAND ARE WORLD CUP THREAT,, accessed 27 March 2007.
  13. [1]
  14. Various sources accept that Pelé scored 1281 goals in 1363 games. See, for example, the FIFA website.[2] Some sources, however, claim that Pelé scored 1282 goals in 1366 games.[3]
  15. For a full list of Pelé's goals which details the teams he played for, see [4]. The international tours Pelé took part in for Santos and Cosmos are detailed at, and the American Soccer History Archives: (click on a year and then scroll down to the bottom of the page to see friendly tournaments), respectively.
  16. As friendly matches are not counted in official statistics, this is what Pelé's goal total should be after friendly matches are disregarded.
  17. All statistics relating to Pelé's goalscoring record between 1957 and 1974 in the SPS, RSPS, and Campeonato Brasileiro are taken from Soccer Europe compiled this list from (The Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation). For a full list of Pelé's goals see
  18. Pelé's first two matches for Santos are assumed here to be friendlies. No record of them exists in any of the tournaments listed at
  19. In 1957 the São Paulo championship was split into two halves, Série Azul and Série Branca. In the first half Pelé scored 19 goals in 14 games, and then in Série Azul he scored 17 goals in 15 games. See
  20. Totalised statistics relating to Pelé's record between 1957 and 1974 in the Taça de Prata, Taça Brasil and Copa Libertadores are taken from Soccer Europe compiled this list from (The Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation), but do not give a season-by-season breakdown. For a full list of Pelé's goals see
  21. Reference indicated what "Other" means in this context
  22. Pelé goals
  23. World Cup Champions Squads 1930–2002 by RSSSF
  24. Official website of Prime Licensing, retrieved 19 November 2008.
  25. Pelé slips from Brazil pedestal, The Observer, 25 November 2001.
  26. Pelé scouts for Fulham, BBC Sport, accessed 10 June 2006
  27. More than just a draw,, 9 December 2005, accessed 27 March 2007.

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