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County of Pembrokeshire Sir Benfro
Geography
Area

- Total
- % Water
Ranked 5th

1,590 km²

? %
Admin HQ Haverfordwestmarker
ISO 3166-2 GB-PEM
ONS code 00NS
Demographics
Population:

- ( )

- Density

 
Ranked



Ranked

/ km²
Ethnicity 99.2% White
Welsh language

- Any skills
Ranked 8th

29.4%
Politics

Pembrokeshire Council
http://www.pembrokeshire.gov.uk/

Control
MPs
AMs
MEPs Wales
Pembrokeshire ( , , or ; ) is a county in the southwestmarker of Walesmarker.

Geography

Pembroke Castle
Marloes peninsula


Pembrokeshire is a maritime county, bordered by the sea on three sides, by Ceredigion to the north east and by Carmarthenshiremarker to the east. Its economy relies heavily on tourism, but agriculture is still important, and petrochemical and liquid natural gas industries have been developed on the banks of the Cleddau Estuary.

Its population was 114,131 at the United Kingdom Census 2001.

The administrative headquarters and historic county town is Haverfordwestmarker and other settlements include Pembrokemarker itself, Pembroke Dockmarker, Milford Havenmarker, Fishguardmarker, Tenbymarker, Saundersfootmarker, Narberthmarker, Neylandmarker and Newportmarker. St David'smarker, in the North west of the county, is the United Kingdom's smallest city.

The highest point of the county is at Foel Cwmcerwynmarker (1759 ft/536 m).

The county has a coastline comprising important seabird breeding sites and numerous bays and sandy beaches. Pembrokeshire boasts a predominantly coastal National Park known as the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, of which includes a 186-mile walking trail known as the Pembrokeshire Coast Path. A large estuary and natural harbour at Milford Havenmarker cuts deeply into the coast, formed by the confluence of the Western Cleddau (which goes through Haverfordwest), the Eastern Cleddau and rivers Cresswell and Carew. The estuary is bridged by the large Cleddau Bridgemarker (toll bridge) which bears the A477 between Neylandmarker and Pembroke Dockmarker; upstream bridges are found crossing the Cleddau at Haverfordwestmarker and Canaston.

Large bays are Newport Bay, Fishguardmarker Bay, St Bride's Baymarker and a portion of Carmarthen Baymarker. There are several small islands off the Pembrokeshire coast, the largest of which are Ramsey Islandmarker, Grassholm Islandmarker, Skomer Islandmarker and Caldey Islandmarker.

In the north of the county are the Preseli Hillsmarker (Y Preselau), a wide stretch of high moorland with many prehistoric monuments and the source of the bluestones used in the construction of the inner circle of Stonehengemarker in Englandmarker.

Elsewhere the county is relatively flat, most of the land being used for lowland farming of dairy cows, arable crops, oil seed rape, and the well-known Pembrokeshire Potato.

See the list of places in Pembrokeshire for villages, towns and the 'city' of St. David's in Pembrokeshire.

History

The county was founded as a county palatine in 1138 with Gilbert de Clare as the first Earl of Pembroke. It has long been split between its English-speaking south (known as "Little England beyond Wales") and its historically more Welsh-speaking north, along an imaginary line called the Landsker.

The Act of Union of 1536 divided the county into hundred which followed with some modifications the lines of the ancient subdivision into cantrefs, which went back to before the Norman conquest. The 1536 hundreds were (clockwise from the north-east): Cilgerranmarker or Kilgerran, Cemais or Kemes, Dewislandmarker or Dewsland, Roosemarker, Castlemartinmarker, Narbethmarker and Dungleddymarker or Daugleddau. The Genuki web pages on Pembrokeshire include a list of the parishes within each hundred.

Media

Narberth is home to Radio Pembrokeshire, Radio Carmarthenshire and Scarlet FM broadcasting to 100,000 listeners every week.

A new voluntary media organisation called Cleddau Community Media began in Pembroke Dock in 2004. Since then the company has broadcast three community radio pilot broadcasts from custom built studios in Llanreath under the name Cleddau FM.

There are five local newspapers based in Pembrokeshire. The most widely read is the Western Telegraph (part of the Newsquest group).

The independent website, PembrokeshireSport.co.uk [17361], provides in-depth reports of the county’s vibrant sporting scene.

Pembrokeshire news and community information can be found on the My Pembrokeshire website [17362].

The artists Gwen John and her brother Augustus were both born in Pembrokeshire. Graham Sutherland painted locally between 1934 and 1936, gaining inspiration from the landscape.

Transport

The main towns in the county are well served with bus and train services, but those living in more rural parts have little or no access to public transportation.

There are no motorways in Pembrokeshire. There are currently demands for the A40 from St. Clearsmarker to Haverfordwest to be made fully dual carriageway. The road is used heavily by traffic from the ferry port in Fishguard which then follows the A40 south to Haverfordwest and then meets the dual carriageway at St. Clears.

The nearest motorway to the county town of Haverfordwest is the M4 which terminates at Pont Abraham in Carmarthenshiremarker, some to the east.

The A477 which runs from St. Clearsmarker to the port of Pembroke Dockmarker is long, of which only are part-dual carriageway. This road is heavily used by businesses and tourists visiting Pembrokeshire and improvements to the road have been made in recent years.

The Cleddau Bridgemarker connects South Pembrokeshire with North Pembrokeshire across the Cleddau Estuary.

There are three branch railway lines- terminating at Fishguardmarker, Pembroke Dockmarker and Milford Havenmarker. The latter two have 2-hourly services but the Fishguard branch has only 2 services each day, timed to meet the ferries to Irelandmarker

Industry

Tourism

The main industry in Pembrokeshire is tourism. Tenbymarker, Saundersfootmarker and the surrounding areas attract the most visitors.

Oil and gas

The banks of the Cleddau Estuary are dominated by the oil and gas industry with two oil refineries, two large liquified natural gas (LNG) terminals and a large National Grid switching centre. A gas-fired power station has been proposed for the site of the old oil-fired Pembroke Power Stationmarker which closed in 1997 and was subsequently demolished in 2000.The two oil refineries in Pembrokeshire are:
  • Chevron (formerly Texaco): 214,000 bpd (barrels per day) and
  • Murco (formerly Amoco/Elf):


There was a third refinerymarker that operated from 1960-1983.The LNG terminals on the north side of the river, just outside Milford Havenmarker are now complete, and opened in 2008. A completed but controversial pipeline runs through many rural farms and country sides. The LNG Terminals will supply around 40% of the UK with gas once completed.

Agriculture

Pembrokeshire's mild climate means that crops such as its famous new potatoes often arrive in British shops earlier in the year than produce from other parts of the UK. As well as arable crops such as potatoes, the other main agricultural activities are dairy farming of cattle for milk and cheese, sheep farming, beef production and some other arable crops, such as rapeseed. Falling farm incomes have led to diversification into other novel farming and tourism related activities. From 1,700 km² of land, about 1,260 (74%) are used by agriculture. The majority of this land (60%) is down to permanent grassland and 26% is arable. Farm revenues are less than the UK average, but agriculture still provides 7,000 jobs.

The former large sea fishing industry around Milford Havenmarker is now greatly reduced, although limited commercial fishing still takes place.

In 2009 The Pembrokeshire Tea Co started the establishment of a tea plantation in Pembrokeshire, making use of its mild micro climate. This is Wales' first tea plantation and has been covered widely by BBC Radio Wales See: http://www.pembrokeshiretea.co.uk/Tea/Our_blog/Entries/2009/9/15_Interview_now_on_iplayer.html

Flag



The flag of Pembrokeshire consists of a yellow cross on a blue field. In the centre of the cross is a green pentagon bearing a red and white Tudor rose. The rose is divided quarterly and counterchanged: the inner and outer roses have alternating red and white quarters.

On television and film

Pembrokeshire is a popular location for filming locations. The following is a list of movies and television programmes filmed in Pembrokeshire: Image:WW2 Gun Shelter Angle Pem.JPG|Pembrokeshire Coastal FortressImage:Harbour View Milford Haven.JPG|Harbour View Milford HavenImage:St Michaels and Royal George Pembroke.JPG|Pembroke Town CentreImage:St Davids from Cloisters Pembrokeshire.JPG|New Cloisters St David'sImage:Solva Colours.JPG|Colourful Cottages in SolvaImage:Old Point House Angle.JPG|Old Point House AngleImage:Clock Tower Marloes Pem.JPG|Clock Tower MarloesImage:Fishing Sunset Little Haven Sunset.JPG|Fishing Sunset Little Haven SunsetImage:Deathly Hallows Shell Cottage Freshwater West.JPG|Deathly Hallows Shell Cottage Freshwater WestImage:Colourful Houses Haverfordwest Pem.JPG|Colourful Houses HaverfordwestImage:Chapel Haverfordwest.JPG|Methodist Chapel HaverfordwestImage:Milford Haven Red Blue Building.JPG|Milford Haven Red Blue BuildingImage:Tenby Crackwell St.JPG|Tenby Crackwell St

Local government

Under the Local Government Act 1888, an elected county council was set up to take over the functions of the Pembrokeshire Quarter Sessions. This, and the administrative county of Pembrokeshire were abolished under the Local Government Act 1972, with Pembrokeshire forming two districts of the new county of Dyfed: South Pembrokeshire and Preselimarker - the split being made at the request of local authorities in the area. In 1996, under the Local Government Act 1994, the county of Dyfed was broken up into its constituent parts, and Pembrokeshire has been a unitary authority.

Places of interest

Geography



Visitor attractions



Historical places



Beaches



References

  1. Media titles owned by Town & Country Broadcasting - Media UK
  2. AM calls for A40 funds - western telegraph - 9.11.2006
  3. UK Flag Registry
  4. CRWFlags.com
  5. Wood, Bruce. The Process of Local Government Reform: 1966-1974. 1976.

External links



Further reading

  • James, J. Ivor, Molleston Baptist Church-Reflections on the Founders' Tercentenary, V.G. Lodwick & Sons Ltd., Carmarthen, copyright 1968.



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