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Penco (Mapudungun: "Peumomarker water") is a Chileanmarker city and commune in Concepción Province, Biobío Region on the Bay of Concepción. Founded as the city of Concepción del Nuevo Extremo on February 12, 1550 by Pedro de Valdivia, it is the third oldest city in the country after Santiagomarker founded first in 1541 and La Serenamarker second in 1544.

In previous centuries, in the current location of Penco, was the first location where the city of Concepciónmarker was established, which is now the capital of the Bíobío Region. It was destroyed by Lautaro in 1554, and rebuilt and destroyed again by Lautaro in 1555. It was reestablished in 1557 during the governorship of García Hurtado de Mendoza when he landed there and built a fort on the Alto de Pinto. The city was reestablished January 6, 1558, by capitán Jerónimo de Villegas. It became the headquarters of the military forces engaged against the Mapuche in Araucanía over the next two centuries growing to a population of 10,000 despite suffering a siege in 1564 and other attacks by the Mapuche.

Due to earthquakes and tsunamis, which razed the city in 1570, 1657, 1687, 1730 and another on May 25, 1751marker, the authorities decided to move the city to its current location to the Valle de la Mocha, alongside the Bío-Bío River and prohibited the occupation of the old location, which remained unpopulated until March 29, 1842, when the present city of Penco was founded.

To an outsider, there may be confusion between the demonyms of the inhabitants of Concepción and Penco. Due to the previous location of Concepción, inhabitants of that city are called penquistas while inhabitants of Penco are known as pencones.


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