Pennsylvania Railroad was an American railroad, founded in
1846. Commonly referred to as the
"Pennsy", the PRR was headquartered in Philadelphia,
- Pennsylvania System redirects here. For the prison
system, see Philadelphia System,
Separate system, and the Eastern State
- PRR redirects here. For other uses, see PRR
The PRR was the largest railroad by traffic and revenue in the U.S.
throughout the first two-thirds of the twentieth century and was at
one time the largest publicly traded corporation in the world. At
its peak, it controlled about of rail line. During its history, the
PRR merged with or had an interest in at least 800 other rail lines
and companies. The corporation still holds the record for the
longest continuous dividend history: it paid out annual dividends
to shareholders for more than 100 years in a row. At one point the
budget for the PRR was larger than that of the U.S. government; at
its peak it employed about 250,000 workers.
In 1968, the Pennsylvania Railroad merged with its rival, the
New York Central Railroad
to form the Penn
Central Transportation Company
. The Interstate Commerce
required that the ailing New York, New Haven
and Hartford Railroad
be added in 1969. A series of events
including inflation, poor management, abnormally harsh weather and
the withdrawal of a government-guaranteed $200-million operating
loan forced the Penn Central to file for bankruptcy protection on
June 21, 1970. The viable parts of the Penn Central system were
transferred in 1976 to Conrail
, which began
earning a profit in 1981. The Norfolk Southern Railway
in approximately equal portions in 1999, with the former now owning
the old Pennsy Main Line
Pennsylvania Railroad's corporate symbol was the keystone, which is Pennsylvania's state symbol, with the letters PRR intertwined
When colored, it was bright red with a silver-grey
inline and lettering.
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, as part of the Main Line of
Public Works, chartered the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1846 to
build a rail line that would connect Harrisburg to Pittsburgh.
This western line from Harrisburg would
complete the main line, which was to be a railroad and canal
corridor across the state.Work on the western part of the main line was
completed in 1854 and rail service from Philadelphia across the state to Pittsburgh was
In 1857, the PRR purchased the main line from the
State of Pennsylvania. This line is still an important cross-state
corridor, carrying Amtrak's Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line
and the Norfolk Southern Railway's Pittsburgh Subdivision.
New York, Baltimore and Washington lines
Pennsylvania Railroad map
November 3, 1857
1893 PRR territory map
early 1860s, the PRR gained control of the Northern Central
Railway, giving it access to Baltimore, Maryland, along the Susquehanna
River via connections at Columbia, Pennsylvania, or Harrisburg.
December 1, 1871, the PRR leased the United New Jersey
Railroad and Canal Companies, which included the original
Camden and Amboy Railroad from Camden, New Jersey (across the
Delaware River from Philadelphia) to
New Jersey (across Raritan Bay from New York City), as well as a newer line from Philadelphia to
New Jersey, much closer to New York, via Trenton, New
1899 map of "Lines East"
Track connection in Philadelphia was made
via the United Companies' Connecting Railway and the jointly owned
Baltimore and Potomac
Rail Road opened on July 2, 1872, between Baltimore and
This route required transfer via horse car
in Baltimore to the other lines heading
north from the city. On June 29, 1873, the Baltimore
and Potomac Tunnel through Baltimore was completed.
started the misleadingly named Pennsylvania Air Line service via
the Northern Central Railway and Columbia, Pennsylvania. This
service was 54.5 miles (87.5 km) longer than the old route but
avoided the transfer in Baltimore. The Union Railroad line opened on July 24, 1873.
eliminated the transfer in Baltimore. PRR officials contracted with
both the Union Railroad and the Philadelphia,
Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad
(PW&B) Railroad for
access to this line. The PRR's New York–Washington trains began
using the route the next day, ending Pennsylvania Air Line service.
In the early 1880s, the PRR acquired a majority of PW&B
Railroad's stock. This action forced the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
(B&O) to build the Baltimore and Philadelphia
to keep its Philadelphia access, where it connected
with the Reading Railroad
competing Royal Blue Line
passenger trains to reach New York.
In 1885, the PRR began passenger train service from New York City
to Washington with limited stops along the route. This service
became known as the "Congressional Limited Express." The service
expanded, and by the 1920s, the PRR was operating hourly passenger
train service between New York and Washington. In the early 1950s,
18-car stainless steel
were introduced on the Morning Congressional
between New York and Washington,
as well as the Senator
from Boston to Washington.
15, 1887, passenger service began between New York and Chicago,
Illinois as the Pennsylvania Limited.
occasion was also the first introduction by any railroad of the
, an enclosed platform at
the end of each passenger car, allowing protected access to the
entire train. In 1902, the Pennsylvania Limited
replaced by the Pennsylvania Special
, which in turn was
replaced in 1912 by the Broadway
which became the most famous train operated by the
Pennsylvania Railroad. This train ran from New York City to
Chicago, via Philadelphia, with an additional section between
Harrisburg and Washington (later operated as a separate
Washington–Chicago train, the Liberty Limited
Around 1900, the PRR built several low-grade
lines for freight to bypass areas of
steep grade (slope). These included:
Trenton Branch (PRR) and Trenton Cut-Off Railroad from Glen Loch,
Pennsylvania east to Morrisville, Pennsylvania (not only a low-grade line but a long-distance
bypass of Philadelphia)
Waverly and Passaic Railroad (finished by the New York Bay
Railroad) from Waverly, New Jersey to Kearny, New Jersey
- 1904: Reopening of the New Portage Railroad from the Gallitzin
Tunnels east to New Portage Junction, then continuing north over
the Hollidaysburg Branch to Altoona
Philadelphia and Thorndale Branch from Thorndale,
Pennsylvania east to Glen Loch (abandoned by Conrail in 1989)
Atglen and Susquehanna Branch from Harrisburg via the Northern
Central Railway south to Wago Junction, then east to Parkesburg (abandoned by Conrail in
The Pennsylvania and Newark Railroad was incorporated in 1905 to
build a low-grade line from Morrisville, Pennsylvania to Colonia,
New Jersey. It was never completed, but some work was done in the
Trenton area, including bridge piers in the Delaware River. North
of Colonia, the alignment was going to be separate, but instead two
extra tracks were added to the existing line. Work was suspended in
Pennsylvania Railroad rail line electrification project
Early in the 20th century, the PRR began construction to electrify
some of their rail lines. The initial construction was in the New
York terminal area, including some of the tunnels. This was a
system that supplied power through a third rail. The system was put
into service in 1910.
The next area to be electrified was the Philadelphia terminal area.
After researching and experimenting with different power systems,
PRR officials decided to use overhead
to supply power to the trains. Unlike the New York
terminal system, the overhead wires would carry high-voltage
This became the type of system used for all future installations.
In 1915, electrification of the line from Philadelphia's Broad
Street Station to Paoli, Pennsylvania was completed. Other Philadelphia
lines electrified were the Chestnut Hill Branch (1918), White Marsh
(1924), West Chester (1928), and in 1930 the Norristown branch
along with the main line to Trenton, New Jersey.
PRR's president William Atterbury
announced in 1928 plans to electrify the lines between New York,
Philadelphia, Washington and Harrisburg. In January 1933, through
main-line service between the principal cities was placed in
operation. The first test run of an electric train between
Philadelphia and Washington occurred on January 28, 1935. On
February 1 the Congressional Limiteds in both directions were the
first trains in regular electric operation between New York and
Washington, drawn by the first of the GG1
. All regular passenger
trains between these cities were electrified by March 15, and
shortly thereafter through trains to the west were electrically
operated from New York City to Paoli, Pennsylvania.
complete the electrification project initiated in 1928, work was
started January 27, 1937, on the main line from Paoli, Pennsylvania
to Harrisburg; the low-grade freight line from Morrisville through
Columbia to Enola
Yard in Pennsylvania; the freight line from Perryville to Columbia; and the freight line from Monmouth
Junction to South Amboy.
In less than a year—on the
following January 15—the first passenger train—the
—went into operation over the newly
electrified line from Philadelphia to Harrisburg. On April 15 the
electrified freight service from Harrisburg and Enola Yard east was
inaugurated, thus completing the Pennsy's eastern seaboard
electrification program with a total of of track electrified—41
percent of the total electrically operated standard railroad
trackage of the United States.The electrified trackage is still in
use as the Northeast Corridor high-speed rail route.
PRR officials developed plans to construct a repair facility at
Construction was started in 1850, and soon
a long building was completed that housed a machine shop
, woodworking shop, blacksmith
shop, locomotive repair shop and
. This facility was later torn down
to make room for continuing expansion.
In time additional PRR repair facilities were located in
Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, and Mifflin, and the Altoona Works expanded
in adjacent Juniata, Pennsylvania. Inventor Alexander Graham Bell
assistants to the Altoona shops in 1875 to study the feasibility of
lines. In May 1877,
telephone lines were installed for various departments to
communicate with one another.
Indiana, also held a key position for the railroad.
By the turn of the 20th century, its repair shops and locomotive
manufacturing facilities became known as the "Altoona of the
By 1945 the Altoona Works had grown to be one of the largest repair
and construction facilities for locomotives and cars in the world.
During World War II, PRR facilities (including the Altoona Shops)
were on target lists of German
. They were caught before they could complete their
In 1875 the Altoona Works started a testing department for PRR
equipment. In following years, the Pennsylvania Railroad led the
nation in the development of research and testing procedures of
practical value for the railroad industry. Use of the testing
facilities were discontinued in 1968 and many of the structures
Map of the Altoona Works circa
Penn Central merger
On February 1, 1968, the PRR merged with their arch-rival, the
New York Central
railroad, to form
the Penn Central
ICC required that the ailing New York, New Haven
& Hartford Railroad
be added in 1969. A series of events
including inflation, poor management, abnormally harsh weather
conditions and the withdrawal of a government-guaranteed
200-million-dollar operating loan forced the Penn Central to file
for bankruptcy protection on June 21, 1970. The Penn Central
rail lines were
split between Amtrak
and Keystone Corridor
) and Conrail
in the 1970s. After the breakup of Conrail
in 1999, the portion which had formerly been PRR territory largely
became part of the Norfolk
- 1846 The Pennsylvania Railroad is chartered to construct a rail
line from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh.
- 1850 Construction started on repair shop at Altoona.
- 1860–1890 PRR expands throughout the U.S.
- 1885 The "Congressional Limited Express" from New York City to
Washington D.C. is introduced.
- 1887 The Pennsylvania Limited was inaugurated, running between
New York and Chicago. It is the first vestibuled train.
- 1894 The Pennsylvania Pacific Corporation is formed by the
- 1902 The Pennsylvania Special was inaugurated, replacing the
Pennsylvania Limited between New York and Chicago.
- 1910 New York terminal and tunnels are electrified.
- 1912 The Broadway Limited was inaugurated, replacing the
- 1915 PRR electrifies its suburban Philadelphia lines between
Central Philadelphia and Paoli.
- 1916 PRR adopts new motto, "Standard Railroad of the
World". The first I1s "Decapod"
locomotive is completed, and switching locomotives of the A5s and
B6sb class are introduced.
- 1918 PRR stock bottoms at $40¼, the lowest since 1877, due
largely to Federal railroad control. Emergency freight is
routed through New York Penn Station and the Hudson tunnels by the USRA to relieve
congestion. Locomotive class N1s is
introduced for PRR's western lines. The PRR electrifies the suburban
Philadelphia commuter line between Central Philadelphia and
- 1928–1938 PRR electrified its New York–Washington main line,
the Chicago–Philadelphia main line between Harrisburg and Paoli,
several Philadelphia and New York area commuter lines, and major
through freight lines.
- 1946 The PRR reported a net loss for the first time in its
- 1957 Steam locomotives are removed from active service in the
- 1968 Pennsylvania Railroad merges with New York Central to form the Penn Central.
- 1970 The Penn Central files for
bankruptcy protection on June 21, 1970.
The Pennsylvania Railroad was in business for 124 years.
Standard Railroad of the World
In 1916 the PRR began using the slogan Standard Railroad of
. This meant that it was perceived as the
standard to which all other railroads aspired.For a long time this
was true. It was the first railroad to completely replace
wooden-bodied passenger cars with steel-bodied cars, and the first
to introduce the vestibuled train
Over its history it led the way in many safety and efficiency
improvements. In later years the PRR abandoned the use of the
The Pennsylvania Railroad was "standard" in another way. It was an
early proponent of standardization. While other railroads used
whatever was available, the PRR tested and experimented with
equipment designs. When they found the right design, it became
standard across the whole company. This gave the railroad a feel of
uniformity, and it also reduced costs. This was unlike other
railroads who purchased locomotives
in small lots, taking
whatever was available from manufacturers at the time. The PRR was
also an early adopter of standard color schemes for their
Equipment colors and painting
As noted above, the PRR colors and paint schemes were standardized.
were painted in a shade of
green so dark it seemed almost black. The official name for this
color was DGLE (Dark Green Locomotive Enamel). Often it was
referred to as "Brunswick Green". The undercarriage of the
locomotives were painted in black referred to as True Black. The
Pennsylvania Railroad were painted Tuscan Red. This is a brick
colored shade of red. Some electric
and most passenger-hauling diesel locomotives
were also painted in
Tuscan Red. Freight cars of the PRR had their own color. It was
known as Freight Car Color which was an iron-oxide shade of red. On
passenger locomotives and cars, the lettering and out-lining was
originally done in real gold leaf
World War II
the lettering was done in
a light shade of yellow called Buff Yellow.
The Pennsylvania Railroad was one of the first railroads to use
trackside. The signals were designed to replace
Visibility in foggy conditions was one of the factors for the
development of this type of signal. A position-light signal used a
large round target (sign) with an array of up to nine lights. Eight
lights are arranged in a circle near the edge of the target with
another light positioned in the center. The lights in
position-light signals used amber-colored lenses, which could
penetrate fog. With a position signal light, the positioning of the
light display determined the meaning of the message. The design
also allowed train personnel to recognize the signal aspect
when one light in a row was inoperative.
Signal aspects were displayed as rows of three lit lights. These
signal aspects corresponded with upper-quadrant semaphore signal
positions: vertical display for proceed, a 45° angle display for
approach, and horizontal display for stop. Additionally, a row of
lights at a 45° angle leaning left of vertical (perpendicular to
the approach aspect) was also used for a restricting aspect. A "X"
shape was a "take siding" aspect (message) and a full circle was a
"raise pantograph" aspect in electrified territory. Additional
aspects were conveyed with a second target head below the first,
either a single light, a partial target, or a full target,
depending on the location.
In later years, the two outside lights in the horizontal "stop" row
were often given red lenses, and the center lamp would be
extinguished when the signal displayed a stop aspect.
For most of its existence, the PRR was conservative in its
locomotive power choices and pursued a path of standardization,
both in locomotive types and their component parts. Almost alone
among American railroads, the PRR designed most of its steam locomotive
classes itself and built a
proportion of them in its Altoona Works. The PRR is believed to
have been the 4th-most prolific U.S. builder of steam
Outside builders were used due to the sheer number of locomotives
the PRR ordered. The number required exceeded the capacity that its
own shops could produce. PRR used a commercial builder as a
subcontractor, building exact replicas of an existing PRR design.
This was unlike most railroads who gave only a broad specification,
thereby leaving the majority of the decision making and design to
the locomotive builder.
needed to use a commercial locomotive builder, the PRR favored
Philadelphia's Baldwin Locomotive Works.
Baldwin was a major PRR customer, receiving
its raw materials and shipping out its finished products on PRR
lines. Moreover, the two companies were headquartered in the same
city, with PRR and Baldwin management, along with the engineers,
knowing each other well. When both the PRR and Baldwin shops were at
capacity, orders went to the Lima Locomotive Works in Lima, Ohio.
Only as a last resort would
the PRR use the American
) based in
Schenectady, New York. This may have been due to the fact that Alco
was serviced by, as well as the favorite locomotive supplier to,
the PRR's arch-rival: the New
York Central Railroad
The PRR had a design style that it favored in its locomotives. One
example is the square-shouldered Belpaire firebox
. This British style
firebox was a PRR trademark that was rarely used by other
locomotive builders in the United States. Also, the PRR used
extensively to pick up water,
for the locomotive, while on the move. Using this system meant that
of their locomotives
had a comparatively large proportion of coal (which could not be
taken on board while running) compared to water capacity.
Locomotives of the PRR had a clean look to them. Only necessary
devices were used and they were mounted neatly on the
locomotive.Smoke box fronts bore a round locomotive number board
denoting a freight locomotive or a keystone number board denoting a
passenger locomotive. Otherwise, the smoke box was uncluttered with
the exception of a headlamp mounted at the top and a steam-driven
turbo-generator behind it. In later years the positions of the two
were reversed, since the generator needs more maintenance than the
Each class of steam locomotive was assigned a class designation.
Early on, this was simply an alphabetical letter, but when these
began to run out, the scheme was changed so that each wheel arrangement
had its own letter, and
different types of the same arrangement were defined by a
subsequent number. Subtypes were in turn indicated by a lower-case
letter; superheating was designated by an "s" until the mid 1920s,
by which time all new locomotives were superheated. Thus, for
example, a K4sa class was a 4-6-2
type (K) and of the fourth class of Pacifics designed by the PRR.
It was superheated (s) and was of the first variant type (a) after
the original (unlettered). Steam locomotives remained part of the
PRR fleet until 1957 when they were retired from active
It should be noted that the PRR's reliance on steam locomotives in
the mid 20th century was a factor contributing to its downfall.
Steam locomotives require more maintenance than diesel locomotives,
are less cost efficient, and require more personnel to operate.
Also, the PRR was unable to update its roster during the World War
II years, and by the end of the war their roster was in rough
shape. In addition, during World War II and immediately thereafter,
the PRR was saddled with unsuccessful experimental steam
locomotives such as the Q1
, the S2 turbine locomotive
and the T1
. Unlike most of their competition, the PRR did not
acquire any 4-8-4
locomotives, which those
other roads used with great success.
The PRR's competitors managed this period better with their diesel
locomotive rosters.The PRR was historically-minded when it
voluntarily preserved a roundhouse-full of representative steam
locomotives at Northumberland, Pennsylvania in 1957, and kept them there for several
decades. These locomotives are now at the Railroad
Museum of Pennsylvania in Strasburg, Pennsylvania.
In sharp contrast, the New York Central's
Alfred E. Perlman deliberately scrapped all but two large NYC steam
locomotives, and these survived only by accident.
On December 18, 1987 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania designated
the Pennsylvania Railroad's K4s as the official State Steam
Locomotive. The two surviving Locomotives can be seen on display at
Strasburg and Altoona.
work on the Hudson River tunnels and
Pennsylvania Station was in progress, the type of electric locomotives
to be used was an important consideration.
PRR FF1 experimental engine.
At that time just
a few electric locomotives had been built anywhere. Several
experimental locomotives were designed by railroad and Westinghouse
engineers and tried on the West Jersey and Seashore
track. From these tests the DD1
class was developed. The DD1
were used in
pairs (back to back). Thirty-three of these engines having
Westinghouse equipment were built at Altoona. They were capable of
speeds up to 85 miles per hour. Placed in service in 1910, they
proved to be very efficient.
Various types of locomotives were being designed for the long-range
electrification program.The first equipment to be put into service
consisted of 93 motor cars, and by 1924 there were 286 cars of this
type in use. By 1935 the motor and trailer equipment totaled 43
units, with the number eventually reaching 524 units.
The most powerful single-unit electric locomotive ever built was
tried in 1917 and used experimentally for a number of years. This
engine was classed the FF1
and had a
side-rod drive. This class developed a tractive force of 140,000
In 1924 another type of side-rod locomotive was designed (the
class), and three engines were built. Two
were DC engines for use in the New York electrified zone and the
third, road number 3930, was AC-equipped and put in service at
Philadelphia. Later, 21 more L-5 locomotives were built for the New
York service. A six-wheeled switching engine was the next electric
motive power designed, being classified as B1
. Of the first 16 AC engines, two were used at
Philadelphia and 14 on the Bay Ridge line, while 12 DC-equipped
engines were assigned to Sunnyside Yard.
class was a light passenger type.
Eight of these engines were built from June 1930 to December 1931.
class was also introduced, with two of
this class being placed in service during July and August 1931.
Following these came the P5A
, a slightly
heavier design capable of traveling 80 miles per hour
and with a tractive force of
56,250 pounds. In all, 89 of these locomotives were built. The
first had a box cab design and were placed in service in 1932. The
following year, the last 28 under construction were redesigned to
have a streamlined type of cab. Some of these engines underwent
regearing for freight service.
In 1933 two entirely new locomotives were being planned. These were
and the GG1
class. The R-1 had a rigid frame for its four driving axles, while
the GG-1 had two frames which were articulated. Both of these
prototypes, along with an O-1
, a P5A
and a K4s
underwent exhaustive testing. Testing was conducted over a special section
of test track near Claymont, Delaware and lasted for nearly two years.
As a result
of these experiments, the GG1
chosen and theconstruction of 57 locomotives was authorized. The
was finished in April, and by
August 1935 all 57 were completed. These first GG1
engines were designated for passenger service,
while most of the P5A type were made available for freight service.
Some of the later-built GG1
were assigned to
freight service as well. The total number of GG1
built was 139. They are rated at at speeds of an
On August 26, 1999, The United States Postal Service
issued commemorative 33-cent All Aboard!
Century American Trains
stamps. These commemorative stamps
featured five celebrated American passenger trains from the 1930s
and 1940s. One of the five stamps features an image of a GG-1
locomotive pulling the "Congressional Limited Express." The
official Pennsylvania State Electric Locomotive is the GG-1 #4859.
It received this designation on December 18, 1987
and is currently on
display in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Rock Island Railroad's EMD E8
In the mid 1940s, the PRR began to add diesel locomotives to their
fleet. From 1945 through 1949 it purchased 74 E7
class locomotives from General Motors EMD
(Electro-Motive Division). These units were given
the classification EP20 by the PRR. Sixty of this number were
designated "A" units, meaning that they had a cab for the train
crew. The remaining 14 were designated "B" units; these were
cabless booster units that were controlled by an "A" unit.
Another addition to the PRR diesel locomotive fleet was the
referred to as the "Centipede." Twenty-four of these units were
purchased, and PRR classified them as BP60. These units had
reliability problems and were soon obsolete. They were relegated to
In 1948 the PRR purchased twenty-seven DR-6 locomotives from
Baldwin Locomotive Works. These units were given the PRR
. Originally for the
passenger service fleet, these locomotive proved troublesome, and
some were reclassified as BF16z freight locomotives.
From 1950 to 1952, the PRR purchased another group of 74
locomotives from EMD. These were EMD's E8
locomotives (successor to the E7). All of this group were "A"
units. The PRR gave these units the classification EP22s.
Major passenger stations
The PRR built several grand railroad passenger stations in major
cities, either alone or in conjunction with other railroads. These
architectural marvels served as the hubs for the PRR's extensive
passenger service. Many of these stations are still in use today,
served by Amtrak
as well as regional
passenger carriers. See also Pennsylvania Station
, the name given to
many of them.
Broad Street Station - Philadelphia,
Broad Street Station,
Broad Street Station was the first of the great passenger stations
built by the PRR. Opened in 1881, the station was dramatically
expanded in the early 1890s by famed Philadelphia architect
, and for most of its
existence served with City Hall as arguably one of the crown jewels
of Philadelphia's architecture, and for thirty years had the
largest train shed in the world (a 91 m span). It was the terminal
station for the PRR service into Philadelphia, bringing trains
right into the center of the city. It was demolished in 1953 after
the PRR moved all its hub service to 30th Street Station.
Union Station - Washington, D.C.
Union Station Washington D.C.
Union Station, built jointly with the B&O, served as a hub for
PRR passenger services in the nation's capital, with connections to
the B&O, and Southern
(US). The Richmond,
Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad provided a link to Richmond,
Virginia, about to the south, where major north–south lines
of the Atlantic Coast Line
Railroad and Seaboard Air
Line Railroad provided service to the Carolinas, Georgia, and
Penn Station - New York, New York
original Pennsylvania Station was modeled on the Roman Baths of
Caracalla; it was notable for its enormous rail shed and the
spectacular architecture of the high vaulted ceilings in the
The main entrance to Penn Station New
It was infamous for being demolished for
redevelopment in the railroad's waning years. The station was built
in 1910 to provide direct access to Manhattan from New Jersey
without having to use a ferry, and was served by the PRR's own
trains as well as those of the PRR's subsidiary the Long Island Rail Road
. Its 1963
demolition did not extend to the platforms, the tracks, or even
some of the staircases.
Penn Station - Newark, New Jersey
Penn Station Newark, NJ
This recently refurbished station was built in the 1930s as part of
the PRR's Northeast Corridor
infrastructure. Its style is a mixture of Art Deco and
Neo-Classical. Amtrak still makes stops here, however this station
mainly serves as a stop for three commuter lines.
30th Street Station - Philadelphia,
Philadelphia's 30th Street
In classical grandeur, the 30th Street Station displays its
majestic—and traditional—architectural style with its enormous
waiting room and its vestibules. The station, in spite of its
apparent architectural classicism, was constructed in the 1930s,
when modern and art deco
styles were more
popular. Its construction was needed to accommodate increased
intercity and suburban traffic. It replaced the Broad Street
Station. It is now the primary rail station in Philadelphia.
Union Station - Chicago, Illinois
Chicago's Union Station
The Pennsylvania Railroad, along with the Milwaukee Road and the
Burlington Route, built Chicago's Union Station, the only one of
Chicago's old stations to exist as a train station (the rest of
Chicago's six passenger stations have either been demolished or
substantially remodeled). It was designed by Graham, Anderson, Probst
in the Beaux-Arts style
Presidents of the Pennsylvania Railroad:
Chief Executive Officers of the Pennsylvania Railroad:
- James M. Symes (1960–1963)
- Stuart T. Saunders(1963–1968)
- Atterbury-Bakalar Air Museum (2000), General Atterbury. Retrieved February 21
- Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (2005), RPI:
Alumni hall of fame: Alexander J. Cassatt. Retrieved February 22 2005.
- President and Fellows of Harvard College (2004), 20th century great American business leaders — Martin
W. Clement. Retrieved February 23 2005.
- Thomas, William G. " The Countryside Transformed: The Eastern Shore of
Virginia, the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Creation of the Modern
Landscape" Southern Spaces July 31, 2007.
- White, John H., Jr. (Spring (season) 1986), America's most
noteworthy railroaders, Railroad History, Railway and
Locomotive Historical Society, 154,
- Pennsylvania Railroad, by Edvin Alexander 1947 (published by
- William W. Kratville, Steam, Steel & Limiteds.
Omaha, Neb.: Barnhart Press, 1962.
- Some Classic Trains, Arthur D. Dubin, Kalmbach
Publications, 1964, pp.76-95
Some Classic Trains, Arthur D. Dubin, Kalmbach Publications, 1964,
Some Classic Trains, Arthur D. Dubin, Kalmbach Publications, 1964,
- New York Central Railroad
Railroad Technical and Historical Society
Museum of Pennsylvania Strasburg, Pennsylvania
- PRR Chronology — in depth
- PRR Corporate History
- PennsyRR.com — comprehensive PRR facts and history
site, comprising multiple individual websites.
- prr.railfan.net — contains a lot of PRR information,
including equipment diagrams, freight car info.
- The New York tunnel extension of the Pennsylvania
Railroad Transactions of the American Society of Civil
Engineers, vol. LXVIII, Sept. 1910, by B.F. Cresson, Jr, from
- Orr, John W. Set Up Running: The Life of a Pennsylvania Railroad
Engineman, 1904–1949, Penn State Press, 2001 ISBN
- Pennsylvania Railroad GG-1 p. 1
of 2: Stan's Railpix
- 1/16/1904;Sectional view Of Pennsylvania Railroad
Tunnel Now Under Construction Beneath the Hudson River