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The Pennsylvanian is in the ICS geologic timescale the youngest subperiod or upper subsystem of the Carboniferous period. It lasted from roughly   to  Ma (million years ago). As with most other geochronologic units, the rock beds that define the Pennsylvanian are well identified, but the exact date of the start and end are uncertain by a few million years. The Pennsylvanian is named after the state of Pennsylvaniamarker, where rocks with this age are widespread.

The division between Pennsylvanian and Mississippian comes from North American stratigraphy. In North America, where the early Carboniferous beds are primarily marine limestones, the Pennsylvanian was in the past treated as a full fledged geologic period between the Mississippian and the Permian. In Europe, the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian are one more-or-less continuous sequence of lowland continental deposits and are grouped together as the Carboniferous period. The current internationally used geologic timescale of the ICS gives the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian the rank of subperiods, subdivisions of the Carboniferous period.

All modern classes of fungi were present in the Pennsylvanian.

Subdivisions

The Pennsylvanian has been variously subdivided. The international timescale of the ICS follows the Russianmarker subdivision into four stages:



North American subdivision is into five stages, but not precisely the same, with additional (older) Appalachian series names following:

The Virgilian or Conemaugh corresponds to the Gzhelian plus the uppermost Kasimovian.The Missourian or Monongahela corresponds to the rest of the Kasimovian.The Desmoinesian or Allegheny corresponds to the upper half of the Moscovian.The Atokan or upper Pottsville corresponds to the lower half of the Moscovian.The Morrowan corresponds to the Bashkirian.

In the European subdivision, the Carboniferous is divided into two epochs: Dinantian (early) and Silesian (late). The Silesian starts earlier than the Pennsylvanian and is divided in three ages:

References



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