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Perm ( ; Komi-Permyak: Перем, Perem; ) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russiamarker. It is situated on the banks of the Kama River, in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountainsmarker.

Perm's 2007 estimated population was 990,200 (2007 est.), down from 1,001,653 recorded in the 2002 Census and 1,090,944 recorded in 1989 Census. As of the 2002 Census, the city was the thirteenth most populous in Russia.

Perm is served by Bolshoye Savino Airportmarker and hosts Bakharevkamarker air base.

The word "Perm" is probably Komi or Veps in origin. " " is translated from Komi-Permyak language as a hilly place, covered with woods. Alternately, the name may originate from the Veps term "Pera maa" or "Perama" (distant land in English).

Geography

Kama River near Perm


Perm covers an area of . It is the third-largest Russian city by area, after Moscowmarker and Saint Petersburgmarker.

The city of Perm is located on the bank of the Kama River upon hilly terrain. The Kama is the main tributary of the Volga River and the one of the deepest and most picturesque rivers of Russia. This river is the waterway which grants the Uralsmarker access to the White Seamarker, Baltic Seamarker, Sea of Azovmarker, Black Seamarker, and Caspian Seamarker. Kama divides the city into two parts, the central part and the right bank part, and it stretches for 70 km along the Kama and 40 km across it. The city street grid parallels the Kama River, travelling generally east-west, while other main streets run perpendicularly to those following the river. The grid pattern accommodates the hills of the city where it crosses them.

Another distinguishing feature of the city's relief is the large quantity of small rivers and brooks. The largest of them are the Mulyankamarker, Yegoshikha, Motoviliha (all are on the left bank of Kama River), and Gaiva (on the right bank).

History

During the early Middle Ages, the region of Perm was populated by pagan Finno-Ugric tribes who lived to the southeast of the legendary Bjarmaland and northeast of Volga Bulgaria. Between the 13th and 14th centuries, Russian fur traders and Christian missionaries from Novgorodmarker and later Moscowmarker founded the first settlements in the area. Saint Stephen of Perm is credited with the conversion of the local population to Christianity in the late 14th century. In the 15th century, the Perm region, because of its highly profitable fur trade, was an object of a bitter rivalry between Novgorod and Moscow, and in 1472 Perm was finally annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, soldiers, merchants, Christian monks, and priests were followed by Tsaristmarker administration officials and peasant settlers from western Russia.

Perm was first mentioned as a village, Yegoshikha, in 1647; however, the history of the modern city of Perm starts with the development of the Ural region by Tsar Peter I of Russia. Vasily Tatishchev, appointed by the Tsar as a chief manager of Ural factories, founded Perm together with another major center of the Ural region, Yekaterinburgmarker.

Perm was founded on May 15 (May 4 in Julian calendar), 1723, and has had town status since 1781. By 1797, it was already an administrative center of the gubernia with the same name.

Ulitsa Pokrovskaya in central Perm around 1910.


In the 19th century, Perm became a major trade and industrial center with a population of more than 20,000 people in the 1860s, with several metallurgy, paper, and steamboat producing factories, including one owned by a British entrepreneur. In 1870, an opera theatre was opened in the city, and in 1871 the first phosphoric factory in Russia was built. In 1916, Perm State University — a major educational institution in modern Russia — was opened.

After the outbreak of the Russian Civil War, Perm became a prime target for both sides because of its military munitions factories. In December 1918 the Siberian White Army under Anatoly Pepelyayev (who acknowledged the authority of the Omskmarker Government of Aleksandr Kolchak), took Perm. In 1919 the city was retaken by the Red Army.

Grand Duke Mikail Alexandrovich was executed in the outskirts of Perm with his secretary Nicholas Johnson on June 12, 1918 on the orders of the Perm Cheka. Their bodies were never recovered. A few weeks later on July 7, 1918, Andronic Nikolsky, the Archbishop Of Perm, was also murdered by the Bolsheviks in the city. In 2000, the Russian Orthodox Church glorified him as Hieromartyr Andronik, Archbishop Of Perm, one of the Russian New Martyrs and Confessors.

File:Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii - City of Perm. General view (1910).jpg|General view of City of PermFile:Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii - General view of the city of Perm from Gorodskie Gorki (1910).jpg|General view of the city of Perm from Gorodskie GorkiFile:Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii - Razguliai, outskirts of the city of Perm (1910).jpg|Razguliai, outskirts of the city of PermFile:Perm._Mary_Magdalene_Church.png| Mary Magdalene Church of the city PermFile:Prokudin-Gorsky - Perm. Summertime location of the exchange.jpg| Summertime location of the exchange in the city PermFile:Prokudin-Gorskii - Staro-Sibirskaia Gate in the city of Perm.jpg|Prokudin-Gorskii - Staro-Sibirskaia Gate in the city of PermFile:Prokudin-Gorskii-25.jpg|Kama river near Perm. The bridge still stands today, but another similar bridge has been built along side it. Both are painted white.File:Prokudin-Gorsky - Perm. Headquarters of the Ural Railway Administration.jpg|Headquarters of the Ural Railway Administration in the city of Perm

Soviet Times

In the 1930s, Perm grew as a major industrial city, and aviation, shipbuilding, and chemical factories were built there. The process continued after the 1940s and virtually every major industry became represented by numerous factories in Perm. To this day almost 80% of the city's population is employed in manufacturing. During the Great Patriotic War (World War II), Perm was a vital center of artillery production in the Soviet Unionmarker.

From 1940 until 1957 the city was named Molotov ( ), after Vyacheslav Molotov.

Modern city

The city is a major administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center. The leading industries include machinery, defence, oil production (about 3% of Russian output), oil refining, chemical and petrochemical, timber and wood processing and the food industry.

Administrative divisions

Administrative divisions
Building of the Perm Administration


Perm is divided into seven city districts:
City District Population (2002 Census)
Dzerzhinsky ( ) 153,403
Industrialny ( ) 160,039
Kirovsky ( ) 126,960
Leninsky ( ) 57,569
Motovilikhinsky ( ) 176,564
Ordzhonikidzevsky ( ) 11,631
Sverdlovsky ( ) 215,487


Culture

The Perm Opera and Ballet House is the one of the best in Russia. There are many other theatres in Perm, such as the Drama theatremarker, the Puppet Theatre, the Theatre for Young Spectators, the Theatre "Near Bridge", etcetera


The city contains museums and galleries. The Perm State Art Gallery is recognized for its outstanding collections of art, including paintings from the 15th to 18th century art movements, and wooden sculptures from the region. It is housed in a notable early 19th century structure, once an orthodox cathedral. The spire of the museum towers over the rest of Perm, as it is situated on the Komsomolsky Prospect. [47452] [47453] Perm is in the news for the new Museum of Contemporary Art, which came into existence officially in March 2009. Marat Guelman left Moscow to join this Museum. Some wonder if Perm will become the new Bilbao with this burst of artistic activity. [47454] [47455]

Education

Perm is a scientific center; some of the scientific institutes are combined in the Perm Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciencesmarker.

Perm is a home to several major universities including Perm State University , Perm State Technical University , Perm State Teachers' Training University, Perm State Medical Academy , Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy , Perm State Agricultural Academy, The Institute of Art and Culture, Perm State Choreographic School, Perm branch of state university Higher school of economics and others. There are also three military schools in Perm.

Transport

Perm is an important railway junction on the Trans-Siberian Railway with lines radiating to Central Russia, north part of Ural, far east of Russiamarker. The Kama River is an important link in the unifying deep-water system of the European part of Russia. The river connects the city with European waterways. It is possible to ship cargo from Kama river area to the sea ports of Whitemarker, Balticmarker, Azovmarker, Blackmarker, and Caspianmarker seas without reloading.

Perm is served by the international airport Bolshoye Savinomarker, 16 km south-west.

Perm's public transit network includes tram, bus, and trolleybus routes.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Perm is twinned with:

Sport

The three main professional sports played in Perm are football, ice hockey and basketball. The largest football club in Perm is Amkar, who play in the Russian Premier League. Perm is also home to the two-time Russian Basketball Super League champions, Ural Great. The largest Ice hockey team based in Perm is Molot-Prikame Perm who play in the Vysshaya Liga.

Notable citizens

See: :Category:People from Perm


The following people were either born in Perm or made names for themselves while residing there.
Monument to Fyodor Gral


See also



References

External links



Education




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