is a branch of psychology
that studies personality and
individual differences.Its areas of focus include:
- Constructing a coherent picture of a person and his or her major psychological
- Investigating individual differences, that is,
how people can differ from one another.
- Investigating human nature, that
is, how all people's behaviour is similar.
One emphasis in this area is to construct a coherent picture of a
and his or her major psychological
processes . Another emphasis views personality as the study of
individual differences, in other words, how people differ from each
other. A third area of emphasis examines human nature
and how all people are similar to
one another. These three viewpoints merge together in the study of
can be defined as a dynamic and
organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that
uniquely influences his or her cognitions
motivations, and behaviors
situations . The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona
, which means mask
. Significantly, in the theatre
ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask
was not used as a plot device to
the identity of a character, but rather was a
convention employed to represent or typify
The pioneering American psychologist, Gordon Allport
(1937) described two major
ways to study personality, the nomothetic and the idiographic
seeks general laws that can be applied to many
different people, such as the principle of self-actualization
, or the trait of
is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a
The study of personality has a rich and varied history in
psychology, with an abundance of theoretical traditions. The major
theories include dispositional (trait) perspective, psychodynamic,
humanistic, biological, behaviorist and social learning
perspective. There is no consensus on the definition of
"personality" in psychology. Most researchers and psychologists do
not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and
often take an eclectic approach. Some research is empirically
driven such as the "Big 5"
whereas other research emphasizes theory
development such as psychodynamics
There is also a substantial emphasis on the applied field of
Many of the ideas developed by historical and modern personality
theorists stem from the basic philosophical assumptions they hold.
The study of personality is not a purely empirical discipline, as
it brings in elements of art
, and philosophy
draw general conclusions. The following five categories are some of
the most fundamental philosophical assumptions on which theorists
1. Freedom versus Determinism
This is the debate over whether we have control over our own
behavior and understand the motives behind it (Freedom
), or if our behavior is
causally determined by forces beyond our control (Determinism
). Determinism has been considered
unconscious, environmental, or biological by various
2. Heredity versus Environment
Personality is thought to be determined largely by either genetics
environment and experiences, or by some combination of the two.
There is evidence for all possibilities. Contemporary research
suggests that most personality traits are based on the joint
influence of genetics and environment.
3. Uniqueness versus Universality
The argument over whether we are all unique individuals (Uniqueness
) or if humans are basically similar in
their nature (Universality
). Gordon Allport
, Abraham Maslow
, and Carl Rogers
were all advocates of the uniqueness
of individuals. Behaviorists and cognitive theorists, in contrast,
emphasized the importance of universal principles such as
reinforcement and self-efficacy.
4. Active versus Reactive
Do we primarily act through our own initiative (Active
), or react to outside stimuli
)? Behavioral theorists typically believe
that humans are passively shaped by their environments, whereas
humanistic and cognitive theorists believe that humans are more
5. Optimistic versus Pessimistic
Personality theories differ on whether people can change their
), or if they are
doomed to remain the same throughout their lives (Pessimism
). Theories that place a great deal of
emphasis on learning are often, but not always, more optimistic
than theories that do not emphasize learning.
Critics of personality theory claim personality is "plastic" across
time, places, moods, and situations. Changes in personality may
indeed result from diet (or lack thereof), medical effects,
significant events, or learning. However, most personality theories
emphasize stability over fluctuation.
According to the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual
of the American Psychiatric
, personality traits are "enduring patterns of
perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and
oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal
contexts." Theorists generally assume a) traits are relatively
stable over time, b) traits differ among individuals (e.g. some
people are outgoing while others are reserved), and c) traits
The most common models of traits incorporate three to five broad
dimensions or factors. The least controversial dimension, observed
as far back as the ancient Greeks, is simply extraversion and introversion
(outgoing and physical-stimulation-oriented vs. quiet and
- Gordon Allport
delineated different kinds of traits, which he also called
dispositions. Central traits are basic to an individual's
personality, while secondary traits are more peripheral.
Common traits are those recognized within a culture and
thus may vary from culture to culture. Cardinal traits are
those by which an individual may be strongly recognized.
- Hans Eysenck
believed just three traits—extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism—were sufficient to describe human
personality. Differences between Cattell and Eysenck emerged due to
preferences for different forms of factor analysis, with Cattell using oblique,
Eysenck orthogonal, rotation to analyse the factors that emerged
when personality questionnaires were subjected to statistical
analysis. Today, the Big Five factors have the weight of a
considerable amount of empirical research behind them, building on
the work of Cattell and others.
- Openness to Experience: the tendency to be
imaginative, independent, and interested in variety vs. practical,
conforming, and interested in routine.
- Conscientiousness: the tendency to be
organized, careful, and disciplined vs. disorganized, careless, and
- Extraversion: the tendency to be sociable,
fun-loving, and affectionate vs. retiring, somber, and
- Agreeableness: the tendency to be softhearted,
trusting, and helpful vs. ruthless, suspicious, and
- Neuroticism: the tendency to be calm, secure,
and self-satisfied vs. anxious, insecure, and self-pitying
- The Big Five contain important dimensions of personality.
However, some personality researchers argue that this list of major
traits is not exhaustive. Some support has been found for two
additional factors: excellent/ordinary and evil/decent. However, no
definitive conclusions have been established.
- John L.
RIASEC vocational model, commonly referred to as the
stipulates that six personality traits lead people to choose their
career paths. In this circumplex model, the six types are
represented as a hexagon, with adjacent types more closely related
than those more distant. The model is widely used in vocational
Trait models have been criticized as being purely descriptive and
offering little explanation of the underlying causes of
personality. Eysenck's theory, however, does propose biological
mechanisms as driving traits, and modern behavior genetics
researchers have shown a
clear genetic substrate to them. Another potential weakness of
trait theories is that they lead people to accept oversimplified
classifications, or worse offer advice, based on a superficial
analysis of their personality. Finally, trait models often
underestimate the effect of specific situations on people's
behavior. It is important to remember that traits are statistical
generalizations that do not always correspond to an individual's
refers to the
psychological classification of different types of people.
Personality types are distinguished from personality traits
, which come in different
levels or degrees. For example, according to type theories, there
are two types of people, introverts and extraverts. According to
trait theories, introversion and extraversion are part of a
continuous dimension, with many people in the middle. The idea of
psychological types originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung
and William Marston, whose work is
reviewed in Dr. Travis Bradberry's The Personality Code
Jung's seminal 1921 book on the subject is available in English as
Building on the writings and observations of Jung, during World War II
and her mother, Katharine C. Briggs, delineated
personality types by constructing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
This model was later used by David
with a different understanding from Jung, Briggs and
the former Soviet
Union, Lithuanian Aušra
Augustinavičiūtė independently derived a model of personality
type from Jung's called Socionics.
The model is an older and more theoretical approach to personality,
accepting extraversion and introversion as basic psychological
orientations in connection with two pairs of psychological
- Perceiving functions: sensing and intuition (trust in concrete,
sensory-oriented facts vs. trust in abstract concepts and imagined
- Judging functions: thinking and feeling (basing decisions
primarily on logic vs. considering the effect on people).
Briggs and Myers also added another personality dimension to their
type indicator to measure whether a person prefers to use a judging
or perceiving function when interacting with the external world.
Therefore they included questions designed to indicate whether
someone wishes to come to conclusions (judgment) or to keep options
This personality typology has some aspects of a trait theory: it
explains people's behaviour in terms of opposite fixed
characteristics. In these more traditional models, the
sensing/intuition preference is considered the most basic, dividing
people into "N" (intuitive) or "S" (sensing) personality types. An
"N" is further assumed to be guided either by thinking or feeling,
and divided into the "NT" (scientist, engineer) or "NF" (author,
humanitarian) temperament. An "S", by contrast, is assumed to be
guided more by the judgment/perception axis, and thus divided into
the "SJ" (guardian, traditionalist) or "SP" (performer, artisan)
temperament. These four are considered basic, with the other two
factors in each case (including always extraversion/introversion)
less important. Critics of this traditional view have observed that
the types can be quite strongly stereotyped by professions
(although neither Myers nor Keirsey engaged in such stereotyping in
their type descriptions), and thus may arise more from the need to
categorize people for purposes of guiding their career choice. This
among other objections led to the emergence of the five-factor
view, which is less concerned with behavior under work conditions
and more concerned with behavior in personal and emotional
circumstances. (It should be noted, however, that the MBTI is not
designed to measure the "work self," but rather what Myers and
McCaulley called the "shoes-off self." ) Some critics have argued
for more or fewer dimensions while others have proposed entirely
different theories (often assuming different definitions of
Type A and
Type B personality theory
: During the 1950s, Meyer Friedman
and his co-workers defined
what they called Type A and Type B behavior patterns. They
theorized that intense, hard-driving Type A personalities had a
higher risk of coronary disease because they are "stress junkies."
Type B people, on the other hand, tended to be relaxed, less
competitive, and lower in risk. There was also a Type AB mixed
profile. Dr. Redford Williams, cardiologist at
Friedman’s theory that Type A personalities have a higher risk of
coronary heart disease; however, current research indicates that
only the hostility component of Type A may have health
Type A/B theory has been extensively
criticized by psychologists because it tends to oversimplify the
many dimensions of an individual's personality.
theories explain human
behaviour in terms of the interaction of various components of
personality. Sigmund Freud
founder of this school. Freud drew on the physics of his day
(thermodynamics) to coin the term psychodynamics. Based on the idea
of converting heat into mechanical energy, he proposed psychic
energy could be converted into behavior. Freud's theory places
central importance on dynamic, unconscious psychological
Freud divides human personality into three significant components:
the id, ego, and super-ego
acts according to the pleasure
, demanding immediate gratification of its needs
regardless of external environment; the ego
must emerge in order to realistically meet the wishes and demands
of the id in accordance with the outside world, adhering to the
. Finally, the
(conscience) inculcates moral judgment and
societal rules upon the ego, thus forcing the demands of the id to
be met not only realistically but morally. The superego is the last
function of the personality to develop, and is the embodiment of
parental/social ideals established during childhood. According to
Freud, personality is based on the dynamic interactions of these
The channeling and release of sexual (libidal) and aggressive
energies, which ensues from the "Eros" (sex; instinctual
self-preservation) and "Thanatos" (death; instinctual
self-annihilation) drives respectively, are major components of his
theory. It is important to note Freud's broad understanding of
sexuality included all kinds of pleasurable feelings experienced by
the human body.
Freud proposed five psychosexual stages of personality development.
He believed adult personality is dependent upon early childhood
experiences and largely determined by age five. Fixations that
develop during the Infantile stage contribute to adult personality
One of Sigmund Freud's earlier associates, Alfred Adler
, did agree with Freud early
childhood experiences are important to development, and believed
birth order may influence personality development. Adler believed
the oldest was the one that set high goals to achieve to get the
attention they lost back when the younger siblings were born. He
believed the middle children were competitive and ambitious
possibly so they are able to surpass the first-born’s achievements,
but were not as much concerned about the glory. Also he believed
the last born would be more dependent and sociable but be the baby.
He also believed that the only child loves being the center of
attention and matures quickly, but in the end fails to become
thought similarly to Freud’s
idea of transference. He used narcissism
as a model of how we develop our sense of self. Narcissism is the
exaggerated sense of one self in which is believed to exist in
order to protect one's low self esteem and sense of worthlessness.
Kohut had a significant impact on the field by extending Freud's
theory of narcissism and introducing what he called the
'self-object transferences' of mirroring and idealization. In other
words, children need to idealize and emotionally "sink into" and
identify with the idealized competence of admired figures such as
parents or older siblings. They also need to have their self-worth
mirrored by these people. These experiences allow them to thereby
learn the self-soothing and other skills that are necessary for the
development of a healthy sense of self.
Another important figure in the world of personality theory was
. She is credited with the
development of the "real self
" and the
"ideal self". She believes all people have these two views of their
own self. The "real self" is how you really are with regards to
personality, values, and morals; but the "ideal self" is a
construct you apply to yourself to conform to social and personal
norms and goals. Ideal self would be "I can be successful, I am CEO
material"; and real self would be "I just work in the mail room,
with not much chance of high promotion".
explain personality in
terms of the effects external stimuli have on behavior. It was a
radical shift away from Freudian philosophy. This school of thought
was developed by B. F. Skinner
put forth a model which emphasized the mutual interaction of the
person or "the organism" with its environment. Skinner believed
children do bad things because the behavior obtains attention that
serves as a reinforcer. For example: a child cries because the
child's crying in the past has led to attention. These are the
, and consequences
. The response is the
child crying, and the attention that child gets is the reinforcing
consequence. According to this theory, people's behavior is formed
by processes such as operant
. Skinner put forward a "three term contingency
model" which helped promote analysis of behavior based on the
"Stimulus - Response - Consequence Model" in which the critical
question is: "Under which circumstances or antecedent 'stimuli'
does the organism engage in a particular behavior or 'response',
which in turn produces a particular 'consequence'?"
theory by accounting for attitudes and traits. An attitude develops
as the response strength (the tendency to respond) in the presences
of a group of stimuli become stable. Rather than describing
conditionable traits in non-behavioral language, response strength
in a given situation accounts for the environmental portion.
Herrstein also saw traits as having a large genetic or biological
component as do most modern behaviorists.
is another notable
influence. He is well known for his classical conditioning
experiments involving dogs. These physiological studies led him to
discover the foundation of behaviorism as well as classical conditioning
Social cognitive theories
, behavior is
explained as guided by cognitions (e.g. expectations) about the
world, especially those about other people. Cognitive theories are
theories of personality that emphasize cognitive processes such as
thinking and judging.
, a social learning theorist
the forces of memory
worked in conjunction with environmental
influences. Bandura was known mostly for his "Bobo Doll experiment
". During these
experiments, Bandura video taped a college student kicking and
verbally abusing a bobo doll. He then showed this video to a class
of kindergarten children who were getting ready to go out to play.
When they entered the play room, they saw bobo dolls, and some
hammers. The people observing these children at play saw a group of
children beating the doll. He called this study and his findings
observational learning, or modeling.
Early examples of approaches to cognitive style are listed by Baron
(1982). These include Witkin's (1965) work on field dependency,
Gardner's (1953) discovering people had consistent preference for
the number of categories they used to categorise heterogeneous
objects, and Block and Petersen's (1955) work on confidence in line
discrimination judgments. Baron relates early development of
cognitive approaches of personality to ego psychology
. More central to this field
- Self-efficacy work, dealing with
confidence people have in abilities to do tasks ;
- Locus of control theory dealing
with different beliefs people have about whether their worlds are
controlled by themselves or external factors;
- Attributional style theory
dealing with different ways in which people explain events in their
lives. This approach builds upon locus of control, but extends it
by stating we also need to consider whether people attribute to
stable causes or variable causes, and to global causes or specific
Various scales have been developed to assess both attributional
style and locus of control. Locus of control scales include those
used by Rotter and later by Duttweiler, the Nowicki and Strickland
(1973) Locus of Control Scale for Children and various locus of
control scales specifically in the health domain, most famously
that of Kenneth Wallston and his colleagues, The Multidimensional
Health Locus of Control Scale . Attributional style has been
assessed by the Attributional Style Questionnaire , the Expanded
Attributional Style Questionnaire , the Attributions Questionnaire
, the Real Events Attributional Style Questionnaire and the
Attributional Style Assessment Test .
(1999) has also
defended a cognitive approach to personality. His work refers to
"Cognitive Affective Units", and considers factors such as encoding
of stimuli, affect, goal-setting, and self-regulatory beliefs. The
term "Cognitive Affective Units" shows how his approach considers
affect as well as cognition.
Psychology (PCP) is a theory of personality developed by
the American psychologist
George Kelly in the
From the theory, Kelly derived a psychotherapy
approach and also a technique
called The Repertory Grid Interview
that helped his
patients to uncover their own "constructs" (defined later) with
minimal intervention or interpretation by the therapist. The
was later adapted for
various uses within organizations, including decision-making and
interpretation of other people's world-views. From his 1963 book,
A Theory of Personality
, pp. 103–104:
- Fundamental Postulate: A person's processes are psychologically
channelized by the ways in which the person anticipates
- Construction Corollary: A person anticipates events by
construing their replications.
- Individuality Corollary: People differ from one another in
their construction of events.
- Organization Corollary: Each person characteristically evolves,
for convenience in anticipating events, a construction system
embracing ordinal relationships between constructs.
- Dichotomy Corollary: A person's construction system is composed
of a finite number of dichotomous constructs.
- Choice Corollary: People choose for themselves the particular
alternative in a dichotomized construct through which they
anticipate the greater possibility for extension and definition of
- Range Corollary: A construct is convenient for the anticipation
of a finite range of events only.
- Experience Corollary: A person's construction system varies as
the person successively construes the replication of events.
- Modulation Corollary: The variation in a person's construction
system is limited by the permeability of the constructs within
whose ranges of conveniences the variants lie.
- Fragmentation Corollary: A person may successively employ a
variety of construction subsystems which are inferentially
incompatible with each other.
- Commonality Corollary: To the extent that one person employs a
construction of experience which is similar to that employed by
another, the psychological processes of the two individuals are
similar to each other.
- Sociality Corollary: To the extent that one person construes
another's construction processes, that person may play a role in a
social process involving the other person.
In humanistic psychology
emphasized people have free will
play an active role in determining how they behave. Accordingly,
humanistic psychology focuses on subjective experiences of persons
as opposed to forced, definitive factors that determine behavior.
and Carl Rogers
were proponents of this view, which
is based on the "phenomenal field" theory of Combs and Snygg
Maslow spent much of his time studying what he called
"self-actualizing persons", those who are "fulfilling themselves
and doing the best they are capable of doing". Maslow believes all
who are interested in growth move towards self-actualizing (growth,
happiness, satisfaction) views. Many of these people demonstrate a
trend in dimensions of their personalities. Characteristics of
self-actualizers according to Maslow include the four key
- Awareness - maintaining constant enjoyment and
awe of life. These individuals often experienced a "peak
experience". He defined a peak experience as an "intensification of
any experience to the degree there is a loss or transcendence of
self". A peak experience is one in which an individual perceives an
expansion of his or herself, and detects a unity and meaningfulness
in life. Intense concentration on an activity one is involved in,
such as running a marathon, may invoke a peak experience.
- Reality and problem centered - they have
tendency to be concerned with "problems" in their
- Acceptance/Spontaneity - they accept their
surroundings and what cannot be changed.
- Unhostile sense of humor/democratic - they do
not like joking about others, which can be viewed as offensive.
They have friends of all backgrounds and religions and hold very
Maslow and Rogers emphasized a view of the person as an active,
creative, experiencing human being who lives in the present and
subjectively responds to current perceptions, relationships, and
encounters. They disagree with the dark, pessimistic outlook of
those in the Freudian psychoanalysis ranks, but rather view
humanistic theories as positive and optimistic proposals which
stress the tendency of the human personality toward growth and
self-actualization. This progressing self will remain the center of
its constantly changing world; a world that will help mold the self
but not necessarily confine it. Rather, the self has opportunity
for maturation based on its encounters with this world. This
understanding attempts to reduce the acceptance of hopeless
redundancy. Humanistic therapy typically relies on the client for
information of the past and its effect on the present, therefore
the client dictates the type of guidance the therapist may
initiate. This allows for an individualized approach to therapy.
Rogers found patients differ in how they respond to other people.
Rogers tried to model a particular approach to therapy- he stressed
the reflective or empathetic response. This response type takes the
client's viewpoint and reflects back his or her feeling and the
context for it. An example of a reflective response would be, "It
seems you are feeling anxious about your upcoming marriage". This
response type seeks to clarify the therapist's understanding while
also encouraging the client to think more deeply and seek to fully
understand the feelings they have expressed.
Some of the earliest thinking about possible biological bases of
personality grew out of the case of Phineas
. In an 1848 accident, a large iron rod was driven through
Gage's head, and his personality apparently changed as a result
(although descriptions of these psychological changes are usually
exaggerated..—see the article on Gage
Graphic by Damasio et al.
showing how the tamping iron may
have damaged both frontal lobes.
(A 2004 study by Ratiu and colleagues suggests the damage was
In general, patients with brain damage have been difficult to find
and study. In the 1990s, researchers began to use Electroencephalography
(PET) and more recently functional Magnetic
(fMRI), which is now the most widely used
imaging technique to help localize personality traits in the brain.
One of the
founders of this area of brain research is Richard Davidson of the University of
Wisconsin–Madison. Davidson's research lab
has focused on the role
of the prefrontal cortex
in manifesting human personality.
In particular, this research has looked at hemispheric asymmetry of
activity in these regions. Neuropsychological experiments have
suggested that hemispheric asymmetry can affect an individual's
personality (particularly in social settings) for individuals with
NLD (non-verbal learning disorder), which is marked by the
impairment of nonverbal information controlled by the right
hemisphere of the brain. Progress will arise in the areas of gross
motor skills, inability to organize visual-spatial relations, or
adapt to novel social situations. Frequently, a person with NLD is
unable to interpret non-verbal cues, and therefore experiences
difficulty interacting with peers in socially normative ways.
One integrative, biopsychosocial approach to personality and
, linking brain and
environmental factors to specific types of activity, is the
hypostatic model of personality, created by Codrin Stefan
There are two major types of personality tests.
tests assume personality is primarily
unconscious and assess an individual by how he or she responds to
an ambiguous stimulus, like an ink blot. The idea is unconscious
needs will come out in the person's response, e.g. an aggressive
person may see images of destruction. Objective
tests assume personality is consciously accessible and measure it
by self-report questionnaires. Research on psychological assessment
has generally found objective tests are more valid and reliable
than projective tests.
Examples of personality tests
Critics have pointed to the Forer
to suggest some of these appear to be more accurate and
discriminating than they really are.
- Bradberry, Travis. The Personality Code. New York:
- Bradberry, Travis. The Personality Code. New York:
- Ryckman, 2004
- Santrock, J.W. (2008). The Self, Identity, and Personality. In
Mike Ryan (Ed). A Topical Approach to Life-Span
Development.(pg 411-412). New York:McGraw-Hill.
- Carver, C., & Scheier, M. (2004). Perspectives on
Personality (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
- Bandura, 1997
- Lefcourt, 1966; Rotter, 1966
- Abramson, Seligman and Teasdale, 1978
- Wallston et al, 1978
- Peterson et al, 1982
- Peterson & Villanova, 1988
- Gong-guy & Hammen, 1990
- Norman & Antaki, 1988
- Anderson, 1988
- Combs, Arthur W., and Snygg, Donald. : A New Frame of
Reference for Psychology. New York, Harper and Brothers.
Article on Snygg and Combs' Phenomenological Field
- Ratiu P, Talos IF, Haker S, Lieberman S, Everett P (2004). "The
tale of Phineas
Gage, digitally remastered". Journal of Neurotrauma 21 (5):
- Tapu, Codrin Stefan. (2001). Hypostatic Personality:
Psychopathology of Doing and Being Made. Ploiesti:
- Santrock, J.W. (2008).The Self, Identity, and Personality. In
Mike Ryan(Ed.). A Topical Approach To Life-Span
Development. (pg 411-412). New York:McGraw-Hill.
- Abramson, L., M.E.P. Seligman, and J. Teasdale, (1978).
"Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation."
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49-74.
- Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological
interpretation. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
- Baron, J. (1982). "Intelligence and Personality." In R.
Sternberg (Ed.). Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
- Bradberry, T. (2007). The Personality Code. New York:
- Engler, Barbara (2006). Personality Theories. Houghton
- Hjelle, L. and D. Ziegler (1992). Personality: Basic
Assumptions, Research and Applications. New York: McGraw
- Ryckman, R. (2004). Theories of Personality. Belmont,
- Tapu, C.S. (2001). Hypostatic Personality: Psychopathology
of Doing and Being Made. Ploiesti: Premier.
Outline of psychology
- Mischel, W. (1999). Introduction to Personality. Sixth
edition. Fort Worth, Texas: Harcourt Brace.
- Bradberry, T. (2007). "The Personality Code". New York, New
- Buss, D.M., & Greiling, H.(1999). Adaptive Individual
Differences. Journal of Personality, 67, 209-243.
- Lombardo G.P., Foschi R. (2003), The Concept of Personality
between 19th Century France and 20th Century American Psychology,
History of Psychology, 6, 133-142.
- Lombardo G.P., Foschi R. (2002), The European origins of
"personality psychology", European psychologist, 7(2), pp.