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Perugia ( ) is the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italymarker, near the Tiber River, and the capital of the province of Perugia. The city symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city.

Perugia is a notable artistic center of Italy. The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve near Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes; eight of his pictures can also be admired in the National Gallery of Umbria. Perugino was the teacher of Raphael,"...it appears most probable that he did not enter Perugino's studio till the end of 1499, as during the four or five years before that Perugino was mostly absent from his native city. The so-called Sketch Book of Raphael in the academy of Venice contains studies apparently from the cartoons of some of Perugino's Sistine frescoes, possibly done as practice in drawing." (Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition).

See also "Perugia". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2003 the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia (today no longer in the city) and one fresco. Another famous painter, Pinturicchio, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia.

History

Perugia was an Umbrian settlement but first appears in written history as Perusia, one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria; it was first mentioned in Q. Fabius Pictor's account, utilized by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan league by Fabius Maximus Rullianus in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year indutiae (truce) was agreed upon; however, in 295 Perusia took part in the Third Samnite War and was reduced, with Volsinii and Arretium (Arezzomarker), to seek for peace in the following year.

In 216 and 205 BC it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War but afterwards it is not mentioned until 41-40 BC, when Lucius Antonius took refuge there, and was reduced by Octavian after a long siege, and its senators sent to their death. A number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found in and around the city. The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno— the massive Etruscan terrace-walls, naturally, can hardly have suffered at all— and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whomever chose. It must have been rebuilt almost at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed Augusto sacr(um) Perusia restituta; but it did not become a colonia, until 251-253 AD, when it was resettled as Colonia Vibia Augusta Perusia, under the emperor C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus.

It is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege, apparently after the city's Byzantine garrison evacuated. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city's bishop, Herculanus, as representative of the townspeople. Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be flayed and beheaded. St. Herculanus (Sant'Ercolano) later became the city's patron saint.

In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia. In the ninth century, with the consent of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes; but by the eleventh century its commune was asserting itself, and for many centuries the city continued to maintain an independent life, warring against many of the neighbouring lands and cities— Folignomarker, Assisimarker, Spoletomarker, Todimarker, Sienamarker, Arezzomarker, etc. In 1186 Henry VI, rex romanorum and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular government of the city; afterward Pope Innocent III, whose major aim was to give state dignity to the dominions having been constituting the patrimony of St. Peter, acknowledged the validity of the imperial statement and recognized the established civic practices having the force of law.
Medieval aqueduct.


On various occasions the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, and it was the meeting-place of five conclaves, including those which elected Honorius III (1216), Clement IV (1285), Celestine V (1294), and Clement V (1305); the papal presence was characterized by a pacificatory rule between the internal rivalries. But Perugia had no mind simply to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty: the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282 Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offensive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. In the other hand side by side with the thirteenth-century bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo dei Priorimarker stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, and Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines. However this dominant tendency was rather an anti-Germanic and Italian political strategy. The Angevin presence in Italy appeared offer a counterpoise to papal powers: in 1319 Perugia declared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city's sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors" and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo dei Priorimarker. At the half of the 14th century Bartholus of Sassoferrato, who was a renowned jurist, asserted that Perugia was dependent upon neither imperial nor papal support. In 1347, at the time of Rienzi's unfortunate enterprise in reviving the Roman republic, Perugia sent ten ambassadors to pay him honour; and, when papal legates sought to coerce it by foreign soldiers, or to exact contributions, they met with vigorous resistance, which broke into open warfare with Pope Urban V in 1369; in 1370 the noble party reached an agreement signing the treaty of Bolognamarker and Perugia was forced to accept a papal legate; however the vicar-general of the Papal States, Gérard du Puy, Abbot of Marmoutier and nephew of Gregory IX, was expelled by a popular uprising in 1375, and his fortification of Porta Sole was razed to the ground.

Civic peace was constantly disturbed in the fourteenth century by struggles between the party representing the people (Raspanti) and the nobles (Beccherini). After the assassination in 1398 of Biordo Michelotti, who had made himself lord of Perugia, the city became a pawn in the Italian Wars, passing to Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1400), to Pope Boniface IX (1403), and to Ladislas of Naples (1408-14) before it settled into a period of sound governance under the Signoria of the condottiero Braccio da Montone (1416-24), who reached a concordance with the Papacy. Following mutual atrocities of the Oddi and the Baglioni families, power was at last concentrated in the Baglioni, who, though they had no legal position, defied all other authority, though their bloody internal squabbles culminated in a massacre, 14 July 1500. Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and beheaded by Leo X; and in 1540 Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was defeated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plundered by his soldiery, was deprived of its privileges. A citadel known as the Rocca Paolina, after the name of Pope Paul III, was built, to designs of Antonio da Sangallo the Younger "ad coercendam Perusinorum audaciam."
In 1797, the city was conquered by French troops. On 4 February 1798, the Tiberina Republic was formed, with Perugia as capital, and the French tricolour as flag. In 1799, the Tiberina Republic merged to the Roman Republic.

In 1832, 1838, 1854 and 1997 Perugia was hit by earthquakes. Following the collapse of the Roman republic of 1848-49, when the Rocca was in part demolished, it was seized in May 1849 by the Austrians. In June 1859 the inhabitants rebelled against the temporal authority of the Pope and established a provisional government, but the insurrection was quashed bloodily by Pius IX's troops. In September 1860 the city was united finally, along with the rest of Umbria, as part of the Kingdom of Italy.

Economy

Perugia has become famous for chocolate, mostly because of a single firm, Perugina, whose Baci (kisses) are widely exported. Perugian chocolate is very popular in Italy, and the city hosts a chocolate festival every October.

Geography

Perugia is the capital city of the region of Umbria "The green heart of Italy" (ref. www.regioneumbria.eu). Umbria is located between: Tuscany, Lazio and The Marche.Cities distance from Perugia: Assisi 19 km, Siena 102 km, Florence 145 km, Rome 164 km.

Climate

Although located in Central Italy, Perugia experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) similar to much of Northern Italy.

Demographics

In 2007, there were 163,287 people residing in Perugia, located in the province of Perugia, Umbria, of whom 47.7% were male and 52.3% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 16.41 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 21.51 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Perugia residents is 44 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Perugia grew by 7.86 percent, while Italymarker as a whole grew by 3.85 percent.

As of 2006, 90.84% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries (particularly from Albaniamarker and Romaniamarker): 3.93%, the Americas: 2.01%, and North African: 1.3%. The majority of inhabitants are Roman Catholic.

Education

Perugia today hosts two main universities, the ancient Università degli Studimarker and the Foreigners Universitymarker (Università per Stranieri). Stranieri serves as an Italian language and culture school for students from all over the world. Other educational institutions are the Perugia Fine Arts Academy "Pietro Vannucci" (founded in 1573), the Perugia Music Conservatory for the study of classical music, and the RAI Public Broadcasting School of Radio-Television Journalism. The city is also host to the Umbra Institute, an accredited university program for American students studying abroad. The Università dei Sapori (University of Tastes), a National centre for Vocational Education and Training in Food, is located in the city as well.

Frazioni

The comune includes the frazioni of Bagnaia, Bosco, Capanne, Casa del Diavolo, Castel del Piano, Cenerente, Civitella Benazzone, Civitella d'Arna, Collestrada, Colle Umberto I, Cordigliano, Colombella, Farneto, Ferro di Cavallo, Fontignanomarker, Fratticiola Selvatica, La Bruna, La Cinella, Lacugnano, Lidarno, Migiana di Monte Tezio, Monte Bagnolo, Monte Corneo, Montelaguardia, Monte Petriolo, Mugnano, Olmo, Parlesca, Pianello, Piccione, Pila, Pilonico Materno, Ponte della Pietra, Poggio delle Corti, Ponte Felcino, Ponte Pattoli, Ponte Rio, Ponte San Giovanni, Ponte Valleceppi, Prepo, Pretola, Ramazzano-Le Pulci, Rancolfo, Ripa, Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, Sant'Egidio, Sant'Enea, San Fortunato della Collina, San Giovanni del Pantano, Sant'Andrea d'Agliano, Santa Lucia, San Marco, Santa Maria Rossa, San Martino dei Colli, San Martino in Campo, San Martino in Colle, San Sisto, Solfagnano, Villa Pitignano.Collestrada, in the territorio of the suburb of Ponte San Giovanni, saw a battle between the inhabitants of Perugia and Assisimarker in 1202.

Main sights

Churches

200 px
  • The Cathedral of S. Lorenzo.
  • Church and abbey of San Pietromarker (late 16th century).
  • Basilica of San Domenico (begun in 1394 and finished in 1458). It is located in the place where, in Middle Ages times, the market and the horse fair were held, and where the Dominicans settled in 1234. According to Vasari, the church was designed by Giovanni Pisano. The interior decorations were redesigned by Carlo Maderno, while the massive belfry was partially cut around mid-16th century. It houses examples of Umbrian art, including the precious tomb of Pope Benedict XI and a Renaissance wooden choir.
  • Church of Sant'Angelo or of San Michele Arcangelo (it is the same) (5th-6th centuries). It is an example of Palaeo-Christian art with central plan recalling that of Santo Stefano Rotondomarker in Romemarker. It has 16 antique columns.
  • Church of San Bernardino (with façade by Agostino di Duccio).
  • Church of Sant' Ercolano (early 14th century). Currently resembling a polygonal tower, it had once two floors. The upper one was demolished when the Rocca Paolina was built. It includes Baroque decorations commissioned from 1607. The main altar is made of a 4th sarcophagus found in 1609.
  • Church of Sant'Antonio da Padova.
  • Church of Santa Giuliana, heir of a female monastery founded in 1253, which in its later years gained a reputation for dissoluteness, until the French turned it into a granary. It is now a military hospital. The church, with a single nave, has traces of the ancient frescoes (13th century), which probably covered all the walls. The cloister is a noteworthy example of Cistercian architecture of the mid-14th century, attributed to Matteo Gattapone. This is contemporary with the upper part of the campanile, whose base is from the 13th century.
  • Templar church of San Bevignatemarker.


Secular buildings



Antiquities

200 px
  • the Ipogeo dei Volumni (Hypogeum of the Volumnus family), an Etruscan chamber tomb
  • an Etruscan Well (Pozzo Etrusco).
  • National Museum of Umbrian Archaeology, where one of the longest inscription in Etruscan is conserved , the so-called Cippus perusinus.
  • Etruscan Arch (also known as Porta Augusta), an Etruscan gate with Roman elements.


Modern architecture

  • Centro Direzionale (1982-1986), an administration civic center owned by the Umbria Region. The building was designed by the Pritzker Architecture prizewinner Aldo Rossi.


Art in Perugia

Perugia has had a rich tradition of art and artists. The High Renaissance painter Pietro Perugino created some of his masterpieces in the Perugia area. The other High Resaissance master Raphael was also active in Perugia and painted his famous Oddi Altar there in 1502-1504.

Today, the Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbriamarker in Perugia houses a number of masterpieces, including the Madonna with Child and six Angels which represents the Renaissance Marian art of Duccio. And the private Art Collection of the Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Perugia has two separate locations.

The Collegio del Cambio is an extremely well preserved representation of a Renaissance building and houses a magnificent Pietro Perugino fresco.

Local events

  • The Umbria Jazz Festival is one of the most important venues for Jazz in Europe and has been held annually since 1973, usually in July.
  • Sagra Musicale Umbra
  • The International Journalism Festival (Festival del Giornalismo), usually in October.
  • [8264]Eurochocolate, usually in October.


Gallery of art in Perugia

File:Duccio di Buoninsegna 008.jpg|Duccio, 1330-1305File:Fiorenzo di Lorenzo Adoration.jpg|Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, c. 1490File:Pietro Perugino cat41a.jpg|Pietro Perugino, 1495File:Pietro Perugino 024.jpg|Pietro Perugino, 1497-1500

Transport

Minimetrò
Perugia has taken drastic measures against car traffic. At certain hours of the day, driving is forbidden in the city centre. Large parking lots are provided in the lower town, from where escalators lead up through the Rocca Paolina into the city. Since 2008, a MiniMetro is also in operation, with seven stations.

San Egidio Airportmarker is located twelve kilometers outside the city.

Twin towns — Sister cities

Perugia has twin and sister city agreements with the following cities:

See also



Notes

  1. cf. Perugia, Raffaele Rossi, Pietro Scarpellini, 1993 (Vol. 1, pg. 337, 344)
  2. The precise role of Raphael in Perugino's works, executed during his apprenticeship, is disputed by scholars. The independent works depicted in Perugia are: the Ansidei Madonna (taken by the French under the terms of the Treaty of Tolentino in 1798), the Pala Baglioni (this masterpiece was expropriated by Scipione Borghese in 1608, cf. 'The Guardian, October 19, 2004), the Colonna Altarpiece (formerly located in the convent of St Anthony of Padua cf. The Colonna Altarpiece review at Art History), the Connestabile Madonna (this picture was lost to Perugia in 1871, when Count Connestabile sold it to the emperor of Russia for £13,200, cf. Encyclopedia Britannica), the Oddi Altarpiece (requisitioned by the French in 1798)
  3. Perugia (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 21, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  4. "How much of his glory is due to his kinsman, Fabius Pictor, the first historian of Rome, or to the family legends, which found in Etruria the most fitting scene for the exploits of the great Fabian house, we cannot tell" (Walter W. How and Henry Devenish Leigh, A History of Rome to the Death of Caesar London:Longmans, Green 1898:112).
  5. Livy ix.37.12).
  6. Livy ix.30.1-2, 31.1-3; indutiae with Volsinii, Perusia and Arretium, ix.37.4-5.
  7. cf. Corpus Inscr. Lat. xi. 1212
  8. Etruscan town walls.
  9. Latin inscriptions at two of the preserved Etruscan gates.
  10. Patrick Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554 pp185-86, referring to Perugia in passing, notes the increasingly localized role assumed since the mid-fifth century by the bishops.
  11. Procopius, Bellum Gothicum, 3 (7).2.35.2, characteristically does not mention the incident, reported in Gregory the Great, Dialogues, 13, who imagines a seven-year siege (i.e. since 540, before the accession of Baduila) and dramatically reports Herculanus' grotesque murder.
  12. Procopius of Caesarea, Gothic Wars I,16 and III,35.
  13. cf. Perugia, Raffaele Rossi, Attilio Bartoli Angeli, Roberta Sottani 1993 (Vol. 1, pp. 120-140)
  14. "Avvocato della Signoria cittadina e del Palazzo dei suoi Priori"
  15. Made a cardinal by his uncle, 20 December 1375 ( Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: XIV century)
  16. "in order to bring to heel the audacious Perugini".
  17. cf. Touring Club Italiano, Guida d'Italia: Umbria (1966)
  18. cf. Chicago Tribune, Jul 18, 1859 and The outrage of the American witnesses in Perugia, Chicago Tribune, Jul 21, 1859
  19. Nestlè-Perugina produced in 2005 about 1.5 million Baci a day. Each October, Perugia has an annual chocolate festival called EuroChocolate. In Italy, right in the kisser, The Washington Post, May 29, 2005
  20. The company's plant located in San Sisto (Perugia) is the largest of Nestlé's nine sites in Italy. European Industrial Relations Observatory, April 9, 2003. According to the Nestlé Usa official website today Baci is the most famous chocolate brand in Italy.
  21. Thousands converge on historic city to celebrate everything chocolate, Associated Press, October 21, 2002
  22. BBC students diaries March 13, 2007
  23. See Perugia, University Town and La Repubblica Università - Italian Journalism recognized schools
  24. See the institution educational purposes at the Università dei Sapori official site
  25. A short break in Perugia The Independent - London, June 6, 1999
  26. "...some studies for the figure of St. John the Martyr which Raphael used in 1505 in his great fresco in the Church of San Severo at Perugia." (The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci
  27. The Centro Direzionale is mentioned in the Aldo Rossi personal page at the Pritzker Prize official website
  28. NY Times
  29. The Umbrian musical event is hosted in Perugia since the end of World War II NYT, October 18, 1953
  30. Perugia MiniMetro on UrbanRail.net
  31. Perugia Official site - Relazioni Internazionali
  32. Association of twinnings and international relations of Aix-en-Provence
  33. Mairie of Aix-en-Provence - Twinnings and partnerships


References



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