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The Peruvian War of Independence was a series of military conflicts beginning in 1809 that culminated in the proclamation of the independence of Perumarker by José de San Martín on July 28, 1821. During the previous decade Peru had been a stronghold for royalist, who fought those in favor of independence in Upper Peru, Quito and Chile. The wars of independence took place with the background of the 1780-1781 uprising by indigenous leader Túpac Amaru II and the earlier removal of Upper Peru and the Río de la Plata region from the Viceroyalty of Peru. Because of this the viceroy often had the support of the "Lima oligarchy," who saw their elite interests threatened by popular rebellion and were opposed to the new commercial class in Buenos Airesmarker.


José de San Martín proclaimed the independence of Peru on July 28, 1821

During the Peninsular War (1807-1814) central authority in the Spanish Empire was lost and many regions established autonomous junta. The Lima oligarchy supported the royalist cause, especially after attacks of Upper Peru by armies from Buenos Aires failed. After this Upper Peru was rejoined to the Viceroyalty of Peru, which benefited the Lima merchants. Local attempts at establishing juntas, lead by Criollos in Huánuco in 1812 and during the rebellion of Cuzco from 1814 to 1816, were suppressed. These rebellions were supported by the armies from Buenos Aires.

Peru became the second to last redoubt of the Spanish Monarchy in South America. Peru succumbed after the decisive continental campaigns of José de San Martín (1820-1823) and Simón Bolívar (1823-1825). San Martín organized a dual land and sea campaign after wresting Chile from the royalists at the Battle of Maipú. With the aid of Lord Thomas Cochrane, he created a Chilean Navy, which transported the fighting troops from Chile to Paracasmarker in 1820. Cochrane then launched a sea campaign against the Spanish fleet in the Pacific. San Martín proclaimed Peruvian independence after reaching Lima the following year. Royalist strongholds remained throughout the country and in Upper Peru, so it was not until four years later that the Spanish Monarchy was definitively defeated at the Battle of Ayacucho by troops under the command of Antonio José de Sucre. Upper Peru was once again separated from Peru in 1825 by an Upper Peruvian constituent congress, despite opposition to the plan by Bolívar.

After the war of independence conflicts of interests that faced different sectors of the Criollo society and the particular ambitions of individual caudillos, made the organization of the country excessively difficult. Only three civilians: Manuel Pardo, Nicolás de Piérola and Francisco García Calderón would accede to the presidency in the first seventy-five years of independent life. In 1837, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation was created but, it was dissolved two years later due to a combined military intervention of Peruvian patriots and the Chilean military.


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