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 (Hindko:  ,  ,  ), formerly known by its Sanskrit name Pushkalavati, is the capital of the North-West Frontier Provincemarker and the administrative centre for the Federally Administered Tribal Areasmarker of Pakistanmarker but not the capital of the federal regional territory. The former Hindu settlement of Pushkalavati was founded by Pushkara, son of Bharata of Ayodhya, and was ruled under the Maurya Empire, serving as the capital of Gandhara. The Kushan king Kanishka, moved the capital from Pushkalavati to  Purushapura in the 2nd century AD. The name "Peshawar" derives from Sanskrit Purushapura (meaning "city of men") and is known as Pekhawar or Peshawar in Pashto and Pishor in Hindko. The area which originally belongs the eastern Iranian tribes of Scythian origin later became part of the Persian empire. It gave its name to the Peshwari naan bread, one of the diverse genres of naan common in the curry houses of Great Britain. Briefly it also witnessed some Greek influence after which it saw the Arab conquest and rise of Islam. It then became one of the centers of Afghan empire. Today it is one of the prime cities of Pakistanmarker west of the river Indusmarker.


In ancient times, a major settlement called Purushpur was established by Kanishka, the king of the Central Asian Kushans, in the general area of modern Peshawar. Purushpur emerged as a major center of Buddhist learning until the 10th century, and was the capital of the ancient Indo-Greek kingdom of Gandhara. During that time, the Kanishka stupa on the outskirts of Peshawar, was the tallest building in the world - rising to almost 700 feet.

The current city was established during the Mughal period in the 16th century by Akbar during which it received the name Peshawar. During much of its history, the city was one of the main trading centres on the ancient Silk Road and was a major crossroads for various cultures between South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East.

Located on the edge of the Khyber Passmarker near the Afghanmarker border, Peshawar is the commercial, economic, political and cultural capital of the Pashtuns in Pakistan. Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, it became "a Asian Casablancamarker, awash in spies, journalists, aid workers and refugees".

History of Peshawar



Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central, South, and West Asia, Peshawar has for centuries been a centre of trade between Afghanistanmarker, South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. As an ancient center of learning, the 2nd century B.C.E. Bakhshali Manuscript used in the Bakhshali approximation was found nearby. Peshawar is also the setting of the famous story Peshawar Nights, which was an exchange between a Shia scholar and a Sunni audience over the course of eleven nights, which presumably resulted in their acceptance of Shi'ism.

Peshawar was a major center of Buddhist learning until the 10th century. As an indication of its importance, Peshawar was also the site of Kanishka's Great Stupa which housed relics of Gautama Buddha, and was widely considered to be the tallest building in the world at the time of its construction. Ancient Chinese manuscripts tell of Buddhist pilgrims such as Faxian, Sung Yun, and Xuanzang reporting that the 7th century stupa, which was rediscovered in 1908, had a height of 591–689 feet.

Peshawar emerged as a centre of both Hindko and Pashtun intellectuals. Its dominant culture for much of British rule was that of the Hindko speakers, also referred to as "Khaarian" ('city dwellers' in Pashto). Its unique culture, distinct from the surrounding Pashtun areas, led to the city being romanticized by Pashto singers, with songs like larsha Pekhwar tha (let us go to Peshawar) and more recently Pekhawar kho pekhawar dhay kana. This unique culture has gradually disappeared with the massive influx of Afghan refugees and the increasing migration of Pashtuns into the city. The demographics has changed quite dramatically and Pashto is now the dominant language of the city.

Lady Reading Hospital
Peshawar is located in an area that was dominated by various tribes of Indo-Iranian origin. The region was affiliated with the ancient kingdom of Gandhara and had links to the Harappan civilization of the Indus River Valleymarker and to Bactria and other ancient kingdoms based in Afghanistanmarker. According to the historian Tertius Chandler, Peshawar had a population of 120,000 in the year 100 BCE, making it the seventh most populous city in the world.

Vedic mythology refers to an ancient settlement called Pushkalavati in the area, after Pushkal, the son of King Bharata in the epic Ramayana., but this settlement's existence remains speculative and unverifiable. In recorded history, the earliest major city established in the general area of Peshawar was called Purushapuramarker (Sanskrit for City of Men) and was founded by the Kushans, a Central Asian tribe of Tocharian origin, over 2,000 years ago. Prior to this period the region was affiliated with Gandhara, an ancient Indo-Iranian kingdom, and was annexed first by the Persian Achaemenid empire and then by the Hellenic empire of Alexander the Great. The city passed into the rule of Alexander's successor, Seleucus I Nicator who ceded it to Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire in 305 BCE. Buddhism was introduced into the region at this time and may have claimed the majority of Peshawar's inhabitants before the coming of Islam.

Indo-Greek Peshawar

Sunehri Mosque
The area that Peshawar occupies was then seized by the Greco-Bactrian king, Eucratides (170 - 159 BCE), and was controlled by a series of Greco-Bactrian and later Indo-Greek kings who ruled an empire that spanned from present day Pakistan to North India. Later, the city came under the rule of several Parthian and Indo-Parthian kings, another group of Iranic invaders from Central Asia, the most famous of whom, Gondophares, ruled the city and its environs starting in circa 46 CE, and was briefly followed by two or three of his descendants before they were displaced by the first of the "Great Kushans", Kujula Kadphises, around the middle of the 1st century CE.

Kanishka's Rule

Peshawar formed the eastern capital of the empire of Gandhara under the Kushan king Kanishka, who reigned from at least 127 CE. Peshawar became a great centre of Buddhist learning. Kanishka built what may have been the tallest building in the world at the time, a giant stupa, to house the Buddha's relics, just outside the Ganj Gate of the old city of Peshawar.
Excavations of Kanishka's Monastery in central Peshawar


The Kanishka stupa was said to be an imposing structure as one travelled down from the mountains of Afghanistan onto the Gandharan plains. The earliest account of the famous building is by the Chinesemarker Buddhist pilgrim monk, Faxian, who visited it in 400 and described it as being over 40 chang in height (probably about 120 m or 394 ft) and adorned "with all precious substances". "Of all the stûpas and temples seen by the travellers, none can compare with this for beauty of form and strength." It was destroyed by lightning and repaired several times. It was still in existence at the time of Xuanzang's visit in 634. From the ruined base of this giant stupa there existed a jewelled casket containing relics of the Buddha, and an inscription identifying Kanishka as the donor, and was excavated from a chamber under the very centre of the stupa's base, by a team under Dr. D.B. Spooner in 1909. The stupa was roughly cruciform in shape with a diameter of 286 feet (87 meters) and heavily decorated around the sides with stucco scenes.

Sometime in the 1st millennium BCE, the group that now dominates Peshawar began to arrive from the Suleiman Mountainsmarker of southern Afghanistan to the southwest, the Pashtuns. Whether or not the Pashtuns existed in the region even earlier is debatable, as evidence is difficult to attain. Some writers such as Sir Olaf Caroe write that a group that may have been the Pashtuns existed in the area and were called the Pactycians by Herodotus and the Greeks, which would place the Pashtuns (or Pakhtuns) in the area of Peshawar much earlier along with other Aryan tribes. Ancient Hindu scriptures such as the Rig-Veda, speak of an Aryan tribe called the Pakht, living in the region. Regardless, over the centuries the Pashtuns would come to dominate the region and Peshawar has emerged as an important center of Pashtun culture along with Kandaharmarker and Kabulmarker as well as Quettamarker in more recent times. Muslim Arab and Turkic arrived and annexed the region before the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

Arrival of Islam

Gover Higher Secondary School
The Pashtuns began to convert to Islam following early annexation by the Arab Empire from Khurasan (in what is today western Afghanistan and northeastern Iranmarker).

Peshawar was taken by Turkic Muslims in 988 and was incorporated into the larger Pashtun domains by the 16th century. The founder of the Mughul dynasty that would conquer South Asia, Babur, who hailed from current Uzbekistanmarker, came to Peshawar and founded a city called Bagrammarker where he rebuilt the fort in 1530. His grandson, Akbar, formally named the city Peshawar, meaning "The Place at the Frontier" in Persian and expanded the bazaars and fortifications. The Muslim technocrat, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in South Asia and many settled in the Peshawar region.
Facades in Peshawar's Walled City


Reigns of the Pashtun Kings

The Pashtun conqueror Sher Shah Suri, turned Peshawar's renaissance into a boom when he ran his Delhi-to-Kabul Shahi Road through the Khyber Passmarker and Peshawar. Thus the Mughals turned Peshawar into a "City of Flowers" by planting trees and laying out gardens similar to those found to the west in Persia. Khushal Khan Khattak, the Pashtun/Afghan warrior poet, was born near Peshawar and his life was intimately tied to the city. Khattak was an early Pashtun nationalist, who agitated for an independent Afghanistan including Peshawar. As such, he was an implacable foe of the Mughal rulers, especially Aurangzeb.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, by the 18th century the city came under Persian control during the reign of Nadir Shah. In 1747, following a loya jirga, Peshawar would join the Afghan/Pashtun empire of Ahmad Shah Durrani as a Pakthun region. Pashtuns from Peshawar took part in the incursions of South Asia during the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani and his successors.

Colonial Peshawar

In 1812, Peshawar was on the edge of Afghan controlled territory, but threatened by the Sikhs. The arrival of a party led by British explorer and former agent of the East India Company, William Moorcroft was seen as an advantage, both in dealings with Kabul and in protection against the Sikhs of Lahore. He was even offered the governership of Peshawar and invited to offer the area's allegiance to the East India Company, which he declined. Moorcroft continued to Kabul in the company of Peshwari forces and thence to the Hindu Kush.
One of several gates leading into Peshawar
With the collapse of the Sikh Empire, following the passing by of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the Sikh defeat in the second Anglo-Sikh War, the Britishmarker occupied Peshawar.

The mountainous areas outside of the city were mapped out in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand, then foreign secretary of the British Indian government, who demarcated the boundary of his colony with the Afghan ruler at the time, Abdur Rahman Khan. It is now known as the Durand Line. The Kabul governmentmarker has argued that the pact expired when British colonialists left the region - although claims to the region have not been a part of official Afghan policy.

Durand Line

In 1893 Mortimer Durand negotiated with Abdur Rahman Khanthe Amir of Afghanistanmarker , the frontier betweenAfghanistanmarker, the FATAmarker , NWFPmarker and Baluchistanmarker Provinces of Pakistanmarker the successor state of British India and , Afghanistan.

This line, the Durand Line, is named after Sir Mortimer Durand and remains the international boundary between Afghanistanmarker and modern-day Pakistanmarker, officially recognized by most nations but and ongoing point of contention between the two countries.

In 1893, Sir Mortimer Durand was deputed to Kabul by the governmentof Bristish India for this purpose of settling an exchange of territoryrequired by the demarcation of the boundary between northeasternAfghanistan and the Russian possessions, and in order to discuss with the Amir Abdur Rahman Khan other pending questions. The AmirAbdur Rahman Khan showed his usual ability in diplomatic argument,his tenacity where his own views or claims were in debate, with a sureunderlying insight into the real situation.

The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the British Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult subject of the border line of Afghanistanmarker on the east, towards India.

In the year 1893 during rule of Amir Abdur Rahman Khanof Afghanistan a Royal Commission for setting up of Boundary theDurand line between Afghanistanmarker and the Britishmarker GovernedIndiamarker was set up ,to negotiate terms with the Britishmarker, for the Agreeing to the Durand line , and the two parties camped at Parachinarmarker, now part of FATAmarker Pakistanmarker, which is near Khostmarker Afghanistan.

From The British Side the camp was Attended by Sir, Mortimer Durand and Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum, Political Agent Khyber.

The Afghanistan was represented by Sahibzada Abdul Latif and the Governor Khostmarker Sardar Shireendil Khan representing the King AmirAbdur Rahman Khan.

Independence and Afghan Instability

In 1947, Peshawar became part of the newly independent state of Pakistan after politicians from the Frontier approved merger into the state that had just been carved from British India. While a large majority of people approved of this action, others believed in the unity of India, such as Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Still others believed that the province should have ascended to Afghanistan - a position which later evolved into a call for a state independent of both Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Until the mid-1950s, Peshawar was enclosed within a city wall and sixteen gates. Of the old city gates, the most famous was the Kabuli Gate but only the name remains to this date. Peshawar has not grown as much in size or capacity as the population has. As a result it has become a polluted and overcrowded city.

After the Sovietmarker invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, Peshawar served as a political centre for the anti-Sovietmarker Mujahideen, and was surrounded by huge camps of Afghan refugees. Many of the refugees remained through the Afghan civil war, which broke out after the Soviets withdrew in 1989, antecedent to the rule of the Taliban, and the invasion by American and allied forces in late 2001. Peshawar would replace Kabulmarker and Kandaharmarker as the centre of Pashtun cultural development during this tumultuous period. Peshawar managed to assimilate many of the Pashtun Afghan refugees with relative ease, while other Afghan refugees have remained in camps awaiting a possible return to Afghanistan.

Peshawar continues to be a city that links Pakistan to Afghanistan as well as Central Asia and has emerged as an important regional city in Pakistan. It remains a focal point for Pashtun culture. Today, like the surrounding region, it is at the crossroads of the struggle between the extremist Taliban and moderates, liberals and Pashtun nationalists. As a demonstration of their determination to destroy Pashtun icons, the Taliban bombed the shrine of the most beloved Pashtun poet, Rahman Baba, in 2009.

Geography and climate

Peshawar is situated near the eastern end of the Khyber Passmarker and sits mainly on the Iranian plateau along with the rest of the NWFP. Peshawar is literally a frontier city of South-Central Asia and was historically part of the Silk Road.

The Peshawar valley is covered with consolidated deposits of silt, sands and gravel of recent geological times. The flood Plains/Zones are the areas between Kabul Rivermarker and Budni Nala. The meander flood plain extends from Warsak in the Northwest towards Southeast in the upper Northern half of the district. The Kabul river enters the district in the Northwest. On entering the Peshawar Plain, the Kabul River is divided into several channels. Its two main channels are the Adizai River Eastward flows along the boundary with Charsadda District. Another channel branching from the right bank of the Naguman River is the Shah Alam, which again merges with Naguman River further in the East. In general the sub-soil strata is composed of gravels, boulders, and sands overlain by silts and clays. Sand, gravel and boulders are important aquifer extends to a depth of about . As further confined water bearing aquifer occurs at depths greater than .

Winter in Peshawar starts from mid November to the end of March. Summer months are May to September. The mean maximum temperature in summer is over and the mean minimum temperature is . The mean minimum temperature during winter is and maximum is .

Peshawar is not a monsoon region, unlike other parts of Pakistanmarker. But still rainfall is received both in winter and in the summer. The winter rainfall due to western disturbances shows a higher record during the months of February and April. The highest winter rainfall has been recorded in March, while the highest summer rainfall in the month of August. The average winter rainfall is higher than that of the summer. Based on a 30-year record, the average 30-year annual precipitation has been recorded as . Wind speeds vary during the year from in December to in June. The relative humidity varies from 46% in June to 76% in August.

Peshawar’s environment has suffered tremendously due to an ever increasing population, Afghan influx, unplanned growth and a poor regulatory framework. Air and noise pollution is a significant issue in several parts of the city, and the water quality, once considered to be exceptionally good, is also fast deteriorating.

In addition the city has lost of agriculture land during the two decades (1965-85). This in the addition to of vacant land that has been also eaten up by expending urban functions. In the same period, the land under parks and green space has shrunk from .

Demographics

Interior of the Mahabat Khan Mosque, Islam is the majority religion in the city, however the city still has a significant Sikh and Hindu population.
Peshawar is a rapidly growing city with a population of 2,982,816 in 1998. The current population growth rate is 3.29% per year, which is higher than the average of many other Pakistanimarker cities.

Peshawar's inhabitants consist mainly of Pashtun people with Hindkowans as the minority group. In addition, thousands of Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Persians, Panjabi, Chitralismarker and Gypsies can be found in the city. Languages such as Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Dari, Hindko, and Punjabi are spoken in Peshawar.

  • Urban Population: 51.32% (1,036,000 persons)
  • Rural Population: 48.68% (983,000 persons)
  • Male/Female ratio: 1.1:1
  • Average annual growth rate 3.56%


In 2002, on the growth rate of 3.56% population doubled in 20 years from 1.1 million in 1981 to 2.242 million in 2002. Peshawar Districtmarker covers a large area extending over from north to south and over from east to west. It is situated at an altitude of 347 m (1,138 ft) above sea level. The Peshawar valley is nearly circular, extending from the Indus to the Khyber Hills. It is bounded on the North and North East by hills, which separate it from the Swat Valleymarker. In the Northwest are the rugged mountains of Khyber and to the South is the continuation of spur which branches off from Safed Koh (the famous white mountain on the Afghan border) and runs to Indus. The lower portion of this branch separates the district of Peshawar and Kohatmarker.

Over 99% of the city's population is Muslim, mostly Sunnis with Twelver Shias as the minority. Despite the overwhelmingly Islamic nature of modern Peshawar, the city was previously home to other smaller communities such as Bukharan Jews, Zorastrians, Bahá'í, Hindus and Sikhs. The Partition of British India and the creation of Israelmarker resulted in the virtual elimination of some of these groups, particularly Hindus from Peshawar, but there are still small Christian, Zorastrian, Sikh, and Bahá'í communities that remain in the city.

Culture

Peshawar is the centre of Pashtun and Hinkowaan culture and arts in Pakistan. With the Russian invasion of Afghanistanmarker in 1979 and the influx of millions of Afghan Refugees into Pakistanmarker, Peshawar became the home for Afghan musicians and artists as well. The city has become the centre for Pashto music and cinema as well Dari music from Afghan Tajiks. There is a thriving book publishing activity in the Persian language in Peshawar, concentrated primarily on Islamic Shia literature and located in the Qissa Khawani Bazaar where it is operated by Shia Pashtuns.

However, the election of the MMA Islamic coalition in 2002 resulted in restrictions on public musical performances, as well as a ban on playing recorded music on public transports. Peshawar has become host to a thriving underground scene. In 2008, the secular ANP swept elections and won power from the Islamic coalition. Since then, some restrictions have been lifted, but there has not been a full restoration of the liberties guaranteed before the MMA victory in 2002.

The historic old city of Peshawar was once a heavily guarded citadel with high walls. Today, not much remains of the walls, but the houses and havelis have an essence of days gone by. Most of the houses are made of unbaked bricks with wooden structures for protection against earthquakes. Many of them have beautifully carved wooden doors and latticed wooden balconies. Areas such as Sethi Mohallah still contain many fine examples of the old architecture of Peshawar. There are many historic monuments and bazaars in the Old city, including the Mohabbat Khan Mosque and Kotla Mohsin Khanmarker, Chowk Yadgar and the Qissa Khawani Bazaar.

The walled city was surrounded by several main gates which severed as the main entry points into the city, some of which still survive today. They include: Lahori Gate, Sarasia Gate, Ganj Gate, Sirki Gate, Sard Chah Gate, Kohati Gate Former Gates which were demolished during wars were Kabuli Gate, Berikian Gate, Bajori Gate, Yakatut Gate, Dabgari Gate, Kachahri Gate, and Hasht Nagri Gate.

Government

Peshawar's local government consists of 25 Union Councils.

Key Villages



Peshawar Development Authority

Peshawar Development Authority (PDA) is the department in charge of construction in Peshawar. This includes roads, parks, and plant life.

The department (CD&MD) was renewed because of the immense corruption which had taken place before.Its first Director General was Malik Saad.The then governor Lt. Gen Iftikhar Hussain Shah specifically requested Malik Saad to help tackle the corruption and bring the department back up to its former success again.This decision proved successful, because not only was the corruption tackled, but also the city`s development was in full gear and the city`s only fully functional flyover,also named after Malik Saad, was built along with many other projects and developments in the city.

Educational institutions

With the level of higher education on the rise, there has been a surge of prestigious educational institutions in Peshawar. The prestigious University of Peshawar (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan in Peshawar. Edwardes College which was founded in 1900 by Herbert Edwardes is the oldest and one of the finest colleges in the province. The Islamia Collegemarker was founded in 1913 and is also a well known institution.

Sites of Interest

Peshawar is one of the oldest cities of the world . It is a conservative Islamic city with a rich history. It offers everything from goldsmiths and silversmiths, traditional carpets (one of the big exports of Pakistan today), pottery, and clothing to artwork in wood, brass or semi-precious stones. The old walled city, was known for its 16 gates — Bijouri, Kabuli, Aasamai, Kutcheri, Rampura, Hasht Nagri, Toot, Kohati, Sirki, Thandi Khoi, Barzaqan, Ganj, Ramdas, Dabgari and Lahore Gate. The names given to these gates are significant. It was Sikh General Avitabile, who built a mud wall surrounding the city. Under the British nearly the whole of the enclosure wall had been built of pucca brick. There are many bazaars with different goods and souvenirs for travellers. The main ones include the historic Qissa Khawani Bazaar, the Copper market, Chowk Yadgar and Andarsheher Bazaar. In addition because of its access to the Khyber pass, the Khyber train safari starts from here.







  • Buddhist
    • Gor Khuttree - An ancient site of Buddha's alms or begging bowl. Headquarter of Syed Ahmad Shaheed, Governor Avitabile
    • Pashto Academy - The site of an ancient Buddhist University
    • Shah Ji Ki Dheri - The site of Kanishka's famous Buddhist monastery.


  • Hindu
    • Panch Tirath - An ancient Hindu site now converted into a park






  • Parks
    • Army Stadium - Amusement Park for children and families with restaurants, banks, play pans and shopping arcade.
    • Cunningham Park/Jinnah Park- Situated opposite Historic Bala Hisar Fort, close to Asamai Gate and Lady Reading Hospital.
    • Wazir Bagh - Laid in 1802, by Fatteh Khan, Prime Minister of Shah Mahmud Khan.
    • Ali Mardan Khan Gardens - Formerly Company Bagh now Khalid bin Waleed Park.
    • Shahi Bagh - A small portion of which constitutes the current site of Arbab Niaz Stadiummarker.
    • Garrison Park - Located at Prime Location of Shami Road under Army Control.
    • Tatara Park - Located in Hayatabad for children and families.










health

Transport

The Peshawar International Airportmarker serves the city and the province of the North-West Frontier as the main international airport in the region. It is served by all airlines of Pakistan as well as many major airlines including Emirates and Qatar Airways who have regular flights to the Persian Gulf and forward connections to Europe. The city is linked to the main motorway as well as the Karakorum Highwaymarker from which it is connected to all of the major cities of Pakistan including Karachimarker, Lahoremarker, Islamabadmarker, Rawalpindimarker, Faisalabadmarker and Multanmarker. The roads are also linked to Afghanistanmarker and Chinamarker. Afghanistan is linked through the Khyber Passmarker, which is the main gateway for both cargo and passenger travel. In the city, there are all sorts of methods to travel around, from coaches, buses, rickshaws, auto rickshaws, yellow and black taxis, to traditional methods such as horse and carts. Peshawar Railway Station is run by Pakistan Railways, the largest operator of rail companies in Pakistan, with connections to all parts of Pakistan as well as Afghanistan.

Media

Being the capital city for the Pashto and Paktuns, Peshawar is a focal point for various literature, political and media related personalities. Aaj Daily is one of many newspapers published from the city. The city also hosts its own film industry, Pollywood, where countless Pashto films have been made.

Men of Letters include, Farigh Bukhari, Raza Hamadani, Mohsin Ihsan, Khatir Ghaznavi, Taaha Khan, Zahoor Awan, Taj Saeed, Zaitoon Bano, Sajjad Babar, Nazeer Tabassum, Malik Nasir Ali Nasir, Qasim Hasrat, Majid Sarhadi, Younus Qiasi, Nasir Ali Sayed, Amjad Hussain.

Notable people



Sister cities



See also



Footnotes

  1. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/text.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V20_130.gif
  2. Bergen, Peter, "Holy War Inc: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden", 2001
  3. http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/index_01_08.html
  4. http://www.reference.com/browse/Kanishka?jss=1
  5. http://coinsencyclopedia.org/?p=46
  6. http://buddhism.lib.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/mar.htm
  7. http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7882.pdf
  8. The Frontier Town of Peshawar A Brief History by Sayed Amjad Hussain.
  9. 10 Cities of the Year 100, Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census by Tertius Chandler. 1987, St. David's University Press.
  10. Peshawar - History
  11. The Pathans – 550 BC - AD 1957 by Sir Olaf Caroe, 1958, Macmillan Company, Reprinted Oxford University Press, 2003
  12. Buddhist Past By Fidaullah Sehrai
  13. History of Peshawar by Asghar Javed
  14. http://www.aaiil.org/aaiil/ra/jalsa/2003/sahibzadaabdullatifshaheed100anniversary/08sahibzadazahoorahmad_sahibzadaabdullatifshaheed. mp3
  15. Peshawar: The city of contrasts by S.A. Hussain Link
  16. Times. Monday, October 16, 2006 Pollution reaches alarming level throughout Peshawar
  17. History of Peshawar By Asghar Jaaved August 6, 2007 Monday
  18. Statistics Division - Government of Pakistan
  19. underground: Rocking against all odds August 6, 2007 Monday. The Frontier post. Retrieved 8th August 2007
  20. Gazetteer of Peshawar District, 1897-98, p, 362
  21. N-W.F.P Gazetteer, Peshawar District, 1931, p. 299
  22. List of some Historical Monuments of Peshawar By Prof Mohd Said


Further reading

  • Ahmad, Aisha and Boase, Roger. 2003. "Pashtun Tales from the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier: From the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier." Saqi Books (March 1, 2003). ISBN 0-86356-438-0.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. "Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang." 2 vols. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1911. "The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an account of the Works of I-Tsing". Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Dani, Ahmad Hasan. 1985. "Peshawar: Historic city of the Frontier" Sang-e-Meel Publications (1995). ISBN 969-35-0554-9.
  • Dobbins, K. Walton. 1971. "The Stūpa and Vihāra of Kanishka I". The Asiatic Society of Bengal Monograph Series, Vol. XVIII. Calcutta.
  • Elphinstone, Mountstuart. 1815. "An account of the Kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India,: comprising a view of the Afghaun nation." Akadem. Druck- u. Verlagsanst (1969).
  • Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chaptaire de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322–369.
  • Hargreaves, H. (1910-11): "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī"; Archaeological Survey of India, 1910-11, pp. 25–32.
  • Hill, John E. 2003. " Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Draft Edition.
  • Hill, John E. 2004. " The Peoples of the West from the Weilue" 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation.
  • Hopkirk, Peter. 1984. "The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia." Kodansha Globe; Reprint edition. ISBN 1-56836-022-3.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. "Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825", Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Reeves, Richard. 1985. "Passage to Peshawar: Pakistan: Between the Hindu Kush and the Arabian Sea." Holiday House (September, 1985. ISBN 0-671-60539-9.
  • Baghaat-i-Peshawar By Imran Rashid Imran


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