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View of the fortress in 1905.


The Peter and Paul Fortress ( , Petropavlovskaya Krepost) is the original citadel of St. Petersburgmarker, Russiamarker, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740.

History

The fortress was established by Peter the Great on May 16 (by the Julian Calendar, hereafter indicated using "(J)"; May 27 by the Gregorian Calendar) 1703 on small Hare Islandmarker by the north bank of the Neva Rivermarker. Built at the height of the Northern War in order to protect the projected capital, the fort never fulfilled its martial purpose. The citadel was completed with six bastions in earth and timber within a year, and it was rebuilt in stone from 1706 to 1740.

From around 1720, the fort served as a base for the city garrison and also as a prison for high ranking or political prisoners. The Trubetskoy bastion, rebuilt in the 1870s, became the main prison block. The first person to escape from the fortress prison (now an important destination for tourists) was the anarchist Prince Peter Kropotkin in 1876. Other people incarcerated in the "Russian Bastillemarker" include Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Tsarevich Alexis, Artemy Volynsky, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Alexander Radishchev, the Decembrists, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Mikhail Bakunin, Nikolai Chernyshevsky and Josip Broz Tito.

Russian Revolution and beyond

The fortress wharf.


During the February Revolution of 1917, it was attacked by mutinous soldiers of the Pavlovskii regiment on February 27  and the prisoners were freed. Under the Provisional Government hundreds of Tsarist officials were held in the Fortress.

The Tsar was threatened with being incarcerated at the Fortress on his return from Mogilevmarker to Tsarskoe Selomarker on March 8 (J), the threat was not followed through and he was placed under house arrest. On July 4 (J) when the Bolsheviks attempted a putsch the Fortress garrison of 8,000 men declared for the Bolsheviks. They surrendered to government forces without a struggle on July 6 (J).

On October 25 (J), again, the Fortress quickly came into Bolshevik hands. Following the ultimatum from the Petrograd Soviet to the Provisional Government ministers in the Winter Palacemarker, after the blank salvo of the Cruiser Auroramarker at 21.00, the guns of the Fortress fired thirty or so shells at the Winter Palace. Only two actually hit, inflicting minor damage, and the defenders refused to surrender at that time. At 02.10 on the morning of October 26 (J) the Winter Palace was taken by forces under Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko, the captured ministers were taken to the Fortress as prisoners.

The Provisional Government ministers were the last prisoners at the Fortress. In 1924, most of the site was converted to a museum. In 1931, the Gas Dynamics Laboratory was added to the site. The structure suffered heavy damage during the bombardment of the city during WW II by the Nazi Germanmarker army who were laying siege to the city. It has been faithfully restored post-war.

Sights

An aerial view of the fortress.


The fortress contains several notable buildings clustered around the Peter and Paul Cathedralmarker (1712-1733), which has a 123.2-metre bell-tower (the tallest in the downtown) and a gilded angel-topped cupola.

The cathedral is the burial place of all Russian tsars from Peter I to Alexander III. The remains of the Imperial martyr, Nicholas II and his family and entourage, were also interred there, in the side St.Catherine's Chapel, on the 80th anniversary of their deaths, July 17, 1998. Towards the end of 2006, the remains of Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna were brought from Roskilde Cathedralmarker outside Copenhagenmarker to finally rest next to her husband, Alexander III.

The newer Grand Ducal Mausoleum (built in the neo-Baroque style under Leon Benois's supervision in 1896-1908) is connected to the cathedral by a corridor. It was constructed in order to remove the remains of some of the non-reigning Romanovs from the cathedral where there was scarcely any room for new burials. The mausoleum was expected to hold up to sixty tombs, but by the time of the Russian Revolution there were only thirteen. The latest burial there was of Nicholas II's first cousin once removed, Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrilovich (1992). The remains of his parents, Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich and his wife Viktoria Fyodorovna, were transferred to the mausoleum from Coburgmarker in 1995.

Other structures inside the fortress include the still functioning mint building
(constructed to Antonio Porta's designs under Emperor Paul), the Trubetskoy and Alekseyevsky bastions with their grim prison cells, and the city museum. According to a centuries-old tradition, a cannon is fired each noon from the Naryshkin Bastion. Annual celebrations of the city day (May 27) are normally centered on the island where the city was born.


The sandy beaches underneath the fortress walls are among the most popular in St. Petersburg. In summer the beach is often overcrowded, especially when a major sand festival takes place on the shore.

Image:Plan of Peter Paul Fortress.jpg|Hare Island in relation to the rest of the city.Image:Ioann_bridge_gates_640.jpg|Entrance from Ioannovsky Bridge.Image:PeterandPaulFortress.JPG|View of the fortress in 2005.Image:Pete shemyakin.jpg|Mikhail Chemiakin's statue of Peter I.Image:Sergeymila fortress.jpg|Peter and Paul Cathedralmarker


See also

  • Celebrating the 300th anniversary of its foundation, Saint Petersburg was selected as the main motif in a recent Finnish commemorative coin, the €10 Mannerheim and Saint Petersburg commemorative coin, minted in 2003. The reverse of the coin features a view of Saint Petersburg, with the Peter and Paul Fortress and its three turrets. In the coin the words "St. Petersburg 1703-2003" can be seen.


References



External links




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