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Phocis (Greek, Modern: Φωκίδα, , Ancient/Katharevousa: Φωκίς, ) is an ancient district and a modern prefecture of Greecemarker, located in Central Greece, stretching from the western mountainsides of Parnassus on the east to the mountain range of Vardousiamarker on the west, upon the Gulf of Corinthmarker.

Geography

Ancient Phocis was about 1,619 km² (625 mi²) in area, bounded on the west by Ozolian Locris and Dorismarker, on the north by Opuntian Locris, on the east by Boeotia, and on the south by the Gulf of Corinthmarker. The massive ridge of Parnassus (2,459 m/8,068 ft), which traverses the heart of the country, divides it into two distinct portions.

Modern Phocis has an area of 2120 km² (819 mi²), of which 560 km² (216 mi²) are forested, 36 km² (14 mi²) are plains, and the remainder is mountainous.

Being neither rich in material resources nor well placed for commercial enterprise, Phocis was mainly pastoral. No large cities grew up within its territory, and its chief places were mainly of strategic importance.

History

The early history of Phocis remains quite obscure. During the Persian invasion of 480 BC the Phocians at first joined in the national defence, but, by their irresolute conduct at the Battle of Thermopylaemarker lost that position for the Greeks; at the Battle of Plataea they were enrolled on the Persian side. In 457 BC an attempt to extend their influence to the headwaters of the Cephissus in the territory of Doris brought a Spartanmarker army into Phocis in defence of the "metropolis of the Dorians". A similar enterprise against Delphimarker in 448 BC was again frustrated by Sparta, but not long afterwards the Phocians recaptured the sanctuary with the help of the Atheniansmarker, with whom they had entered into alliance in 454 BC. The subsequent decline of Athenian land power had the effect of weakening this new connection; at the time of the Peloponnesian War Phocis was nominally an ally and dependent of Sparta, and had lost control of Delphi.

In the 4th century BC Phocis was constantly endangered by its Boeotian neighbours. After helping the Spartans to invade Boeotia during the Corinthian War (395–94 BC), the Phocians were placed on the defensive. They received assistance from Sparta in 380 BC, but were afterwards compelled to submit to the growing power of Thebesmarker. The Phocian levy took part in the inroads of Epaminondas into Peloponnesusmarker, except in the final campaign of Mantineamarker (370–362 BC), from which their contingent was withheld. In return for this negligence the Thebans fastened a religious quarrel upon their neighbours, and secured a penal decree against them from the Amphictyonic synod (356 BC).The Phocians participated in two important battles: the Battle of Crocus Field and the Battle of Thermopylae . The Phocians, led by two capable generals, Philomelus and Onomarchus, replied by seizing Delphi and using its riches to hire a mercenary army. With the help of these troops the Phocian League at first carried the war into Boeotia and Thessaly, and though driven out of the latter country by Philip of Macedon, maintained itself for ten years, until the exhaustion of the temple treasures and the treachery of its leaders placed it at Philip's mercy. The conditions which he imposed – the obligation to restore the temple funds, and the dispersion of the population into open villages – were soon disregarded. In 339 BC the Phocians began to rebuild their cities; in the following year they fought against Philip at Chaeronea. Again in 323 BC they took part in the Lamian War against Antipater, and in 279 BC helped to defend Thermopylae against the Gauls.

Henceforth little more is heard of Phocis. During the 3rd century BC it passed into the power of Macedonia and of the Aetolian League, to which in 196 BC it was definitely annexed. Under the dominion of the Roman republic its national league was dissolved, but was revived by Augustus, who also restored to Phocis the votes in the Delphic Amphictyony which it had lost in 346 BC and enrolled it in the new Achaean synod. The Phocian League is last heard of under Trajan.

Phocis today

Phocis is today a prefecture and the capital is at Amfissamarker, formerly called Salona. With a population of 48,284 (2001), it is Greece's 8th-least populous prefecture, and has a population density of less than 23 persons per km² (59/mi²). In the summer months, the population nearly doubles due to the influx of tourists. The neighboring prefectures are Aetolia-Acarnania to the west, Phthiotismarker to the north and Boeotia to the east.

The communities include in the present-day Phocis are Amfissa, Delphimarker (near Boeotia), Galaxidimarker, Itea.

Most of the villages are founded in the south, the southwest and the west, especially in areas from Amfissa to Itea. The north and the east are leastly populated.

Much of the south and east are deforested and rocky and mountainous while the valley runs from Itea up to Amfissa. Forests and greenspaces are to the west, the central part and the north.

Its reservoir is the Mornos Dam on the Mornosmarker river. It covers nearly 1 km to 3 km². It was completed in the 1960s, and GR-48 was extended to pass through the dam.

Transport



People

Modern Phocis was inhabited by several Greek tribes since antiquity, mainly by Phocians, Locrians and Dorians, which were intermingled and formed the present-day Phocian population, with a unique linguistic and cultural heritage, frequently mentioned as Roumeliotes.

Provinces

  • Province of Dorida - Lidoriki
  • Province of Parnassida - Amfissa
Note: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greecemarker.

Municipalities

Phocis prefecture contains 12 municipalities.

Municipality YPES code Seat (if different) Postal code
Amfissamarker 5101 331 00
Delphimarker 5105 330 54
Desfinamarker 5106 330 50
Efpaliomarker 5107 330 56
Galaxidimarker 5103 330 52
Graviamarker 5104 330 57
Iteamarker 5108 332 00
Kallieismarker 5109 Mavrolithari 330 63
Lidorikimarker 5110 330 53
Parnassosmarker 5111 Polydrosos 330 51
Tolofonamarker 5112 Erateinimarker 330 58
Vardousiamarker 5102 Krokyleio 330 61


See also: List of settlements in the Phocis prefecture

Persons



Sporting teams

Here are the most popular sporting teams in the prefecture. All of the teams are under the Fokida Football Guild Union in which it existed since 1985 after the separation and dissolution of the Fokida-Fhtiotida Football Guild Union



References

External links

  • Fanaticus website: Phokians, 668–450BC
  • http://www.grecian.net/GREECE/centralgreece/fokida/fokida.htm
  • http://hellas.teipir.gr/prefecturesenglish/Fokidas/Delfoi.htm
  • In French:
  • http://hellas.teipir.gr/prefectures/greek/Fokidas.htm (in Greek)



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