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In baseball, a pinch hitter is a substitute batter. Batters can be substituted at any time while the ball is dead (not in active play); the manager may use any player that has not yet entered the game as a substitute. Unlike basketball, American football, or ice hockey, however, baseball does not have a "free substitution rule" and thus the replaced player in baseball is never allowed back into that game. The pinch hitter assumes the spot in the batting order of the player he replaces.

Pinch hitters are often used to replace a starting player when the pinch hitter is thought to have a better chance of reaching base or helping other runners to score.

In the National League of Major League Baseball, the Central League in Japanmarker, and various other minor leagues, pinch hitters are often substituted for the pitcher in the middle or late innings of a game. This is because pitchers are often poor hitters and get tired after six to seven innings of pitching. This use of a pinch hitter is often part of a double switch, in which a relief pitcher replaces a defensive player who will not bat soon, and a defensive player replaces the former starting pitcher that is currently up to bat. This strengthens the lineup in the short term by preventing the relief pitcher from batting and allowing a better hitter to bat. Compared to a single substitution of a pinch hitter for a pitcher, this allows the relief pitcher to pitch additional innings. A pinch hitter can be substituted at any time in an at-bat.

The pinch hitter may remain in the game following a pinch-hit at-bat and need not (but may) assume the same position as the player for whom he pinch-hits as long as some other player assumes that position. For example, on 16 August 2009, the Washington Nationals' Ryan Zimmerman pinch-hit for second baseman Alberto Gonzalez and then remained in the game at third base, with previous third baseman Ronnie Belliard switching positions to play second base after the change. (Box score: [84372]) Alternatively, the manager may designate another player to replace the pinch-hitter; this scenario is common when a team pinch-hits for a pitcher without executing a double switch, such that the new pitcher then replaces the pinch hitter and assumes the previous pitcher's place in the batting order.

The American League of Major League Baseball, the Pacific League in Japanmarker, and various other leagues use the designated hitter rule, such that pitchers seldom bat. This removes one possible situation where a pinch hitter may be desired.

MLB all-time pinch hit leaders

This is a list of players with the most pinch-hits in Major League Baseball history. Names which appear in bold are active players. Includes games through September 10, 2009.

Rank Player Pinch hits
  1 Lenny Harris 212
  2 Mark Sweeney 175
  3 Manny Mota 150
  4 Smoky Burgess 145
  5 Greg Gross 143
  6 Dave Hansen 138
  7 John Vander Wal 129
  8 José Morales 123
  9 Orlando Palmeiro 120
10 Jerry Lynch 116
11 Red Lucas 114
12 Steve Braun 113
13 Terry Crowley 108
Denny Walling 108
15 Gates Brown 107
16 Jim Dwyer 103
Mike Lum 103
18 Rusty Staub 100
19 Dave Clark   96
20 Larry Biittner   95
Vic Davalillo   95
Gerald Perry   95


All-time pinch hit records

  • Most pinch hit at-bats
Lenny Harris – 804
  • Most pinch hits career
Lenny Harris – 212
  • Most pinch hit grand slams
Rich Reese, Willie McCovey, Ron Northey – tied with three each
  • Most pinch hit home runs
Cliff Johnson - 20


Single season pinch hits records

  • Most pinch hits
John Vander Wal – 28 (1995)
  • Most pinch hit at-bats
Lenny Harris – 83 (2001)
  • Most pinch hit games
Lenny Harris – 95 (2001)
  • Most consecutive pinch hits
Dave Philley and Rusty Staub – tied with eight each (1958 and 1983)
  • Most pinch hit home runs
Dave Hansen and Craig Wilson – tied with seven each (2000 and 2001)
  • Most pinch hit RBI
Joe Cronin, Jerry Lynch, Rusty Staub – tied with 25 each (1943, 1961 and 1983)
  • Most pinch hit walks
Matt Franco – 20 (1999)


Pinch hit home runs

  • The following players have been called into a game and hit a pinch-hit home run during their first ever Major League at-bat:


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External links



See also

References

American League
Date
Name
Team
Inning
04-30-1937
Ace Parker
Philadelphia
9th Inning
09-05-1962
John Kennedy
Washington
6th Inning
06-19-1963
Gates Brown
Detroit
5th Inning
09-30-1964
Bill Roman
Detroit
7th Inning
09-12-1965
Brant Alyea
Washington
6th Inning
08-07-1968
Joe Keough
Oakland
8th Inning
04-07-1977
Alvis Woods
Toronto
5th Inning
National League
Date
Name
Team
Inning
04-21-1898
Bill Duggleby
Philadelphia
04-14-1936
Eddie Morgan
St. Louis
7th Inning
05-21-1948
Les Layton
New York
9th Inning
09-14-1950
Ted Tappe
Cincinnati
8th Inning
04-12-1955
Chuck Tanner
Milwaukee
8th Inning
09-08-1998
Marlon Anderson
Philadelphia
7th Inning
04-17-2001
Gene Stechschulte
St. Louis
6th Inning
08-21-2005
Mike Jacobs
New York
5th Inning
09-01-2005
Jeremy Hermida
Florida
7th Inning
09-04-2006
Charlton Jimerson
Houston
6th Inning
09-11-2007
Justin Maxwell
Washington
4th Inning
09-08-2008
Mark Saccomanno
Houston
5th Inning
08-28-2009
John Hester
Arizona
6th Inning

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