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The Plantation of Ulster ( ) was the organised colonisation (or plantation) of Ulster by people from Britainmarker. Private plantation by wealthy landowners began in 1606, while official plantation controlled by the monarchy began in 1609. All land owned by Irish chieftains the Ó Neills and Ó Donnells (along with those of their supporters) were confiscated and used to settle the colonists. This land comprised an estimated half a million acres (4,000 km²) in the counties Tyrconnellmarker, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavanmarker, Coleraine and Armagh (wasteland, woodland and bogland were uncounted). Most of the counties Antrim and Down were privately colonised.

The "British tenants", a term applied to the colonists, were mostly from Scotlandmarker and Englandmarker. They were required to be English-speaking and Protestant. The Scottish colonists were mostly Presbyterian and the English mostly ‘persecuted’ Dissenters. The Plantation of Ulster was the biggest and most successful of the Plantations of Ireland. Ulster was colonised so as to prevent further rebellion, as over the preceding century, it had proven to be the region most resistant to English control.

Ulster before the plantation

Prior to its conquest in the Nine Years War of the 1590s, Ulster had been the most Gaelic part of Ireland, a province existing largely outside English control. There were few towns, few roads and much of the country was thickly wooded.

According to W. E. H. Lecky, it was during the reign of Henry VIII (who reigned as King of Ireland 1542–1547) that royal authority in any degree became a reality over Ireland. However, he suggests its complete authority only dates from the great wars of Elizabeth I (who reigned 1558–1603). It was during these wars that the force of the semi-independent chieftains was broken. He says that native population were "crushed to the dust", thus establishing the "complete ascendancy of English law" in Ireland. According to George O'Brien, Irish commerce was "successfully attacked" and the "popular land system was finally abolished". He says the Irish people were reduced to a condition "not far removed from slavery". As the old economic state disappeared, it would be replaced with a new one.

In 1558 Elizabeth I, according to Jonathan Bardon, had no plan to conquer Ulster, but its sparse population and an underdeveloped economy attracted the English. Throughout the 1500s Ulster was viewed by the English as being "underpopulated" and undeveloped. Perceval-Maxwell states that in Antrim in 1586, "the local Irish chieftain had insufficient people to inhabit the territory". John Mitchel (citing Moryson, Mountjoy's biographer) tells us that after a raid on O'Cahan's territory by Lord Mountjoy, "We have none left to give us opposition, nor of late have seen any but dead carcasses, merely starved for want of meat". So that Mountjoy could boast he had given Ireland to Elizabeth "nothing but carcasses and ashes". According to Lecky, the Nine Years War was "literally a war of extermination". He says the slaughter of Irishmen was looked upon as "literally the slaughter of wild beasts". Men, women and children in the hands of the English, were "deliberately and systematically butchered". However the sword, he says, was "not found sufficiently expeditious," therefore another method was found to be much more "efficacious." He notes that year after year "all means of human subsistence were destroyed, no quarter was given to prisoners who surrendered, and the whole population was skilfully and steadily starved to death". The pictures of the condition of Ireland at this time he concludes are "as terrible as anything in human history".

Many of the Gaelic Irish lived by “creaghting” (seasonal migration with their cattle) and as such, permanent habitations were uncommon. The wars fought between Gaelic clans and between the Gaelic and English undoubtedly contributed to depopulation. However by 1600 (before the worst atrocities of the Nine Years War) Ulster's total adult population according to Perceval-Maxwell was only 25,000 to 40,000 people.

Planning the plantation

The conquest of Ireland was according to Sir John Davies, Attorney-General for Ireland under James I, made piece by piece and by several attempts in several ages. There were various revolutions also but it was never brought under control until the period of James I. The defects which hindered the perfection of the conquest of Ireland were he said of two kinds, and consisted, first, in the weak prosecution of the war, and next in the looseness of the civil government. According to Davies “For the husbandman must first break the land before it be made capable of good seed ; and when it is thoroughly broken and manured, if he do not forthwith cast good seed into it, it will grow wild again and bear nothing but weeds. So a barbarous country must be first broken by a war before it will be capable of good government ; and when it is fully subdued and conquered, if it be not well planted and governed after the conquest, it will eftsoons return to the former barbarism.”

An early attempt at plantation in the 1570s on the east coast of Ulster by Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, had failed (See Plantations of Ireland).

Following an extremely costly series of campaigns by the English, the Nine Years War ended in 1603 with the surrender of Hugh Ó Neill's and Hugh Ó Donnell's forces. The terms of surrender granted to the rebels were generous, with the principal condition that lands formerly contested by feudal right and Brehon law be held under English law.

However, when Hugh Ó Neill and other rebel chieftains left Ireland in the Flight of the Earls (1607) to seek Spanish help for a new rebellion, Lord Deputy Arthur Chichester seized their lands and prepared to colonise the province in a plantation. Much of the legal groundwork was laid by Sir John Davies, then attorney general of Ireland. This would have included large grants of land to native Irish lords who had sided with the English during the war, for example Niall Garve O'Donnell. However, the plan was interrupted by the rebellion in 1608 of Cahir O'Doherty of Inishowenmarker, who raided the city of Derrymarker. The brief rebellion was suppressed by Sir Richard Wingfield. After O'Doherty's death his lands in Inishowen were granted out by the state, and eventually escheated to the Crown. This episode prompted Chichester to expand his plans to expropriate the legal titles of all native landowners in the province.

The Plantation of Ulster was sold to James I as a joint Britishmarker venture to 'pacify' and 'civilise' Ulster. At least half the settlers would be Scots. Six counties were involved in the official plantation — Donegalmarker, Coleraine, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavanmarker and Armagh. In the two officially unplanted counties of Antrim and Down, substantial Presbyterian Scots settlement had been underway since at least 1606.

The plan for the plantation was determined by two factors. One was the wish to make sure the settlement could not be destroyed by rebellion as the first Munster Plantation had been. This meant that, rather than settling the planters in isolated pockets of land confiscated from convicted Irish rebels, all of the land would be confiscated and then redistributed to create concentrations of British settlers around new towns and garrisons. What was more, the new landowners were explicitly banned from taking Irish tenants and had to import workers from England and Scotland. The remaining Irish landowners were to be granted one quarter of the land in Ulster. The peasant Irish population was intended to be relocated to live near garrisons and Protestant churches. Moreover, the planters were barred from selling their lands to any Irishman and were required to build defences against any possible rebellion or invasion. The settlement was to be completed within three years. In this way, it was hoped that a defensible new community composed entirely of loyal British subjects would be created.

The second major influence on the Plantation was the negotiation among various interest groups on the British side. The principal landowners were to be Undertakers, wealthy men from England and Scotland who undertook to import tenants from their own estates. They were granted around 3000 acres (12 km²) each, on condition that they settle a minimum of 48 adult males (including at least 20 families), who had to be English-speaking and Protestant. However, veterans of the Nine Years War (known as Servitors) led by Arthur Chichester successfully lobbied to be rewarded with land grants of their own. Since these former officers did not have enough private capital to fund the colonisation, their involvement was subsidised by the twelve great guilds. Livery companies from the City of Londonmarker were coerced into investing in the project, as were The City of London guilds which were also granted land on the west bank of the River Foylemarker, to build their own city (Londonderrymarker near the older Derrymarker) as well as lands in County Coleraine. The final major recipient of lands was the Protestant Church of Ireland, which was granted all the churches and lands previously owned by the Roman Catholic Church. The British government intended that clerics from England and the Pale would convert the native population to Protestantism.

Implementing the plantation

Scottish settlers had been migrating naturally to Ulster for many centuries and Presbyterian lowland Scots had been doing so since around 1600. From 1606 there was substantial lowland Scots settlement on disinhabited land in north Down, led by Hugh Montgomery and James Hamilton. In 1607 Sir Randall MacDonnell settled 300 Presbyterian Scots families on his land in Antrim. During the plantation period Scots settlers tended to be the most determined in clearing and developing the land and they greatly outnumbered the English, in some areas by as many as five or six to one. The plantation settlers of whatever nationality were made up of undertakers, servitors, churchmen, artisans and undertenants, but Perceval-Maxwell believed “it was the ordinary tenants who made up the bulk of the settlement and who bore the brunt of the difficulties encountered.”

From 1609 onwards, British Protestant immigrants arrived in Ulster through direct importation by undertakers to their estates and also by a more natural colonial spread to unpopulated areas, through ports such as Londonderry and Carrickfergus. In addition there was much internal movement of settlers who did not like the original land allotted to them. Once in Ulster the incoming Protestants faced many difficulties. Most settled on uninhabited and unexploited land, often building up their farms and homes on overgrown terrain that has been variously described as “wilderness” and “virgin” ground. In the original plantation grants only open land was accounted for, but when the undertakers arrived they found that well over half their total acreages were wood and bog. In addition, counties Antrim and Down (settled unofficially, by lowland Scots) were described by the contemporary Camden as consisting mainly of “woodlands, marsh and bogland.” Philip Robinson confirms the fact that south Antrim and north Down were thickly wooded and states that the area around the Erne Basin,, another area that attracted substantial settlement, held some of the, "largest and densest areas of woodland" pre-plantation.

Contrary to popular belief most of the Gaelic Irish were not displaced; the majority remained in occupation of their land, usually in close proximity to and even in the same townlands as the Protestant settlers.. The "relatively undisturbed Irish population" made a large contribution to the Plantation building programme. However in a few heavily populated lowland areas (such as parts of north Armagh) it is likely that some displacement occurred.

In 1609, Chichester had 1,300 former Irish soldiers deported from Ulster to serve in the Swedish Army. The province remained plagued with former soldiers of the Gaelic lords who became bandits known as "wood-kerne" and "robbed and murdered Catholic and Protestant alike".

The plantation was a mixed success. About the time the Plantation of Ulster was planned, the Virginia Plantation at Jamestown in 1607 started. The London guilds planning to fund the Plantation of Ulster switched and backed the London Virginia Company instead. Many British Protestant settlers went to Virginiamarker or New Englandmarker in the America rather than to Ulster. By the 1630s, there were 20,000 adult male British settlers in Ulster, which meant that the total settler population could have been as high as 80,000. They formed local majorities of the population in the Finn and Foylemarker valleys (around modern Derry and east Donegalmarker), in north Armagh and in east Tyrone. Moreover, the unofficial settlements in Antrim and Down were thriving. What was more, the settler population grew rapidly, as just under half of the planters were women.

The attempted conversion of the Irish to Protestantism had mixed effect. The clerics imported were usually all English speakers, whereas the native population were usually monoglot Gaelic speakers. However, ministers chosen to serve in the plantation were required to take a course in the Irish language before ordination, and nearly 10% of those who took up their preferments spoke it fluently. Of those Catholics who did convert to Protestantism, many made their choice for social and political reasons.

Wars of the Three Kingdoms and Ulster Plantation

Historian Marianne Elliott states that, "By the 1630s evidence suggests that the plantation was settling down … There was tacit religious tolerance, and in every county Old Irish were serving as royal officials and members of the Irish Parliament". In the 1640s, the Ulster Plantation was thrown into turmoil by civil wars that raged in Ireland, England and Scotland. The wars saw Irish rebellion against the planters, twelve years of bloody war, and ultimately the re-conquest of the province by the English parliamentary New Model Army that confirmed English and Protestant dominance in the province.

After 1630, Scottish migration to Ireland waned for a decade. In the 1630s, Presbyterians in Scotland staged a rebellion against Charles I for trying to impose Anglicanism. The same was attempted in Ireland, where most Scots colonists were Presbyterian. A large number of them returned to Scotland as a result. Charles I subsequently raised an army largely composed of Irish Catholics, and sent them to Ulster in preparation to invade Scotland. The English and Scottish parliaments then threatened to attack this army. In the midst of this, Gaelic Irish landowners in Ulster, led by Phelim O'Neill and Rory O'More, planned a rebellion to take over the administration in Ireland.

On October 23, 1641, the Ulster Catholics staged a rebellion. The mobilised natives turned on the British colonists, massacring about 4000 and expelling about 12,000 more. Marianne Elliott believes that "1641 destroyed the Ulster Plantation as a mixed settlement..." The initial leader of the rebellion, Phelim O'Neill, had actually been a beneficiary of the Plantation land grants. Most of his supporters' families had been dispossessed and were likely motivated by the desire to recover their ancestral lands. Many colonists who survived rushed to the seaports and went back to Britain. This massacre, and the reprisals that followed, permanently soured the relationship between planter and native communities.

The massacres had a devastating and lasting impact on the Ulster Protestant population. A.T.Q. Stewart states that "The fear which it inspired survives in the Protestant subconscious as the memory of the Penal Laws or the Famine persists in the Catholic." He also believed that "Here, if anywhere, the mentality of siege was born, as the warning bonfires blazed from hilltop to hilltop, and the beating drums summoned men to the defence of castles and walled towns crowded with refugees."

In the summer of 1642, the Scottish Parliament sent some 10,000 soldiers to quell the Irish rebellion. In revenge for the massacres of Scottish colonists, the army committed many atrocities against the Catholic population. Based in Carrickfergusmarker, the Scottish army fought against the rebels until 1650. In the northwest of Ulster, the colonists around Derrymarker and east Donegalmarker organised the Laggan Army in self-defence. The British forces fought an inconclusive war with the Ulster Irish led by Owen Roe O'Neill. All sides committed atrocities against civilians in this war, exacerbating the population displacement begun by the Plantation.

In addition to fighting the Ulster Irish, the British settlers fought each other in 1648-49 over the issues of the English Civil War. The Scottish Presbyterian army sided with the King and the Laggan Army sided with the English Parliament. In 1649-50, the New Model Army, along with some of the British colonists under Charles Coote, defeated both the Scottish forces and the Ulster Irish.

As a result, the English Parliamentarians or Cromwellians (after Oliver Cromwell) were generally hostile to Scottish Presbyterians after they re-conquered Ireland from the Catholic Confederatesmarker in 1649-53. The main beneficiaries of the postwar Cromwellian settlement were English Protestants like Sir Charles Coote, who had taken the Parliament's side over the King or the Scottish Presbyterians. The Wars eliminated the last major Catholic landowners in Ulster.

Ulster Plantation and the Scottish border problem

Most of the Scottish planters came from southwest Scotland, but many also came from the unstable regions along the border with England. The plan was that moving Borderers (see Border Reivers) to Ireland (particularly to County Fermanagh) would both solve the Border problem and tie down Ulster. This was of particular concern to James VI of Scotland when he became King of England, since he knew Scottish instability could jeopardise his chances of ruling both kingdoms effectively.

Another wave of Scottish immigration to Ulster took place in the 1690s, when tens of thousands of Scots fled a famine in the borders region. It was at this point that Scottish Presbyterians became the majority community in the province. These planters are often referred to as Ulster-Scots. Despite the fact that Scottish Presbyterians strongly supported the Williamites in the Williamite war in Ireland in the 1690s, they were excluded from power in the postwar settlement by the Anglican Protestant Ascendancy.

During the 18th century, rising Scots resentment over religious, political and economic issues fueled their emigration to the American colonies, beginning in 1717 and continuing up to the 1770s. Scots-Irish from Ulster and Scotland, and British from the borders region comprised the most numerous group of immigrants from the British Isles to the colonies in the years before the American Revolution. An estimated 150,000 left northern Ireland. They settled first mostly in Pennsylvania and Virginia, from where they moved southwest into the backcountry of upland territories and the Appalachian Mountainsmarker.

As a result, the descendants of the Presbyterian planters played a major part in the 1798 rebellion against Britishmarker rule. Not all of the Scottish planters were Lowlanders however. For centuries prior to the Plantation of Ulster there was a continuous stream of Scots-Gaelic settlers from the western isles and west coast of Scotland as part of the growing influence of the Clan Donald Lord of the Isles along the north-Antrim coast - from this was created the Clan MacDonnell of Antrim sept based at Dunluce Castlemarker.

Legacy

Historian John McCavitt suggests, "The Ulster Plantation encompassed six of the historic nine counties in Ulster... The unofficial Plantation of Ulster comprised the counties of Antrim and Down. "Private" settlement had been occurring here from 1603." Protestant settlement was most dense in the East and became less dense the further West. Thus at the time of Partition in 1921, it was the western counties such as Donegal that were not included in the new Northern Ireland because their populations were predominantly Catholic. Within Northern Ireland, there are also settlement patterns which reflect the mould of the Plantation of Ulster. In areas known as precincts granted to English and Scottish settlers, it was stipulated in the Plantation conditions that the Catholic Irish population was to be totally removed. This did not always happen in practice. The fact that north Armagh is predominantly Protestant reflects the fact that a certain degree of "segregation" resulted.

However, according to historian Thomas A. Jackson, it is a “complete fallacy” to point to the Plantation as the origin of modern Northern Ireland. In Ireland Her Own, Jackson notes that four out of the six counties planted were never part of “Orange” Ulster until the Partition of Ireland. In addition, he writes that since the two chiefly “Protestant” counties, Antrim and Down, were never part of the plantation, this “destroy[s] the myth.”

A.T.Q. Stewart believed that, "It is the eastern Scots plantation, old and new, which is the real Plantation of Ulster. … When we try to establish a relationship between the Plantation of Ulster and the existence of Northern Ireland in the twentieth century, we must be aware of certain ambiguities and some imponderable factors. The distinctive Ulster-Scottish culture, isolated from the mainstream of Catholic and Gaelic culture, would appear to have been created not by the specific and artificial plantation of the early seventeenth century, but by the continuous natural influx of Scottish settlers both before and after that episode… Immigration from Scotland was fairly continuous for centuries before 1609, and was a fact of geography rather than a fact of history.”

Historian Tim Pat Coogan wrote in 1995, "[T]he planters' descendants still live in the area, some of them as keenly aware of the dangers, real and imagined, posed by their Catholic neighbours as were their ancestors during the periods of ferocious warfare that ensued between Catholics and Protestants in the seventeenth century." Historian Richard English has written that, "not all of those of British background in Ireland owe their Irish residence to the Plantations... yet the Plantation did produce a large British/English interest in Ireland, a significant body of Irish Protestants who were tied through religion and politics to English power.

According to McCavitt, "[J]ust in general terms, it could be pointed out that although surnames are often a guide to our ancestors, they should not always be taken as such... There is more cross breeding in Ulster's history than people imagined. For example, it is often stated that Ken Maginnis surname is closer to original Irish than Martin McGuinness. Another good example is Terence O'Neill former Prime Minister of NI, who is descended from the famous O'Neill clan in Ulster."

The settlers also left a legacy in terms of language. The Ulster-Scots dialect originated through the speech of lowland Scots settlers evolving and being influenced by both Hiberno-English and Irish Gaelic. Seventeenth-century English settlers also contributed dialect words that are still in current use in Ulster. Evidence of inter-mingling between the two main communities in Ulster is further enhanced by the fact that both Protestants and Catholics speak Ulster-Scots and Mid-Ulster English.

In terms of culture many aspects of Orangeism can be dated to the Plantation period. The Orange Order has described such heritage as “Plantation” culture..

There were very few towns in Ulster before the Plantation. Most modern towns in the province can date their origins back to this period. Plantation towns generally have a single broad main street ending in a square- often known as a "diamond".

References

  1. T. A. Jackson, p. 51.
  2. Edmund Curtis, p. 198.
  3. T.W Moody & F.X. Martin, p. 190.
  4. [ http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/plantation/planters/es09.shtml BBC History – The Plantation of Ulster – Religion]
  5. Edmund Curtis, p. 198.
  6. T. A. Jackson, p. 52.
  7. R. R. Madden, The United Irishmen, Their Lives and Times Vol 1, J.Madden & Co (London 1845), Pg. 2-5.
  8. Cyril Falls: The Birth of Ulster. London, Constable and Company Ltd. 1996. Pages 11-12. P. Robinson The Plantation of Ulster. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 2000. Page 28. Dr. I. Adamson: The Identity of Ulster. Bangor, Pretani Press. Third Impression, 1995. Page 11.
  9. History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Centuryvol 1, by W. E. H. Lecky, Longmans, Greens and Co. (London), Pg.4-6 (cabinet ed., 5 vols., London, 1892).
  10. The Economic History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, George O'Brien, Maunsel & Company Ltd (London 1918), Pg. 3
  11. See J. Bardon: A History of Ulster. Belfast, Blackstaff Press. New Updated Edition, 2001. Page 75. D.A. Chart: A History of Northern Ireland. The Educational Co. Ltd., 1928, page 18.
  12. M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999. Page 47.
  13. The Crusade of the Preiod and The Last Conquest of Ireland (Perhaps), John Mitchel, Lynch, Cole & Meehan (New York 1873), Pg. 243
  14. History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Centuryvol 1, by W. E. H. Lecky, Longmans, Greens and Co. (London), Pg.4-6 (cabinet ed., 5 vols., London, 1892).
  15. P. Robinson The Plantation of Ulster. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 2000. Page 34. Cyril Falls: The Birth of Ulster. London, Constable and Company Ltd. 1996. Page 12. M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999. Page 16.
  16. J. Bardon: A History of Ulster. Belfast, Blackstaff Press. New Updated Edition, 2001. Pages 76-79, 80-83. Prof. Nicholas Canny. “Reaction of the Natives”, BBC.
  17. M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999. Page 17.
  18. A Discovery of the True Cause Why Ireland Was Never Entirely Subdued Nor Brought Under Obedience of the Crown of England Until the Beginning of His Majesty’s Happy Reign: by Sir John Davies, (Attorney-General for Ireland under James I) in Ireland Under Elizabeth and James the First, Edited by Henry Morley, Published by George Routledge and Sons, Ltd, London 1890, P. 222
  19. A Discovery of the True Cause Why Ireland Was Never Entirely Subdued Nor Brought Under Obedience of the Crown of England Until the Beginning of His Majesty’s Happy Reign: by Sir John Davies, (Attorney-General for Ireland under James I) in Ireland Under Elizabeth and James the First, Edited by Henry Morley, Published by George Routledge and Sons, Ltd, London 1890, P. 218-219
  20. R. R. Madden, The United Irishmen, Their Lives and Times Vol 1, J.Madden & Co (London 1845), Pg. 2-5.
  21. A.T.Q. Stewart: The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. New Edition, 1989. Page 38.
  22. A.T.Q. Stewart: The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. New Edition, 1989. Page 38. Cyril Falls: The Birth of Ulster. London, Constable and Company Ltd. 1996. Pages 156-157. M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999. Page 55.
  23. Marianne Elliott: The Catholics of Ulster: A History. New York, Basic Books. 2001. Page 88.
  24. Cyril Falls: The Birth of Ulster. London, Constable and Company Ltd. 1996. Pages 196-197. J. Bardon: A History of Ulster. Belfast, Blackstaff Press. New Updated Edition, 2001. Page 127. Adams 1977: 57
  25. M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999. Page 277.
  26. P. Robinson The Plantation of Ulster. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 2000. Pages 118-119, 125-128.
  27. M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999. Pages 150-153.
  28. A.T.Q. Stewart: The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. New Edition, 1989. Pages 40-41. Dr. Raymond Gillespie. “Reaction of the Natives”, BBC. J. Bardon: A History of Ulster. Belfast, Blackstaff Press. New Updated Edition, 2001. Page 178, 314. M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999. Page 29, 132. C.A. Hanna: The Scotch-Irish: Or, The Scot in North Britain, North Ireland, and North America. G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1902. Page 182. Cyril Falls: The Birth of Ulster. London, Constable and Company Ltd. 1996. Page 201.
  29. M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999. Pages 89 and 177.
  30. Dr. I. Adamson: The Identity of Ulster. Bangor, Pretani Press. Third Impression, 1995. Page 11.
  31. P. Robinson The Plantation of Ulster. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 2000. Pages 17, 94-95.
  32. Marianne Elliott. “Personal Perspective”, BBC. A.T.Q. Stewart:The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. New Edition, 1989. Pages 24-25. J. Bardon: A History of Ulster. Belfast, Blackstaff Press. New Updated Edition, 2001. Page 131. Cyril Falls: The Birth of Ulster. London, Constable and Company Ltd. 1996. Page 221. M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999. Page 66. Marianne Elliott: The Catholics of Ulster: A History. New York, Basic Books. 2001. Page 88. P. Robinson The Plantation of Ulster. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 2000. Page 100.
  33. A.T.Q. Stewart: The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. New Edition, 1989. Pages 24-25.
  34. Marianne Elliott: The Catholics of Ulster: A History. New York, Basic Books. 2001. Page 93.
  35. Marianne Elliott: The Catholics of Ulster: A History. New York, Basic Books. 2001. Page 119.
  36. J. Bardon: A History of Ulster. Belfast, Blackstaff Press. New Updated Edition, 2001. Page 123.
  37. Padraig O Snodaigh.
  38. Marianne Elliott.
  39. Marianne Elliott: The Catholics of Ulster: A History. New York, Basic Books. 2001. Page 97.
  40. Marianne Elliott: The Catholics of Ulster: A History. New York, Basic Books. 2001. Page 102.
  41. A.T.Q. Stewart: The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. New Edition, 1989. Page 49.
  42. A.T.Q. Stewart: The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. New Edition, 1989. Page 52.
  43. David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. 608–11.
  44. Interview with Dr. John McCavitt, "Ulster Plantation", Talk: Northern Ireland, BBC, accessed 17 Feb 2009
  45. T. A. Jackson, p. 52.
  46. A.T.Q. Stewart: The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. New Edition, 1989. Page 39.
  47. Tim Pat Coogan, p. 6.
  48. Richard English, p. 59.
  49. Dr. C.I. Macafee (ed.) Concise Ulster Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1996. Page xi.
  50. Cyril Falls: The Birth of Ulster. London, Constable and Company Ltd. 1996. Pages 231-233.
  51. E. Kaufmann: The Orange Order: A Contemporary Northern Irish History. Oxford University Press, 2007. Page 2.
  52. Cyril Falls: The Birth of Ulster. London, Constable and Company Ltd. 1996. Pages 11.
  53. P. Robinson The Plantation of Ulster. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 2000. Page 28.
  54. P. Robinson The Plantation of Ulster. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 2000. Pages 169 and 170.

Bibliography

  • T. A. Jackson, Ireland Her Own, Lawrence & Wishart (London) 1991 (New Edition), ISBN 0 85315 735 9
  • Edmund Curtis, A History of Ireland: From Earliest Times to 1922, Routledge (2000 RP), ISBN 0 415 27949 6
  • T.W Moody & F.X. Martin, The Course of Irish History, Mercier Press 1984 (Second Edition). ISBN 0-85342-715-1
  • Marianne Elliott, The Catholics of Ulster: A History
  • Padraig O Snodaigh, Hidden Ulster, Protestants and the Irish language
  • Richard English, Irish Freedom, The History of Nationalism in Ireland.
  • Tim Pat Coogan, The Troubles.
  • J. Bardon: A History of Ulster. Belfast, Blackstaff Press. New Updated Edition, 2001.
  • M. Perceval-Maxwell: The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James 1. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 1999.
  • P. Robinson The Plantation of Ulster. Belfast, Ulster Historical Foundation. 2000.
  • A.T.Q. Stewart: The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster. London, Faber and Faber Ltd. New Edition, 1989.
  • Dr. I. Adamson: The Identity of Ulster. Bangor, Pretani Press. Third Impression, 1995.
  • Cyril Falls: The Birth of Ulster. London, Constable and Company Ltd. 1996.
  • Dr. C.I. Macafee (ed.) Concise Ulster Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • E. Kaufmann: The Orange Order: A Contemporary Northern Irish History. Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • D.A. Chart: A History of Northern Ireland. The Educational Co. Ltd., 1928.
  • C.A. Hanna: The Scotch-Irish: Or, The Scot in North Britain, North Ireland, and North America. G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1902.


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