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Polabian Slavs is a collective term applied to a number of West Slavic tribes who lived along the Elbe, between the Baltic Seamarker to the north, the Saalemarker and Limes Saxonicus to the west, the Sudetes and Franconia to the south, and Poland to the east. They have also been known as the Elbe Slavs and as Wends. Their name derives from the Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", and the Slavic name for the river (Labe in Czech).

The Polabian Slavs started settling in the territory of modern Germanymarker in the second half of the first millennium. They were largely conquered by Saxons and Danes during the 12th century and subsequently included within the Holy Roman Empire. The tribes were gradually Germanized and assimilated in the following centuries; the Sorbs are the only descendants of the Polabian Slavs to have retained their identity and culture.

The Polabian language is now extinct. However, both Sorbian languages are spoken by approximately 60,000 inhabitants of the region and the languages are regarded by the government of Germany as official languages of the region.

Tribes

The Bavarian Geographer anonymous medieval document compiled in Regensburgmarker in 830 contains a list of the tribes in Central-Eastern Europe to the east of the Elbe. Among other tribes it lists the Uuilci (Veleti)- with 95 civitates, the Nortabtrezi (Obotrites) - 53 civitates, the Milzane (Milceni)- 30 civitates, and the Hehfeldi (Hevelli)- 14 civitates.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia classifies the Polabian Slavs in three main tribes, the Obotrites, the Veleti, and the Lusatian Sorbs. Some scientists claim that the Sorbians were a separate group, distinct from the Polabians.


The main tribes of the Obotritic confederation were the Obotrites proper (Wismar Baymarker to the Schweriner Seemarker); the Wagrians (eastern Holstein); the Warnabi (Warnower) (the upper Warnowmarker and Mildenitzmarker); and the Polabians proper (between the Travemarker and the Elbe). Other tribes associated with the confederation include the Linones (Linonen) near Lenzenmarker, the Travnjane near the Travemarker, and the Drevani in the Hanoverian Wendlandmarker and the northern Altmarkmarker.

The Veleti, also known as the Liutizians or Wilzians, included the Kessinians (Kessiner, Chyzzini) along the lower Warnow and Rostockmarker; the Circipani (Zirzipanen) between the Recknitzmarker, Trebelmarker, and Peene Rivers; the Tollenser east and south of the Peene along the Tollensemarker River; and the Redarier south and east of the Tollenseseemarker on the upper Havelmarker. The Redarier were the most important of the Veleti tribes.

The Rani of Rügenmarker, not to be confused with the older Germanic Rugians, are sometimes considered to be part of the Veleti. South of the Rani were the Ucri (Ukranen) along the Uckermarker and the Morici (Morizani, Müritzer) along the Müritzmarker; the former gave their name to the Uckermark. Smaller tribes included the Došane along the Dossemarker, the Zamzizi in the Ruppin Land, and the Rěčanen on the upper Havelmarker. Along the lower Havel and near the confluence of the Elbe and the Havel lived the Nelětici, the Liezizi, the Zemzizi, the Smeldingi (Smeldinger), and the Bethenici.

The middle Havelmarker region and the Havellandmarker were settled by the Hevelli, a tribe loosely connected to the Veleti. East of the Hevelli lived the Sprevane of the lower Dahme and Spreemarker. Small tribes on the middle Elbe included the Moriciani, the Zerwisti, the Serimunt, and the Nicici.

South of the Hevelli lived the ancestors of the modern Sorbs, the Lusici of Lower Lusatiamarker and the Milceni of Upper Lusatiamarker. Near these tribes were the Selpoli and the Besunzanen.. The Colodici, Siusler, and Glomaci (Daleminzier) lived along the upper Elbe, while the Chutici, Nisanen, Plisni, Gera, Puonzowa, Tucharin, Weta, and groups of Nelětici lived near the Saale. On the middle Oder lived the Leubuzzi, who were associated with medieval Poland. Small groups of West Slavs also lived on the Mainmarker and the Regnitzmarker near Bambergmarker and in northeastern Bavariamarker.

Society

Princes

A Polabian prince was known as a knes. His power was relatively greater in Slavic society than those of Danish or Swedish kings in their kingdoms, although it was not absolute. He was the general leader of his tribe and was foremost among its nobles, holding much of the forested hinterland and expecting reverence from his warriors. However, his authority largely extended only to the territory controlled by his governor, or voivot. Each voivot governed small territories based around fortifications.

Princely power often differed between tribes. The Obotrite prince Henry was able to maintain a sizable army ca. 1100 at the expense of the towns, and the importance of knes within the Obotrites only increased after his death. The prince of the Rani, on the other hand, was limited by the local senate, which was led by the high priest at Cape Arkonamarker; the Rani knes was essentially first among the tribe's landowners.

Towns

The power of the prince and his governors was often restricted by the river towns, known to chroniclers as civitates, especially within the territory of the Veleti. Polabian towns were centered on small earthworks arranged in circles or ovals. The gord was situated at the highest altitude of the town and held a barracks, citadel, and princely residence. It was often protected by a moat, walls, and wooden towers. Below the gord, but still within the town walls, was the urbs or suburbium, which held the residences for the nobility and merchants. The towns often held wooden temples for Slavic gods within the urbs. Outside of the walls were homes for the peasantry. With the exception of Arkonamarker on Rügenmarker, few Polabian towns were situated on the Baltic coastmarker, out of concern for pirates and raiders. While not highly populated compared to Flanders or Italymarker, the Polabian towns were relatively large for the Baltic region, such as in comparison to those of Scandinavia.

Peasantry

The majority of Polabian Slavs were peasants in small villages who engaged in agriculture (rich in grains, flax) and animal husbandry (poultry, cattle). Some villagers were fishermen, beekeepers, or trappers. Farmland was divided into a unit called a kuritz ( ), for which peasants paid grain taxes to the voivot.

Military

Polabian society developed during the 9th and 10th centuries under pressure from the Holy Roman Empire and the Vikings of Scandinavia. They were often forced to pay tribute to the kings of Denmarkmarker, Catholic bishops, and imperial margraves. Polabian society became militarized and its leaders began organizing armed forces and defenses. Many Polabian magnates lived in forest fortresses, while towns were inhabited by warriors and burghers.

The magnates often raided Germanic territories or engaged in piracy. In times of large-scale war, the knes took overall command. The prince's voivot ensured military service from the warriors and taxes from the peasantry. While the countryside provided land forces, the towns were known for their longships, which were lighter and lower than those used by the Danes and Swedes.

From a distance, Polabian fleets resembled those of the Scandinavians, although targets would recognize the Slavs' closely cropped hair and shrieking battle cries when they grew close. Polabian cavalry used small horses which were effective in quick raiding campaigns, but less effective against the Saxon and Danish heavy cavalry.

Religion

Religion was an important aspect of Polabian society. Much of their territory was dotted with holy places in nature to which the Slavs could pray and make offerings to Slavic gods. The priesthood was an important class which developed images and objects of worship. Polabian towns often included elaborate temples often visited for offerings and pilgrimages. In contrast, priests in the countryside often lived meagerly.

History

The Polabian Slavs replaced Germanic tribes who emigrated from the 1st to 6th centuries during the Migration Period. Their settlement area was largely stable by the 8th century. Charlemagne enlisted the Obotrites as allies in his campaign against the rebellious Saxons of Holstein. Many of the Slavic tribes became dependencies of the Carolingian Empire and the Franks created the Sorbian March to defend against the Sorbs.

German campaigns against the Slavs began in earnest during the Ottonian dynasty. Henry the Fowler attacked the Slavs in several campaigns with his cavalry. During the reigns of Henry and his son Otto I, several marches were established to guard the eastern acquisitions, such as the Billung March to the north and the Marca Geronis to the south. After Gero's death in 965, the Marca Geronis was divided into the Northern March, the March of Lusatia, and the Thuringian March, the latter being divided into the marches of Zeitz, Merseburg, and Meissen. Bishoprics such as Magdeburg, Brandenburg, and Havelberg were founded to support the conversion of the Slavs to Christianity.

After the defeat of Otto II in at the Battle of Stilomarker in 982, the pagan Slavs rebelled against the Germans the following year; the Hevelli and Liutizi destroyed the Bishoprics of Havelberg and Brandenburg. Some Slavs advanced across the Elbe into Saxon territory, but retreated when the Christian Duke of Poland, Mieszko I, attacked them from the east. The Holy Roman Empire retained only nominal control over the Slavic territories between the Elbe and the Oder. Despite the efforts of Christian missionaries, most Polabian Slavs saw Jesus as a "German god" and remained pagan.

The Obotrite prince Udo and his son Gottschalk expanded their realm by unifying the Obotrite tribes and conquering some Liutizi tribes in the 11th century. They encouraged the establishments of bishoprics to support Christian missionary activity. However, a revolt in 1066 led to the murder of Gottschalk and his replacement by the pagan Kruto of Wagria. Gottschalk's son Henry eventually killed Kruto in 1093.



From 1140-43 Holsatian nobles advanced into Wagria to permanently settle in the lands of the pagan Wagri. Count Adolf II of Holstein and Henry of Badewide took control of Polabian settlements at Liubicemarker and Racisburgmarker. Impressed with the success of the First Crusade, Saxons began calling for a crusade against their Slav neighbors. The Wendish Crusade of 1147, concurrent to the Second Crusade, was largely unsuccessful, resulting in devastation to the Liutizi lands and forced baptisms. The campaign did secure Saxon control of Wagria and Polabia, however. The Abotrites were largely at peace with the Saxons during the following decade, although Slavic pirates raided Denmark.

Beginning in the late 1150s, King Valdemar the Great of Denmark enlisted the aid of Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony against the Slavs; their cooperation led to the death of the Obotrite prince, Niklot, in 1160. The two Christian lords distributed much of the conquered territory among their vassals. When Niklot's exiled son, Pribislav, engineered an Obotrite rebellion, the pair retaliated by occupying Demminmarker and warding off Pribislav's Liutizian allies.

After conquering Wagria and Polabia during the 1140s, Saxon nobles attempted to expel the native Slavs and replace them with Saxon and Flemish settlers. The 1164 Obotrite revolt led by Niklot's son Pribislav convinced Henry the Lion that keeping the Slavs as allies would be less troublesome. The duke returned the Christian Pribislav to power as Prince of Mecklenburg, Kessinmarker, and Rostockmarker, and a vassal of the Saxons.

Tactics and weaponry were decisive in Denmark's campaigns against the eastern Polabian Slavs. The Danes utilized quick coastal and river raids, tactics similar to those of the Vikings. Although they lacked siege experience, the Danes were able to cripple Slavic regions by burning crops and unwalled suburbs. Slav counterattacks were repulsed by crossbows and Norwegian longbows. The Danes occupied Rugiamarker in 1168, conquering the Rani stronghold of Arkonamarker. Similar to Henry's reinstatement of Pribislav as a Saxon vassal, Valdemar allowed the Rani prince Jaromar to rule as a Christian Danish vassal. After Valdemar refused to share Rugia with Henry, the Saxon duke enlisted the aid of the Obotrite confederacy and the Liutizi against the Danes; Valdemar ended the conflict by paying Henry in 1171.

Alarmed at the expansion of Henry the Lion's power, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa deposed the Saxon duke and redistributed his lands in 1180/81. The withdrawal of Saxon support left the Liutizi and their Pomeranian supporters vulnerable to the Danish fleet. A Slavic fleet attempting to reclaim Rugia was crushed at the Bay of Greifswaldmarker on 19 May 1184. Danish monks engaged in missionary activity in Pomeranian abbeys, and Prince Bogislav I of Pomerania surrendered to King Canute VI in 1185 to become the Danish king's vassal.

Pribislav, a Christian prince of the Hevelli, bequeathed his lands to the Saxon Albert the Bear upon his death, thereby leading to the establishment of the Margraviate of Brandenburg.

The Lusatian Sorbs remained independent to a large extent. They were temporarily subdued by Charlemagne, but upon his death the links with the Franks were broken. In a series of bloody wars between 929 and 963 their lands were conquered by King Henry the Fowler and his son Otto the Great and were incorporated into the Kingdom of Germany. By the 14th century, the majority of Slavs living there had been Germanized and assimilated. However, the Sorbs, the descendants of the Milceni and the Lusici, have retained their identity within Lusatia, a region divided between the German states of Brandenburgmarker and Saxonymarker.

Despite their willing conversion to Christianity, the Slavic language was spoken by the descendants of the Drevani in the area of the lower Elbe until the early 18th century.

Footnotes

  1. De Vere, 353
  2. Christiansen, 18
  3. Goldberg, 134
  4. Herrmann, 7
  5. Herrmann, 8
  6. Christiansen, 27
  7. Herrmann, 9
  8. Christiansen, 32
  9. Christiansen, 33
  10. Christiansen, 29
  11. http://www.utlib.ee/ekollekt/diss/mag/2005/b17445875/kaljundi.pdf p. 85
  12. Christiansen, 28
  13. Christiansen, 15
  14. Christiansen, 34
  15. Christiansen, 35


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