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A Polish American ( ), is a citizen of the United Statesmarker of Polish descent. There are an estimated 9-10 million Polish Americans, representing about 3.2% of the population of the United States.

The first Poles in North America arrived in the Virginia Colony in 1608. Early Polish immigrants of note included Jacob Sodowski, Kazimierz Pułaski and Tadeusz Kościuszko, who were active in America around the time of the Revolutionary War. Overall, more than one million Poles immigrated to the United States, primarily during the late 19th and early 20th century. Exact immigration numbers are unknown. Due to the partitions of Poland, the Polish state did not exist at the time, when the precursor to the Immigration and Naturalization Service classified immigrants, according to country of origin, rather than to ethnicity. In particular, the three partitions gave rise to the terms Russian, German and Austrian Poles, as seen in the context of Polish immigration to the United States.

According to the 2000 United States Census, 667,414 Americans of age 5 years and older, reported Polish as the language spoken at home, which is about 1.4% of the census groups who speak a language other than English or 0.25% of the U.S. population.

History

Early settlers

The first Poles in North America came to the Jamestown Settlementmarker in the Virginia Colony in 1608, twelve years before the Pilgrims arrived in Massachusettsmarker. These early settlers were brought as skilled artisans by the English soldier–adventurer Captain John Smith, and included a glass blower, a pitch and tar maker, a soap maker and a timberman. These skills were vital to the new settlement, which was evidenced when the House of Burgesses met in 1619. During their deliberations, the House excluded the Polish community and threatened their rights. In reaction, the Poles launched the first recorded strike in the New World. In need of their industries, the House of Burgesses extended the "rights of Englishmen" to the Poles (which included some East Prussians.) As a result, the Poles established the first bilingual schools in the New World, teaching both Polish and English, which later would be expanded to include Latin and German. The political and economic power of the Polish community declined, however, with the increased colonial warfare with Native Americans.

Age of Revolution

Later Polish immigrants included Jacob Sadowski, who in 1770, settled in New York with his sons the first Europeans to penetrate as far as Kentucky. It is said that Sandusky, Ohiomarker, was named after him. As the State of Poland entirely lost its independence at the end of the 18th century due to military partitions by foreign powers, Polish patriots, among them Kazimierz Pułaski and Tadeusz Kościuszko, left for America to fight for American Independence.

Kazimierz Pułaski served as Brigadier-general in the Continental Army and commanded its cavalry. He saved General George Washington's army at the Battle of Brandywinemarker and died leading a cavalry charge at the Battle of Savannah, aged 31. Pułaski later become known as the "father of American cavalry". He is also commemorated in Casimir Pulaski Day and the Pulaski Day Parade.

Kościuszko was a professional military officer who served in the Continental Army in 1776 and was instrumental in the victories at the Battle of Saratogamarker and West Point. He led the failed Polish insurrection against Russia which ended with the Partition of Poland in 1795. Pułaski and Kościuszko both have statues in Washington, D.C.marker.

Post-American Revolution

During the Partition of Poland (1795–1918), the Polish nation was forced to define itself as a disjointed and oppressed minority within three neighboring empires: Russian, Prussian and Austrian. The Polonia community in the United States, however, was founded on a unified national culture and society. Consequently, it assumed the place and moral role of the fourth province.

The largest wave of Polish immigration to America occurred in the early 20th century. Officially, more than 1.5 million Polish immigrants were processed at Ellis Islandmarker, between 1899 and 1931. In addition, many Polish immigrants arrived at the port of Baltimore. The actual numbers of ethnically Polish arrivals at that time would be difficult to estimate due to prolonged occupation of Poland by neighboring states, with total loss of its international status. Similar circumstances developed in the following decades: during the Nazi German occupation of Poland in World War II; and further, in the communist period, under the Soviet military and political dominance with re-drawn national borders.

Between 1870 and 1914, more than 3.6 million people departed from Polish territories (of whom 2.6 arrived in the U.S.) Serfdom was abolished in Prussia in 1808, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1848 and in Czarist Russiamarker, in 1861. In the late 19th century, the beginnings of industrialization, commercial agriculture and a population boom, that exhausted available land, transformed Polish peasant-farmers into migrant-laborers. Racial discrimination and unemployment drove them to emigrate.

Initially, the Polish emigrants to America came mainly from the German part of the partitioned Poland, where they were targeted by Bismarck's official policy of anti-Catholic Kulturkampf. Only after 1900, the Prussian Poles were outnumbered by immigrants from Austrian and Russian Poland.

Polish immigrants working on the farm, 1909.
Also, the Russian section of the partition, Congress Polandmarker, was undergoing considerable industrialization, particularly the textile capital of Łódźmarker, the Manchestermarker of Imperial Russiamarker and the iron-foundries of Piotrków Trybunalskimarker. The decline of these areas, after the Russo-Japanese War and the 1905 Russian Revolution, led to a mass exodus of laborers, first to Germany, Denmark and France, then eventually to the U.S., Canada, Brazil and Argentinamarker. At its peak, in 1912-1913, annual emigration to the U.S., from the Polish provinces of the Russian Empiremarker, exceeded 112,345 (including large numbers of Jews, Lithuanians and Belarusians).

In the Polish provinces of Austrian Galicia, chiefly rural, but with laborers in the mines and factories of Bohemia, Silesia, Moravia and Lower Austriamarker, land shortages, crop failures and the loosening of travel restrictions led to another exodus, mainly to Germany, Austria proper, France and the United States. The 1910 United States Census recorded more than 900,000 new immigrants, who spoke Polish.

According to the 2000 United States Census, 667,414 Americans of age 5 years and older, reported Polish as the language spoken at home, which is about 1.4% of people who speak languages other than English or 0.25% of the U.S. population.

Occupations

Lopata (1976) argues that Poles differed from most ethnics in America, in several ways. First, they did not plan to remain permanently and become "Americanized." Instead, they came temporarily, to earn money, invest, and wait for the right opportunity to return. Their intention was to ensure for themselves a desirable social status in the old world. However, many of the temporary migrants had decided to become permanent Americans.

Following World War I, the reborn Polish statemarker began the process of economic recovery and many Poles tried to return. Since all the ills of life in Poland could be blamed on foreign occupation, the migrants did not resent the Polish upper classes. Their relation with the mother country was generally more positive than among migrants of other European countries. It is estimated that 30% of the Polish emigrants from lands occupied by the Russian Empire returned home. The return rate for non-Jews was closer to 50-60%. More than two-thirds of emigrants from Polish Galicia (freed from under the Austrian occupation) also returned.

American employers considered Polish immigrants better suited than Italians, for arduous manual labor in coal-mines, slaughterhouses and steel mills, particularly in the primary stages of steel manufacture. Consequently, Polish migrants were recruited for work in the coal mines of Pennsylvaniamarker and the heavy industries (steel mills, iron foundries, slaughterhouses, oil and sugar refineries), of the Great Lakes cities of Chicagomarker, Pittsburghmarker, Detroitmarker, Buffalomarker, Milwaukeemarker and Clevelandmarker.

Polish communities as part of urban America



The vast majority of Polish immigrants settled in urban areas, attracted by jobs in industry. The minority, by some estimates, only ten percent, settled in rural areas.

One of the most notable of the urban Polish American communities is in Chicagomarker and its surrounding suburbs. The Almanac of American Politics 2004 states that "Even today, in Archer Heightsmarker (a neighborhood of Chicago), you can scarcely go a block without hearing someone speaking Polish."

There are about 10 million Americans of Polish descent. Chicagomarker bills itself as the largest Polish city outside of Poland, with approximately 185,000 Polish language speakers. The influence of Chicago's Polish community is demonstrated by the numerous Polish-American organizations: the Polish Museum of Americamarker, Polish American Association, Polish American Congress, Polish National Alliance, Polish Falcons and the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America. In addition, Illinoismarker has more than one million people that are of Polish descent, the third largest ethnic group after the German and Irish Americans.

Chicago's Polish community is concentrated along the city's Northwest and Southwest Sidesmarker, along Milwaukee and Archer Avenues, respectively. Chicago's Taste of Polonia festival is celebrated at the Copernicus Foundation, in Jefferson Parkmarker, every Labor Day weekend. Nearly 3 million people of Polish descent live in the area between Chicago and Detroit, including Northern Indiana, a part of the Chicago metropolitan areamarker.

Further north, along Lake Michiganmarker's coast, Milwaukeemarker's Polish population has always been overshadowed by the city's more prominent German inhabitants. Nevertheless, the city's once numerous Polish community built a number of magnificent Polish Cathedrals, among them the magnificent Basilica of St. Josaphatmarker and St. Stanislaus Catholic Churchmarker. Many Polish residents and businesses are still located in the Lincoln Village neighborhood. The city is also home to Polish Fest, the largest Polishmarker festival in the United States, where Polish Americans from all over Wisconsinmarker and nearby Chicagomarker, come to celebrate Polish Culture, through music, food and entertainment.

Michiganmarker's Polish population of more than 850,000, is third, behind that of New Yorkmarker and Illinoismarker. Polish Americans make up 8.6% of Michigan's total population. The city of Detroitmarker had a very large Polish community, which historically settled in Poletown and Hamtramckmarker. Poletown was cleared of residents, to make way for the General Motors Detroit/Hamtramck Assemblymarker plant. Much of Hamtramck's Polish population moved on to the suburbs and have been replaced by Arab American and African American citizens, in the 1980s and 1990s.

The Polish influence is still felt throughout the entire Metro Detroit area, especially the suburb of Wyandottemarker, which is slowly emerging as the major center of Polish American activities in the state. An increase in new immigration from Poland is helping to bolster the parish community of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and a host of Polish American civic organizations, located within the city of Wyandotte. Also, the Detroit suburb of Troymarker is home to the American Polish Cultural Center, where the National Polish-American Sports Hall of Fame has over 200 artifacts on display from over 100 inductees, including Stan Musial and Mike Krzyzewski.

The city of Cleveland, Ohiomarker has a large Polish community, especially in historic Slavic Villagemarker, as part of its Warszawa Section. Poles from this part of Cleveland migrated to the suburbs, such as Garfield Heightsmarker, Parmamarker and Seven Hillsmarker. The more affluent of Cleveland's Polish community live in Brecksvillemarker, Independencemarker and Broadview Heightsmarker. Many of these Poles return to their Polish roots, by attending masses at St. Stanislaus Churchmarker, on East 65th Street and Baxter Avenue. Poles in Cleveland celebrate the annual Harvest Festival, which is usually held at the end of August. It features polka music, Polish food and all things Polish. Cleveland's other Polish section is in Tremontmarker, located on Cleveland's west side. The home parishs are St. John Cantius and St. John Kanty. They also host Polish celebratory events in Cleveland.

Poles, in Cleveland, were instrumental in forming the Third Federal Savings and Loan, in 1938. After seeing fellow Poles discriminated against by Cleveland's banks, Ben Stefanski formed Third Federal. Today the Stefanski family still controls the bank. Unlike Cleveland's KeyBank and National City Corp., which have their headquarters in Downtown Cleveland, Third Federal is on Broadway Avenue in the Slavic Villagemarker neighborhood. Third Federal Savings and Loan is in the top 25 saving and loan institutions in the United States. In 2003, they acquired a Floridamarker banking company and have branches in Florida and Ohio.

Other industrial cities, with major Polish communities, include: Buffalo, New Yorkmarker, a city whose Polish neighborhood dispersed into the suburbs and became integrated; Philadelphiamarker, Columbus, Ohiomarker, Bostonmarker, Baltimoremarker, New Britain, Connecticutmarker, Portland, Oregonmarker, Minneapolismarker, Rochester, New Yorkmarker, Los Angelesmarker, San Franciscomarker, Pittsburghmarker and Duluth, Minnesotamarker. Despite the lack of new large-scale Polish immigration, some cities are emerging with strong Polish American communities. South Bend, Indianamarker, has a large Polish population for a mid-sized city. Milwaukeemarker and Denvermarker experienced major increases in their Polish populations, during the last 10 years. There is also a tendency among Poles from Chicago and Greenpoint, Brooklynmarker, to move to Floridamarker.

Luzerne Countymarker, in northeastern Pennsylvania, is the only county in the United States, where a plurality of residents state their ancestry as Polish. (See: Maps of American ancestries) This includes the cities of Wilkes-Barremarker, Pittstonmarker, Hazeltonmarker and Nanticokemarker. Many of the immigrants were drawn to this area, because of the mining of Anthracite coal in the region. Polish influences are still common today, in the form of church bazaars, polka music and polish cuisine. It is widely believed that Boothwyn, Pennsylvaniamarker, is one of the largest growing Polish communities in the United States.

In addition, New Jersey also boasts a large Polish population, primarily in the North. Wallington and Garfield are two towns, that combined have a population of 41,000 residents. Of those, roughly 12,000 are Polish. Out of all of Bergen County, roughly 7% consists of Polish-Americans. In addition, towns like Elmwood Park, Clifton and East Rutherford, all have decent Polish populations.

Wisconsin, Minnesota and Nebraska represent a different type of settlement with significant Polish communities, having been established in rural areas. Historian John Radzilowski estimates that up to a third of Poles in Minnesota settled in rural areas, where they established 40 communities, that were often centered around a Catholic church. Most of these settlers came from the Polish lands that had been taken by Prussia during the Partitions, with a sub-group coming from Silesia. The Kaszub minority, from Poland's Baltic coast, was also strongly represented among Polish immigrants to Minnesota, most notably in Winona.

Religion

Most immigrants to North America from the Polish landsmarker, who considered themselves Polish in ethnic or national orientation, were Roman Catholic. These people were responsible for building the Polish Cathedrals, found in the Great Lakesmarker and New Englandmarker regions and the Mid-Atlantic States. Poles, in the Chicago metropolitan areamarker, founded the following churches: St. Stanislaus Kostka, Holy Trinity, St. John Cantius, Holy Innocents, St. Helen, St. Fidelis, St. Mary of the Angels, St. Hedwig, St. Josaphat, St. Francis of Assisi (Humboldt Park), St. Hyacinth Basilica, St. Wenceslaus, Immaculate Heart of Mary, St. Stanislaus B&M, St. James (Cragin), St. Ladislaus, St. Constance, St. Mary of Perpetual Help, St. Barbara, SS. Peter & Paul, St. Joseph (Back of the Yards), Five Holy Martyrs, St. Pancratius, St. Bruno, St. Camillus, St. Michael (South Chicago), Immaculate Conception (South Chicago), St. Mary Magdalene, St. Bronislava, St. Thecla, St. Florian, St. Mary of Częstochowa (Cicero), St. Simeon (Bellwood), St. Blase (Summit), St. Glowienke (Downers Grove), St. Isidore the Farmer (Blue Island), St. Andrew the Apostle (Calumet City) and St. John the Baptist (Harvey), as well as St. Mary of Nazareth Hospital, on the Near West Side.

Poles established approximately 50 Roman Catholic parishes in Minnesota. Among them: St. Wojciech (Adalbert) and St. Kazimierz (Casimir) in St. Paul; Holy Cross, St. Philip, St. Hegwig (Jadwiga Slaska) and All Saints, in Minneapolis; Our Lady Star of the Sea and St. Casimir's in Duluth; and St. Kazimierz (Casimir) and St. Stanislaw Kostka in Winona. A few of the parishes of particular note, founded by Poles elsewhere in Minnesota, include: St. John Cantius in Wilno; St. Jozef (Joseph) in Browerville; St. John in Baptist in Virginia; St. Mary in Częstochowa; St. Wojciech (Adalbert) in Silver Lake; Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Opole; Our Lady of Lourdes in Little Falls; St. Stanislaus Kostka in Sobieski; and St. Isadore in Moran Township.

To assert their independence from the Irish American-dominated Catholic Church, a group of Roman Catholics of Polish descent broke away, to form the Polish National Catholic Church, which is headquartered in Scranton, Pennsylvaniamarker.

Poland is also home to followers of Protestantism and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Small groups of both of these groups also immigrated to the United States. One of the most celebrated painters of religious icons in North America today is a Polish American Eastern Orthodox priest, Fr. Theodore Jurewicz, who singlehandedly painted New Gračanica Monastery in Third Lake, Illinoismarker, over the span of three years.

A small group of Lipka Tatars, origin from the Białystokmarker region, helped co-found the first Muslim organization in Brooklyn, New Yorkmarker, in 1907 and later, a mosque, which is still in use.

Polish American culture

Cultural contributions of Polish Americans cover a broad spectrum including media, publishing industry, religious presence, artistic life, cuisine and museums as well as festivals.

Media

Among the most notable Polish American media groups are: the Hippocrene Books (founded by a Polish American George Blagowidow); TVP Polonia; Polsat 2 International; TVN International; Polvision; TV4U New York; WPNAmarker Radio Chicago; RadioPol (Polish Radio Stations Online); the Chicago Polish Downtown; Polonia Today and the Warsaw Voice. There are also Polish American newspapers and magazines, such as the Dziennik Zwiazkowy in Chicago, the Nowy Dziennik in New York and Tygodnik Polski and Polish Times in Detroit, not to mention the Ohio University Press Series in Polish American Studies, Przeglad Polski Online, Polish American Journal, and the Polish News Online, among others..

Cultural identity

Even in long-integrated communities, remnants of Polish culture and vocabulary remain. Roman Catholic churches built by Polish American communities often serve as a vehicle for cultural retention.

During the 1950s-1970s, the Polish wedding was often an all-day event. Traditional Polish weddings in Chicagolandmarker, in areas such as the southeast side of Chicago, inner suburbs like Calumet City and Hegewisch, and Northwest Indiana suburbs, such as Whiting, Hammond and East Chicago, always occurred on Saturdays. The receptions were typically held in a large hall, such as a VFW Hall. A polka band of drums, a singer, accordion, and trumpet, entertained the people, as they danced traditional dances, such as the oberek, "Polish Hop" and the waltz. Always an important part of Slavic culture, food played a very important role. The musicians, as well as the guests, were expected to enjoy ample amounts of both food and drink. Foods, such as Polish sausage, sauerkraut, pierogi and kluski were common. Common drinks were beer, screwdrivers and highballs. Many popular Polish foods became a fixture in the American cuisine of today, including kiełbasa (Polish sausage), babka cake, kaszanka (kasanzka) and pierogi, among many.

Polish American cultural groups include the White Eagle Lodge, Polish American Arts Association and the Polish Falcons. The Polish community was long the subject of anti-Polish sentiment in America. The word, Polack, has become a racial slur. Much of this prejudice was associated with anti-Catholicism and early 20th century worries, about being overrun by Eastern European immigrants.

Among the many Polish American writers are a number of poets, such as Phil Boiarski, Hedwig Gorski, John Guzlowski, John Minczeski, Linda Nemec Foster, Leonard Kress (poet and translator), Cecilia Woloch, Kim Kikel and Mark Pawlak (poet and editor), along with novelists Leslie Pietrzyk, Thad Rutkowski, Suzanne Strempek Shea and others.

Museums

Among the best known Polish American museums are the Polish Museum of Americamarker in Chicago's old Polish Downtown; founded in 1935, the largest ethnic museum in the U.S. sponsored by the Polish Roman Catholic Union of America. The Museum Library ranks as one of the best, outside of Poland. Equally ambitious is the Polish American Museum located in Port Washingtonmarker, New Yorkmarker, founded in 1977. It features displays of folk art, costumes, historical artifacts and paintings, as well as bilingual research library with particular focus on achievements of the people of Polish heritage in America. There is also the Polish Museum of Winona, known as the Polish Cultural Institute of Winona, Minnesota.

Festivals

There are a number of unique festivals, street parties and parades held by the Polish American community. The Polish Fest in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which is a popular annual festival, takes place at the Henry Maier Festival Park. It is also the largest Polish festival in the United States. It attracts Polish Americans from all over Wisconsin and nearby Chicago, who come to celebrate Polish culture through music, food and entertainment. There's also the Taste of Polonia festival held in Chicago every Labor Day weekend since 1979 at the Copernicus Cultural and Civic Center in the Jefferson Park area. One of the newest and most ambitious festivals is the Seattle Polish Film Festival organized in conjunction with the Polish Film Festival in Gdyniamarker, Poland. And last, but not least, there's the Pierogi Fest in Whiting, Indianamarker with many more attractions other than Polish pierogi, and the Wisconsin Dells Polish Fest.

The Polish and Polish-American contribution to American culture

Polish-Americans have influenced American culture in many ways. Most prominent among these is through the inclusion of traditional Polish cuisine such as pierogi, kielbasa, golabki. Some of these polish foods were tweaked and reinvented in the new American environment such as Chicago's Maxwell Street Polish Sausage.

Polish Americans have also contributed to altering the physical landscape of the cities they have inhabited, erecting monuments to Polish-American heroes such as Kosciuszko and Pulaski. Distinctive cultural phenomena such as Polish flats became part and parcel of the areas where Polish settlement occurred.

Poles cultural ties to Roman Catholicism has also influenced the adoption of such distinctive rites like the blessing of the baskets before Easter in many areas of the United States by fellow Roman Catholics.

Polish American communities

Polish-Americans comprise a multigenerational ethnic community. Names listed in this category include: Polish-American enclaves with cultural organizations; media outlets; and broadly defined community resources.







Polish Americans by state totals



According to the 2000 United States Census, the U.S. states with the largest numbers of self-reported Poles and Americans of Polish ancestry are:
...


Polish Americans by percentage of the total population







Notable Polish Americans

See also





References

  1. Richmond, p 72
  2. American Pioneer, I, 119; II, 325, cited by
  3. Helena Znaniecka Lopata, Mary Patrice Erdmans, Polish Americans Published by Transaction Publishers, 1994, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 294 pages. ISBN 1560001003
  4. Aleksader Gieysztor, History of Poland (Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publishers, 1968) Pg. 585
  5. Seidner, Stanley S. (1976). In Quest of a Cultural Identity: An Inquiry for the Polish Community. New York, New York: IUME, Teachers College, Columbia University. ISBN ERIC ED167674. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED167674&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED167674.
  6. Seidner, Stanley S. (1976). In Quest of a Cultural Identity: An Inquiry for the Polish Community. New York, New York: IUME, Teachers College, Columbia University. ISBN ERIC ED167674. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED167674&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED167674.
  7. Caroline Golab, Immigrant Destinations (Temple University Press: Philadelphia, 1977) Pg. 94
  8. Immigration...Polish/Russian: The Nation of Polonia
  9. Stanley S. (1976). In Quest of a Cultural Identity: An Inquiry for the Polish Community. New York, New York: IUME, Teachers College, Columbia University. ISBN ERIC ED167674.
  10. Golab, Immigrant Destinations Pg. 86-7, 99.
  11. The Polish Community in Metro Chicago:A Community Profile of Strengths and Needs, A Census 2000 Report, published by the Polish American Association June 2004, p. 18
  12. John Radzilowski. Poles in Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 2005. p. 6
  13. Serbian Monastery of New Gracanica - History
  14. Ramadan - TIME
  15. http://www.ohioswallow.com/
  16. Polish American Journal http://www.polamjournal.com/
  17. http://www.polishnews.com/
  18. Polish American Historical Association http://www.polishamericanstudies.org/resources.html
  19. Smithsonian Magazine, Polish American Museum at Smithsonian.com
  20. James Barron, the New York Times, If you're thinking of living in:; Port Washington Published: August 8, 1982
  21. Open directory project, Polish-American (61) Selected regional centres.


Bibliography

  • Anders-Silverman, Deborah. Polish-American Folklore. U of Illinois Press, 2000.
  • Andrzej Brozek. Polish Americans, 1854-1939 (1985)
  • John J. Bukowczyk. And My Children Did Not Know Me: A History of the Polish-Americans (1987)
  • John J. Bukowczyk, ed. Polish Americans and Their History. U of Pittsburgh Press, 1996.
  • Erdmans, Mary Patrice. "Opposite Poles: Immigrants and Ethnics in Polish Chicago, 1976-1990" (1998) Penn State Press.
  • William J. Galush. For More Than Bread: Community and Identity in American Polonia, 1880-1940, (East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press; 313 pages; 2007). Explores competing versions of Polish identity in Polish-American communities during the period.
  • Thomas S. Gladsky; Princes, Peasants and Other Polish Selves: Ethnicity in American Literature. (1992), ISBN 0870237756. online version
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  • Theresa Kurk Mcginley; "Embattled Polonia Polish-Americans and World War II." East European Quarterly. 37#3 2003. pp: 325+. online version
  • Karen Majewski. Traitors and True Poles: Narrating a Polish-American Identity, 1880-1939, (2003) - 248 pages
  • Jacek Nowakowski. Polish-American Ways (1989)
  • Pula, James S. Polish Americans: An Ethnic Community (1995)
  • Pula, James S. "Image, Status, Mobility and Integration in American Society: The Polish Experience." Journal of American Ethnic History 16 (1996): 74-95.
  • Charles Sadler, "Pro-Soviet Polish Americans: Oskar Lange and Russia's Friends in the Polonia, 1941-1945", Polish Review 22, (1977), 4: 30+
  • Stanley S. Seidner, (1976). In Quest of a Cultural Identity: An Inquiry for the Polish Community. New York, New York: IUME, Teachers College, Columbia University. ISBN ERIC ED167674. http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED167674&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED167674.
  • Deborah Silverman. Polish-American Folklore (2000)
  • William Thomas and Florian Znaniecki. The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. 2 vol 1920, ISBN 0252010922 (1984 printing). ; famous classic online edition
  • Joseph A. Wytrwal. Poles in American History and Tradition (1969),
  • Joseph L. Zurawski, Polish American History and Culture: A Classified Bibliography (1975)
  • Adam A. Zych, The Living Situation of Elderly Americans of Polish Descent in Chicago (2005)


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