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Joe Biden is the Vice President of the United States and former senator from the U.S. state of Delawaremarker.He served in the Senate from 1973 until 2009 and made his second runfor President of the United Statesin the 2008 presidential electionas a Democrat. Biden was announced as Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama's running mateon August 23, 2008, and was elected Vice President on November 4, 2008.

The following are the political positions of Joe Bidenon an assortment of issues.

Social issues

Abortion, stem cell research, cloning

Joe Biden believes that the Roe v.Wadedecision should remain intact. He is quoted as saying, "The best policy for our country on the question of abortion is a policy of Government neutrality. Put another way: I do not believe that the government should be involved in making judgments on whether a woman can, or should have an abortion, or – if she chooses to do so – in paying for that abortion." In September 2008, Biden was barred, by the bishop of Scranton, Pennsylvania, from receiving Holy Communionin the diocesebecause of his support for abortion rights.

He voted in favor of a 1999 bill to ban in most circumstances "partial birth abortion" and on the 2003 Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. Biden has defended these votes as recently as April 2007. He has also stated his opposition to federal funding of abortions.

Joe Biden at Gallaudet University in Washington DC, USA
He has joined with Democrats in voting against parental notificationand a ban on abortions on military bases. Biden's record on abortion is pro-choice, receiving a 100% rating from NARAL Pro-Choice Americain four of the last five years, although he received a 36% as recently as 2003. Biden pledged that he would appoint Supreme Court justices that share his beliefs. He has also stated his opposition to the Mexico City Policy, and voted in favor of the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Actin 1994. Biden supports federal funding for embryonic stem cell researchand voted to expand development and voted against a 1998 ban on human cloning.

Capital punishment

Biden supports capital punishment. He authored the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, which expanded the number of crimes subject to the federal death penalty. However, he voted against limiting appeals in capital cases and also opposed the rejection of racial statistics in death penalty appeals.

Crime

Joe Biden has been given a 71% approval rating from Coalition on Urban Renewal and Education(CURE) indicating a pro-rehab record on crime. He voted in support of funding for the Community Oriented Policing Services(COPS) program. He voted for the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, which greatly increased the number of federal crimes punishable by the death penaltyand abolished education grants for prisoners. Biden also voted against limiting death penalty appeals. He voted for expanding the definition of hate crimesand also imposing heavier punishments. Biden supports a Federal Bureau of Investigationmarker registry for sex offenders.

Drug law



Biden favors diverting drug offenders out of the nation's prison system. He is ostensibly against making stricter laws for drug offenses, but helped in the creation of a Drug Czar, a government official overseeing all anti-drug operations. According to his campaign website, he is for increased penalties against those caught selling drugs within 1000 feet of schools. He was the drafter and chief sponsor of the RAVE Act, a law that aimed to crack down on MDMA-fueled raves but which was criticized by some as being too broad in scope. The law, which was later renamed the Illicit Drug Anti-Proliferation Actof 2003, was additionally controversial because it was passed without public hearing or debate in Congress, attached to an unrelated child protection bill. Critics of the law assert that it has since been used by agents of the Drug Enforcement Administrationto intimidate those organizing rallies and fund-raisers to support drug-law reform.

Education

Official color photo of Joe Biden


Biden received a 91% voting record from the National Education Association(NEA) showing a pro-teacher union voting record. He supports abstinence-only sex education, is against student vouchersand affirms the Constitutionalright to voluntary prayer in school. He voted in favor of Educational Savings Accounts. In regard to the No Child Left Behind Act, Biden stated,

He voted in favor of the Act in 2001, but has subsequently called that vote "a mistake." He feels that the program is underfunding the education system.

Environment

He co-sponsored the "Sense of the Senate" resolution calling on the United States to be a part of the United Nationsclimate negotiations and the "Boxer-Sanders Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act", the most stringent climate bill in the United States Senate. He voted "Yes" on a $3.1B for emergency oil assistance for hurricane-hit areas and "No" for drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refugemarker on national security grounds and defunding renewable and solar energy.

Biden believes action must be taken on global warming. He supports the creation of a new treaty on climate change that would require emissions reductions from developing countries such as Brazilmarker, India, China, and Mexico.He has also stated his support for investment in technologies to reduce greenhouse gasemissions, as well as the creation of a "cap and trade" system. Biden supports the promotion of renewable energy, including biodieselfuels but not ethanol.

Gun issues

Biden was given an "F" by the National Rifle Associationmarker (NRA) showing an anti-gun ownership voting record.He supports reinstating a Federal ban on various semi-automatic riflesand voted against prohibition of lawsuits against gun manufacturers. He has also voted to end what gun-control activists call the "gun show loophole", stating that no one should be able to walk into a gun show and buy a gun more easily than they could at a normal store.

Health

Biden was given a 100% approval rating from the American Public Health Association(APHA). He supports funding for health careto allow all people access.

Homeland security

After the April 19, 1995 Oklahoma City bombingmarker, a domestic terrorist bomb attack that destroyed the Alfred P.markerMurrah Federal Buildingmarker, Biden drafted anti-terrorist legislation, which was ultimately defeated.He later claimed publicly on several occasions that the USA PATRIOT Actof 2001 — which eased restrictions on the Executive branchin the surveillance and detention of those suspected of terrorism or facilitating it — was essentially a duplicate of the anti-terrorist legislation he had drafted years earlier. Biden, naturally, supported the PATRIOT Actbut voted to limit wiretapping on the bill. He supports implementing the 9/11 Commission's recommendations to fight terrorists but voted to preserve habeas corpus rights to the alleged terror suspects serving in Guantanamo Baymarker.In the 1990s he voted in favor of 36 vetoed military projects and supports efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation. He was given a 60% approval rating from the American Civil Liberties Unionreflecting a mixed voting record on civil rights issues. During a debate on November 15, 2007 Biden clarified the effect of the PATRIOT Act and his continued support for it and his opposition to racial profiling.

Immigration

Biden supported the 2007 Comprehensive Immigration Reform Bill. He supports guest-worker visas, and the building of a wall along the border as a deterrent to drug trafficking. He voted to provide Social Securityto illegal immigrantsand supports a path to citizenship.

Internet privacy and file sharing

CNET.comgave Biden a 37.5% in its Technology Issues Voter's Guide. They referred to Biden as "Pro-RIAA" and "Pro-FBImarker" in his file sharing and privacy stances.Biden sponsored a bill that would make it a felony to record internet radio, and signed a letter that urged the United States Department of Justicemarker to prosecute file sharers.

Biden also sponsored two bills, the Comprehensive Counter Terrorism Act(SB 266) and the Violent Crime Control Act(SB 618), both of which contained language seen as effectively banning encryption. Cryptonotes Biden wrote that language into the text of SB 266. Phil Zimmerman, creator of Pretty Good Privacy, has said it was SB 266 that "led me to publish PGP electronically for free that year, shortly before the measure was defeated after vigorous protest by civil libertarians and industry groups." However, Zimmerman later stated in a Slashdot article that he was not specifically criticizing Biden, that he would consider the Senator's "whole body of work" when considering whether to vote for him on the Democratic ticket in 2008, and that "considering the disastrous erosion in our privacy and civil liberties under the (Bush) administration, I feel positively nostalgic about Biden's quaint little non-binding resolution of 1991".

LGBT issues

Biden voted in favor of the Defense of Marriage Actbut against the Federal Marriage Amendment. He supports states rights to establish civil unions

Biden voted in favor of "Don't Ask Don't Tell," but more recently referred to the presumption that soldiers in foxholes are concerned about their comrade's sexuality "ridiculous."

Biden favors adding sexual orientationto the criteria for a hate crime.

Welfare

Biden is opposed to the privatization of Social Securityand was given an 89% approval rating from the Alliance for Retired Americans(ARA), reflecting a pro-senior citizenvoting record. Voted in support of welfare block grants and supports welfare reform.

Women

In 1994, Biden drafted the Violence Against Women Act, which was signed into law. It provided $1.6 billion to enhance investigation and prosecution of the violent crime perpetrated against women, increased pre-trial detention of the accused, provided for automatic and mandatory restitution of those convicted, and allowed civil redress in cases prosecutors chose to leave unprosecuted.

The United States Supreme Courtmarker struck down portions of the VAWA on Constitutional grounds in United States v.Morrison.

Biden has said: "I consider the Violence Against Women Act the single most significant legislation that I’ve crafted during my 35-year tenure in the Senate. Indeed, the enactment of the Violence Against Women Act in 1994 was the beginning of a historic commitment to women and children victimized by domestic violence and sexual assault. Our nation has been rewarded for this commitment. Since the Act’s passage in 1994, domestic violence has dropped by almost 50%." He has also said that the Act "empower[s] women to make changes in their lives, and by training police and prosecutors to arrest and convict abusive husbands instead of telling them to take a walk around the block".

Economic issues

Agriculture

"Senator Biden supported the Farm Billand believes that it is a responsible compromise. It is not perfect, but it was the product of lengthy negotiations and passage was essential to our farm economy. For Delaware and the rest of the nation, this bill contains funding and programs that are critical to the future of the family farmer, stewardship of our environment and meeting nutritional needs at a time when food prices are rising."

"Senator Biden has been a strong supporter of efforts to combat the problem of invasive species-- plants and animals improperly brought to U.S. shores. Senator Biden feels that these non-native species have the potential to be one of the largest economic and environmental threats in the 21st century. Non-native species alter vegetation, compete with native species, introduce new diseases and interfere with maritime commerce. Conscious of these dangers, Senator Biden continues to support programs aimed at preventing the importation of non-native plants and animals to the United States."

"After learning that Russia will start banning chicken imports from 19 plants in the United States" Senator Biden "issued the following statement:"

"Russia is once again using non-tariff barriersas an excuse to close its markets to American poultry. I am concerned about the effect of this action on Mountaire, a major employer and integral part of our state's agricultural production. Other local poultry processing plants may be targeted.

"Russia has repeatedly shown that it is not ready to abide by the rules of international trade. Let's not forget this is part of a bigger picture in which Russia has failed to behave as a responsible member in the international community. Until Russia reverses their recent actions—both big and small - its application to join the World Trade Organizationshould remain on hold.

"The United States must take immediate and necessary steps -- just like we did in 2002 -to restore access to this market, which is critical to Delaware's farmers, Delaware's poultry industry and Delaware's economy, which relies heavily on the agricultural industry."

Banking

Biden voted for the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Actof 2005 and voted yes on restrictions on personal bankruptcy.

Energy

Biden opposes drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refugemarker and supports governmental funding to find new energy sources as well as upping funding for alternative transportation like Amtrak and mass transit.

While campaigning for president in 2007, Biden said that, if elected, his top priority would be "energy security." He has also been quoted as saying "If I could wave a wand, and the Lord said I could solve one problem, I would solve the energy crisis."

Globalization

Biden was given a 32% approval rating from the United States Chamber of Commerce. He favors taking burdens off corporations to prevent outsourcing. He voted yes on repealing tax subsidies for companies that outsource jobs.

However, he was one of the Democrats to vote for the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) in 1993. Biden was given a 42% approval rating from the Cato Institute, showing a mixed record on free trade. He opposed the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) but supports normalizing relations with China, Vietnammarker and the Andean nations.He opposes free trade agreements with Omanmarker, Singaporemarker, and Chilemarker.

Labor Unions

Biden was given a 100% approval rating from the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizationsindicating a heavily pro-labor and pro-union voting record.

Tax

Biden is against the Bush administration'stax cuts and would "take back one year of the tax cuts for Americans who make over a million dollars a year, and put this money in a dedicated Homeland Security and Public Safety Trust Fund to implement the 9/11 Commission recommendations and invest in law enforcement." Biden supports a balanced budget amendment.

Biden cites high health care and energy costsas two major threats to the prosperity of American businesses, and believes that addressing these issues will improve American economic competitiveness.

Foreign policy

The Council on Foreign Relationsreported on Biden's political positions.

Iraq

Joe Biden speaking


In 1990, Joe Biden voted against the first Gulf War after Iraqmarker under Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwaitmarker.In 1998, Biden expressed support for the use of force against Iraqmarker, and urged a sustained effort to "dethrone" Saddam Hussein over the long haul.In 2002, as Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he stated that Saddam Hussein was "a long term threat and a short term threat to our national security" and that United States has "no choice but to eliminate the threat". He also said, "I think Saddam either has to be separated from his weapons or taken out of power." Biden also supported a failed resolution authorizing military action in Iraq only after the exhaustion of diplomatic efforts, Biden argued that Saddam Hussein possesses chemicaland biological weaponsand is seeking nuclear weapons; he subsequently voted in favor of authorizing the invasion of Iraqin 2003. Biden has since said that he believes it was a mistake to support the Iraq Warbecause it has been mismanaged by the Bush Administration. In 2005, Biden said, "We can call it quits and withdraw from Iraq (but) I think that would be a gigantic mistake, or we can set a deadline for pulling out, which I fear will only encourage our enemies to wait us out--equally a mistake."

Regarding his belief that Iraq maintained stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction, Biden stated in 2007 that inspectors had seen and cataloged the existence of the materials required to make such weapons prior to their expulsion from Iraq and pondered why Hussein didn't tell the international community that he had disposed of them. Scott Ritter, the chief United Nations weapons inspectorin Iraq, stated in July 2002 that most chemical and biological agents produced by Iraq would have been neutralized or degraded in storage, encouraging the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee to convene hearings to reassess the threat. When the committee scheduled hearings in the beginning of August 2002, Ritter stated that "Sen. Joe Biden is running a sham hearing. It is clear that Biden and most of the Congressional leadership have pre-ordained a conclusion that seeks to remove Saddam Hussein from power regardless of the facts, and are using these hearings to provide political cover for a massive military attack on Iraq."

Biden supports a "five-step plan" towards removing troops from Iraq. In November 2006, Biden and Leslie Gelb, President Emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations, released a comprehensive strategy to end sectarian violence in Iraq. Rather than continuing the present approach or withdrawing, the plan calls for federalizingIraq with separate regions for Kurds, Shiites, and Sunnis. The key points include:
  1. Giving Iraq's major groups a measure of autonomy in their own regions. A central government would be left in charge of interests such as defending the borders and distributing oil revenues.
  2. Guaranteeing Sunnis — who have no oil rights — a proportionate share of oil revenue and reintegrating those who have not fought against Coalition forces.
  3. Increase, not end, reconstruction assistance but insist that Arab Gulfmarker states fund it and tie it to the creation of a jobs program and to the protection of minority rights.
  4. Initiate a diplomatic offensive to enlist the support of the major powers and neighboring countries for a political settlement in Iraq and create an Oversight Contact Group to enforce regional commitments.
  5. Begin the phased redeployment of U.S. forces in 2007 and withdraw most of them by 2008, leaving a small follow-on force for security and policing actions.


The plan, named The Biden-Brownback Resolution, passed the Senate 75-23 in a nonbinding vote on September 25, 2007, including 26 Republican votes. Iraq’s political leadership united in denouncing the resolution, while the Embassy of the United States in Baghdadmarker issued a statement distancing itself.

Africa

Biden favors an American deployment of troops to Darfurmarker.In support of this, Biden said senior U.S. military officials in Europe told him that 2,500 U.S. troops could "radically change the situation on the ground now" (see War in Darfur.)

Biden is opposed to American financing of abstinence-only programs to combat HIV-AIDSin Africa. In 2007, he cosponsored the HIV Prevention Act which would end President Bush's mandate that one third of all funds be earmarked to abstinence only programs.

Israel

Biden is a self-described Zionist. He is highly supportive of the state of Israelmarker and views Israel as a strategic ally in the Middle East.He stated that "the Arab nations have known that there is no daylight between us and Israel." Regarding support for Israel within the Democratic Party, Biden has stated that the Democrats' support for Israel "comes from our gut, moves through our heart, and ends up in our head. It's almost genetic." In September 2008, Biden stated "A strong America is a strong Israel. I have a 35-year record of supporting Israel, and Israel's security is enhanced the stronger America is."
At an international economic forum (2003)


In a speech to several hundred older Jews at a Floridamarker retirement community, Biden stressed that he and Barack Obama are strongly pro-Israel.Biden stated "I am chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. I give you my word as a Biden, I would not have given up that job to be Barack Obama's vice president if I didn't in my gut and in my heart and in my head know that Barack Obamais exactly where I am on Israel. And he is...I promise you ... we will make [Israel] more secure." Biden also criticized the presidency of George W.Bush, stating that "By any objective fact, Israel is less secure today in the world than it was eight years ago."

During a conference call to members of the Jewish media on September 3, 2008, Biden stated, in regard to a potential Israeli military strike on Iranian nuclear facilities, that it “is not a question for us to tell the Israelis what they can and cannot do, I have faith in the democracyof Israel. They will arrive at the right decision that they view as being in their own interests.” However, Biden stated that additional diplomatic efforts should be made to help avert the potential need for military action.

In September 2008, Biden spoke at the Washington Conference of the National Jewish Democratic Council(NJDC). Biden stated that “I’ve spent 35 years of my career dealing with issues relating to Israel. My support for Israel begins in my stomach, goes to my heart and ends up in my head." Regarding Barack Obama's stance on Israel, Biden stated that “I guarantee you, I would not have joined Barack Obama as his vice president if I had any doubt, even the slightest doubt, that he shares the same commitment to Israel I share.” Biden also harshly denied a claim by the Republican Jewish Coalition(RJC) that he once attempted to cut off aid to Israel. NJDC director Ira Formanhas praised Biden, stating that “There is no one you could possibly pick who knows the issues, who is committed to Israel’s security and knows Israeli leaders, as much as Joe Biden.”

During the 2008 Vice-Presidential debate, Biden stated "no one in the United States Senate has been a better friend to Israel than Joe Biden. I would have never, ever joined this ticket were I not absolutely sure Barack Obama shared my passion."

Alleged Statement on Nuclearization of Iran

In early September 2008, Haaretz quoting an un-sourced report from Israel Army Radio which stated that Biden had reportedly told Israeli officials in private that Israel "will have to reconcile itself with the nuclearization of Iranmarker."Biden denied he had ever made this statement or any similar statements. David Wade, a Biden spokesman, stated that “This is a lie peddled by partisan opponents of Senators Obama and Biden and we will not tolerate anyone questioning Senator Biden’s 35-year record of standing up for the security of Israel.” Wade also stated that Biden' views a nuclear Iran as “grave threat to Israel and the United States.” Israeli officials later reported that the original story appeared “dubious.”

American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC)

Regarding the American Israel Public Affairs Committee(AIPAC), Biden defended his right to oppose some AIPAC-backed measures. Biden stated that "AIPAC does not speak for the entire American Jewish community. There’s other organizations as strong and as consequential.” Biden further stated that AIPAC does not speak for Israel. However, Biden added that “I’ve never disagreed with AIPAC on the objective. Whenever I’ve had disagreement with AIPAC it has always been a tactical disagreement, not a substantive disagreement.” Following this interview, an AIPAC spokesman praised Biden's leadership efforts on several fronts and stated that "We look forward to continuing to work with him in the Senate or in the White House."

In September 2008, Biden spoke with AIPAC leaders in a conference call. Following the meeting, an AIPAC spokesman stated that "We had a very warm conversation with Senator Biden today, as we have many times throughout the years, about the importance of the U.S-Israel relationship, and we look forward to continuing to work with him in the future.We had an opportunity to express our appreciation for his strong leadership in support of the U.S.-Israel relationship, and we were pleased to hear Senator Biden reaffirm his desire to maintain his close relationship with AIPAC as we work together to strengthen the special friendship between the two democracies over many years to come."An adviser to the presidential campaign of Sen. Barack Obamastated that "Sen.Biden expressed his appreciation for AIPAC's important work supporting Israel's security and the U.S.-Israel relationship, and that he looks forward to continuing to work with them as partners on these issues in the future as he has in the past."

Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Biden has stated he supports a two-state solutionto the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Biden cosponsored the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006 which expressed U.S. support for a two-state solution. During the 2008 Vice-Presidential debate, Biden stated that the policy administration of George W. Bush with regard to the Middle East has been "an abject failure" and pledged that, if elected Barack Obamaand himself "will change this policy with thoughtful, real, live diplomacy that understands that you must back Israel in letting them negotiate, support their negotiation, and stand with them, not insist on policies like this administration has."

In a March 2007 interview, Biden was asked about the failure to achieve peace between Israel and the Palestinians. Biden stated that "Israel’s a democracy and they make mistakes. But the notion that somehow if Israel just did the right thing, [the peace process] would work ... give me a break.” He also stated that “The responsibility rests on those who will not acknowledge the right of Israel to exist, will not play fair, will not deal, will not renounce terror.”

In May 2009, Biden spoke at an AIPAC conference where he stated that Israel "has to work towards a two-state solution" and called on Israel to "dismantle existing outposts and allow Palestinians freedom of movement." He also called on the Palestinians to "combat terror and incitement against Israel."

North Korea

Biden favors open dialogue with North Koreamarker and describes them as a "paper tiger", unable to directly cause harm to America.However, in June 2007 Democratic debate, he called the situation one of "the three most important things that the next president is going to have to deal with", along with Iranmarker and Iraqmarker.

Iran

As chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Sen. Biden has been a prominent voice calling for "hard-headed diplomacy" with Iranmarker.In July 2008, Biden should first engage directly with Iran in the context of talks with the Permanent Five Members of the UN Security Council and Germany, and "ultimately country-to-country, just as we did with North Koreamarker."He also has called for the implementation of "coordinated international sanction" on Iran, adding "we should complement this pressure by presenting a detailed, positive vision for U.S.-Iran relationsif Iran does the right thing."

In 2007, Biden voted against a measure to declare the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corpsa terrorist organization. He wrote in December 2007 that "War with Iran is not just a bad option. It would be a disaster." Biden has threatened to initiate impeachment proceedings against President Bush if he starts a war with Iran without Congressional approval. In an interview with members of the Jewish media in September 2008, Biden stated that the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps is a terrorist organization and that the Bush administration already had the power to designate it as one. He stated that he voted against the measure out of concern that the Bush administration would misuse the measure to justify a military attack against Iran.

In early April 2009, Biden told CNN that he believed that Israelmarker would not launch a unilateral strike against Iranmarker's nuclear facilities.Biden stated that "I think (Israel) would be ill-advised to do that. And so my level of concern is no different than it was a year ago."

Cuba

Biden strongly opposes the Fidel Castro regime in Cubamarker and supports the continuation of the trade embargo as well as the democratization of the island in post-Castro era.In 2006, Biden stated, "We should be putting together a plan as to how we are going to play a positive role in moving that country, after the Castros are gone, to—more toward democratization and liberalization in their society."

Russia

In 1999, Biden cosponsored a draft resolution condemning Russia's 1999 Invasion of Chechnya, the use of indiscriminate force by the Russian army against civilians and violations of the Geneva Convention, and urged a peaceful resolution of the conflict.

In 2005, Biden cosponsored a Senate resolution criticizing Russia for failing to uphold its commitments at the 1999 Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Summit, which included agreements on a completed Russian military withdrawal from Moldovamarker.That resolution also expressed disapproval of Russia’s demand for the closure of the OSCE Border Monitoring Operation (BMO), which served to observe border crossings between Georgia and the Russian republics of Chechnyamarker, Dagestanmarker, and Ingushetiamarker.That bill passed in the Senate.

Biden introduced legislation in July 2008 urging members of the Group of Eight to "work toward a more constructive relationship with Russia," and encouraging Russia to behave according to the G-8’s "objectives of protecting global security, economic stability, and democracy." The resolution also called on Russian and U.S. leaders to increase cooperation and funding for the Nunn-Lugar programand other nonproliferation initiatives. It also emphasized the need for a successor to the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty. The resolution passed.

Biden has voiced concerns about Russia alleged backsliding on democratic reforms. In August 2008, Biden criticized Russia’s military action in Georgia. "By acting disproportionately with a full scale attack on Georgiamarker and seeking the ouster of Georgia’s democratically elected President Mikheil Saakashvili, Moscow is jeopardizing its standing in Europe and the broader international community – and risking very real practical and political consequences," Biden wrote in a Financial Times op-ed.Biden urged Russia to abide by the negotiated cease fire.

See also



Notes

  1. http://www.ontheissues.org/2008/Joe_Biden_Crime.htm
  2. Grist Jan 3, 2008 retrieved May 4, 2008 http://www.grist.org/feature/2007/08/29/biden_factsheet/
  3. On the Issues retrieved May 4, 2008 http://www.ontheissues.org/Senate/Joe_Biden.htm#Energy_+_Oil
  4. http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=109&session=1&vote=00044
  5. Grist Jan 3, 2008 Retrieved May 4, 2008 http://www.grist.org/feature/2007/08/29/biden/
  6. http://online.wsj.com/public/article_print/SB122049148440397625.html
  7. Meet the Press August 2002 interview with Tim Russert http://www.michaelmoore.com/mustread/index.php?id=1040
  8. AUTHORIZATION OF THE USE OF UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES AGAINST IRAQ
  9. Joe Biden on Meet the Press 2007 http://www.ontheissues.org/Archive/2007_Meet_the_Press_Joe_Biden.htm
  10. Scott Ritter: Is Iraq a True Threat to the US?
  11. Ritter and Von Sponeck on Iraq: Interviews Available
  12. Israel must come to terms with nuclear Iran
  13. Jennifer Siegel: Presidential Hopeful Slams Bush for Stance on Syria The Jewish Daily Forward, March 21, 2007.
  14. Joseph Biden, Democrat, profile at Haaretz, October 23, 2006.
  15. Candidate Biden: U.S., Israel Joined at the Hip by Aaron Passman, The Jewish Exponent, September 11, 2008.
  16. Biden reassures Florida Jews on Israel, Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA), September 2, 2008.
  17. Sen. Joe Biden reiterates support for Israel at two South Florida rallies by Mark Hollis and Juan Ortega, South Florida Sun-Sentinel, September 3, 2008.
  18. Biden: AIPAC doesn't speak for all Jews, Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA), September 3, 2008)
  19. Biden at NJDC: Obama supports Israel, Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA), September 24, 2008.
  20. Transcript of Palin, Biden debate, CNN, October 2, 2008.
  21. Biden Denies Saying Israel will have to Reconcile with Nuclear Iran, Fox News (with contributions from Reena Ninan), September 1, 2008
  22. Obama camp denies report Biden said Israel will have to reconcile to nuclear Iran, Haaretz Service, September 1, 2008.
  23. Biden, AIPAC clear the air, Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA), September 19, 2008.
  24. “Mr. President, I support the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006...” govtrack.us.
  25. Joe Biden and Israel are friends who fight by Eric Fingerhut and Ron Kampeas, Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA) (reprinted by the Jewish Weekly News of Northern California), August 29, 2008 (retrieved on November 1, 2008).
  26. U.S. presses Israel on two-state solution, settlements by Matt Spetalnick and David Alexander, Reuters (reprinted by the National Post), May 5, 2009.
  27. Biden's 's position on top foreign policy issues
  28. Biden: Israel won’t hit Iran by Ron Kampeas, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), April 7, 2009.
  29. Obama is a pragmatic idealist (interview with Brian Whitmore)
  30. S. Res. 223 [106th]: A resolution condemning the violence in Chechnya


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