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John X, Pope from March, 914 to May, 928, was deacon at Bolognamarker when he attracted the attention of Theodora, the wife of Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, the most powerful noble in Romemarker, through whose influence he was elevated first to the see of Bologna and then to the archbishopric of Ravennamarker.

In direct opposition to a decree of council, John X was, at the instigation of Theodora, promoted to the papal chair as the successor of Pope Lando (913–914). Like Pope John IX (898–900) he endeavoured to secure himself against his temporal enemies through a close alliance with Theophylact and Alberic, marquis of Camerinomarker, then governor of the duchy of Spoletomarker.

In December 915 John X granted the imperial crown to Berengar of Friuli (915–924), and with the assistance of the forces of all the princes of the Italian peninsula, he took the field in person against the Saracens, over whom he gained a great victory on the banks of the Garigliano. The defeat and death of Berengar in 924, through the combination of the Italian princes, again frustrated the hopes of a united Italy, and after witnessing several years of anarchy and confusion, John X perished as a result of the intrigues of Marozia, daughter of Theodora. He was succeeded by Pope Leo VI in 928.

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