( ) is a
of the words
("Spanish"). It refers to various
types of language contact between
Spanish and Portuguese which have occurred in
regions where the two languages coexist, like the border regions
between Brazil, whose
official language is Portuguese, and most of its neighboring
countries, whose official language is Spanish.
from improvised code-switching between monolingual speakers of each
language to more or less stable mixed languages.
It is the name often given to any unsystematic mixture of
Portuguese with Spanish (code-switching
). This is sometimes used by
speakers of the two languages to talk to each other. It is possible
to conduct a moderately fluent conversation in this way because
Portuguese and Spanish are closely related Latin languages
As a language variety
refers to a Portuguese spoken in
the border between Uruguay and Brazil, notably in
the region of the twin cities of Rivera and Santana do
Livramento, where the border is open and a street is the only
line dividing the two countries.
This condition, over
hundreds of years, gave rise to this variety, influenced by
and the Portuguese used on
radio and television, which their speakers call
. It has been studied extensively by
linguists, including Ana Maria
and John Lipski.