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Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic ( ), is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsulamarker. Portugal is the westernmost country of mainland Europe and is bordered by the Atlantic Oceanmarker to the west and south and by Spainmarker to the north and east. The Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeiramarker are also part of Portugal.

The land within the borders of today's Portuguese Republic has been continuously settled since prehistoric times. Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici, Cynetes, Phoeniciansmarker, Carthaginiansmarker, Romans and many Germanic tribes such as the Suevi, the Buri and the Visigoths, all left their influence on what is today Portuguese territory. The territory was integrated in the Roman Empire as the province of Lusitania and Roman settlers strongly influenced Portuguese culture, particularly the Portuguese language, mostly derived from Latin. After the fall of the Roman empire and occupation by different Germanic tribes, in the early 8th century the Muslim Moors conquered the Christian Germanic kingdoms, occupying most of the Iberian Peninsulamarker. Later, during the Christian Reconquista (Reconquering), the County of Portugal was settled, as part of the Kingdom of Galicia. Portugal emerged during the 12th century from this brief earldom and would establish almost its entire modern-day borders in 1249.

During the 15th and 16th centuries, with a global empire that included possessions in Africa, Asia, and South America, Portugal was one of the world's major economic, political and military powers. It was then united with Spain during a period called the Iberian Union; however, in 1640 it went on to re-establish total sovereignty and independence during the Portuguese Restoration War that resulted in the establishment of a new dynasty and a return to the previous separation between the two crowns and empires.

The 1755 Lisbon earthquakemarker, Spanish and French invasions, which preceded the loss of its largest territorial possession abroad, Brazilmarker, resulted in both the disruption of political stability and potential economic growth as well as the reduction of Portugal's international status as a global power during the 19th century. After the overthrow of the monarchy in 1910, a republic was establishedmarker that was then followed by a dictatorship. With the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution coup d'état in 1974, the ruling dictatorshipmarker was deposed in Lisbon and the country handed over its last overseas provinces (most prominently Angolamarker and Mozambiquemarker in Africa); the last overseas territory, Macaumarker, was handed over to Chinamarker in 1999.

Portugal is a developed country and it has the world's 19th highest quality-of-life, according to The Economist Intelligence Unit. It is the 14th most peaceful and the 13th most globalized country in the world. It is a member of the European Union (joined the then EEC in 1986, leaving the EFTA where it was a founding member in 1960) and the United Nations; as well as a founding member of the Latin Unionmarker, the Organization of Ibero-American States, OECD, NATOmarker, Community of Portuguese Language Countriesmarker, the European Union's Eurozone, and also a Schengen state.


The early history of Portugal, whose name derives from the Roman name Portus Cale, is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsulamarker. The region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici and Cynetes, visited by Phoeniciansmarker and Carthaginiansmarker, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions (as Lusitania after 45 BC until 298, settled again by Suevi, Buri, and Visigoths, and conquered by Moors. Other minor influences include some 5th century vestiges of Alan settlement, which were found in Alenquermarker, Coimbra and even Lisbonmarker. In 868, during the Reconquista (by which Christians reconquered the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim and Moorish domination), the First County of Portugal was formed. A victory over the Muslims at Battle of Ourique in 1139 is traditionally taken as the occasion when Portugal was transformed from a county (County of Portugal as a fief of the Kingdom of Leónmarker) into an independent kingdom: the Kingdom of Portugal.
On 24 June 1128, the Battle of São Mamede occurred near Guimarães. At the Battle of São Mamede, Afonso Henriques, Count of Portugal, defeated his mother, Countess Teresa, and her lover, Fernão Peres de Trava, in battle — thereby establishing himself as sole leader. Afonso Henriques officially declared Portugal's independence when he proclaimed himself king of Portugal on 25 July 1139, after the Battle of Ourique, he was recognized as such in 1143 by Alfonso VII, king of León and Castile, and in 1179 by Pope Alexander III.Afonso Henriques and his successors, aided by military monastic orders, pushed southward to drive out the Moors, as the size of Portugal covered about half of its present area. In 1249, this Reconquista ended with the capture of the Algarve on the southern coast, giving Portugal its present day borders, with minor exceptions. In 1348 and 1349, like the rest of Europe, Portugal was devastated by the Black Death.

In 1373, Portugal made an alliance with England, which is the longest-standing alliance in the world.
In 1383, the king of Castile, husband of the daughter of the Portuguese king who had died without a male heir, claimed his throne. An ensuing popular revolt led to the 1383-1385 Crisis. A faction of petty noblemen and commoners, led by John of Aviz (later John I), seconded by General Nuno Álvares Pereira defeated the Castilians in the Battle of Aljubarrotamarker. This celebrated battle is still a symbol of glory and the struggle for independence from neighbouring Spain.

In the following decades, Portugal spearheaded the exploration of the world and undertook the Age of Discovery. Prince Henry the Navigator, son of King João I, became the main sponsor and patron of this endeavor.

In 1415, Portugal conquered the first of its overseas colonies by conquering Ceutamarker, a prosperous Islamic trade center in North Africa. There followed the first discoveries in the Atlantic: Madeiramarker and the Azores, which led to the first colonization movements.
Throughout the 15th century, Portuguese explorers sailed the coast of Africa, establishing trading posts for several common types of tradable commodities at the time, ranging from gold to slaves, as they looked for a route to India and its spices, which were coveted in Europe. In 1498, Vasco da Gama finally reached India and brought economic prosperity to Portugal and its population of 1,5 million residents then. In 1500, Pedro Álvares Cabral, en route to India, discovered Brazilmarker and claimed it for Portugal. Ten years later, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Goamarker, in Indiamarker, Ormuzmarker in the Persian Strait, and Malaccamarker, now a state in Malaysiamarker. Thus, the Portuguese empire held dominion over commerce in the Indian Oceanmarker and South Atlantic. The Portuguese sailors set out to reach Eastern Asia by sailing eastward from Europe landing in such places like Taiwanmarker, Japanmarker, the island of Timormarker, and it may also have been Portuguese sailors that were the first Europeans to discover Australia and even New Zealandmarker.

Portugal's independence was interrupted between 1580 and 1640. Because the heirless King Sebastian died in the battle of Alcácer Quibir in Morocco, Philip II of Spain claimed his throne and so became Philip I of Portugal. Although Portugal did not lose its formal independence, it was governed by the same monarch who governed Spain, briefly forming a union of kingdoms, as a personal union; The joining of the two crowns deprived Portugal of a separate foreign policy, and led to the involvement in the Eighty Years War being fought in Europe at the time between Spain and The Netherlands. War led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, and the loss of Hormuz. From 1595 to 1663 the Dutch-Portuguese War primarily involved the Dutch companies invading many Portuguese colonies and commercial interests in Brazil, Africa, India and the Far East, resulting in the loss of the Portuguese Indian Sea trade monopoly.

In 1640, John IV spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled nobles and was proclaimed king. The Portuguese Restoration War between Portugal and Spain on the aftermath of the 1640 revolt, ended the sixty-year period of the Iberian Union under the House of Habsburg. This was the beginning of the House of Braganza, which was to reign in Portugal until 1910. On 1 November 1755, Lisbonmarker, the largest city and capital of the Portuguese Empire, was strongly shaken by an earthquakemarker which killed thousands and destroyed a large portion of the city.

In the autumn of 1807, Napoleon moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal. From 1807 to 1811, British-Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal. Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline until the 20th century. This decline was hastened by the independence in 1822 of the country's largest colonial possession, Brazilmarker.

At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia. During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there. Portuguese territories eventually included the modern nations of Cape Verdemarker, São Tomé and Príncipemarker, Guinea-Bissaumarker, Angolamarker, and Mozambiquemarker.

In 1910, a revolution deposed the Portuguese monarchy and its last King, Manuel II, but chaos continued and considerable economic problems were aggravated by the military intervention in World War I, which led to a military coup d'état in 1926. This in turn led to the establishment of the right-wing dictatorship of the Estado Novomarker under António de Oliveira Salazar. Portugal was one of only five European countries to remain neutral in World War II.

In December 1961, the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese Indiamarker against an Indian invasion. The operations resulted in the defeat of the isolated and relatively small Portuguese garrison which was forced to surrender. The outcome was the loss of the Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent. Also in the early 1960s, independence movements in the Portuguese overseas provinces of Angolamarker, Mozambiquemarker, and Guineamarker in Africa, resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974).

In April 1974, a bloodless left-wing military coup in Lisbonmarker, known as the Carnation Revolution, led the way for a modern democracy as well as the independence of the last colonies in Africa shortly after. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories (mostly from Portuguese Angolamarker and Mozambiquemarker), creating over a million destitute Portuguese refugees — the retornados. Portugal's last overseas territory, Macaumarker, was not handed over to the People's Republic of Chinamarker until 1999, under the 1987 joint declaration that set the terms for Macau's handover from Portugal to the P. R. of China. In 2002, the independence of East Timormarker (Asia) was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in 1975 because of the Carnation Revolution.

From the 1940s to the 1960s, Portugal was a founding member of NATOmarker, OECD and EFTA. In 1986, Portugal joined the European Union (then the European Economic Community). In 1999, Portugal was one of the founding countries of the euro and the Eurozone. It is also a co-founder of the Community of Portuguese Language Countriesmarker (CPLP), established in 1996 and headquartered in Lisbon.

Government and politics

Portugal is a democratic republic ruled by the Constitution of 1976 with Lisbonmarker, the nation's largest city, as its capital.The four main governing components are the President of the Republic, the Parliament, known as Assembly of the Republic, the Government, headed by a Prime Minister, and the courts. The constitution grants the division or separation of powers among legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Portugal like most European countries has no state religion, making it a secular state.

The president, who is elected to a five-year term, has a supervising non-executive role. The current President is Aníbal Cavaco Silva. The Parliament is a chamber composed of 230 deputies elected in four-year terms. The government is headed by the prime minister (currently José Sócrates) who chooses the Council of Ministers, comprising all the ministers and state secretaries.

The national and regional governments (those of Azores and Madeiramarker autonomous regions), and the Portuguese parliament, are dominated by two political parties, the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party. Minority parties Unitarian Democratic Coalition (Portuguese Communist Party plus Ecologist Party "The Greens"), Bloco de Esquerda (The Left Bloc) and CDS-PP (Popular Party) are also represented in the parliament and local governments.

The courts are organized in several categories comprising the judicial, administrative, and fiscal branches. The supreme courts are courts of last appeal. A thirteen-member constitutional court oversees the constitutionality of the laws.

Executive branch

The President, elected to a 5-year term by direct, universal suffrage, is also commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Presidential powers include appointing the prime minister and Council of Ministers, in which the president must be guided by the assembly election results; dismissing the prime minister; dissolving the assembly to call early elections; vetoing legislation, which may be overridden by the assembly; and declaring a state of war or siege.

The Council of State, a presidential advisory body, is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former presidents elected under the 1976 constitution, five members chosen by the assembly, and five selected by the president.The government is headed by the presidentially appointed prime minister, who names the Council of Ministers. A new government is required to define the broad outline of its policy in a program and present it to the assembly for a mandatory period of debate. Failure of the assembly to reject the program by a majority of deputies confirms the government in office.

Legislative branch

The four main organs of the national government are the presidency, the prime minister and Council of Ministers(the government), the Assembly of the Republic(the parliament), and the judiciary. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of proportional representation, deputies serve terms of office of 4 years, unless the president dissolves the assembly and calls for new elections.

Foreign relations and armed forces

A member state of the United Nationssince 1955, Portugal is also a founding member of NATOmarker(1949), OECD(1961) and EFTA(1960); it left the latter in 1986 to join the European Economic Community, that would become the European Unionin 1993.In 1996 it co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countriesmarker (CPLP), which seeks to foster closer economic and cultural ties between the world's Lusophone nations.In addition, Portugal is a full member of the Latin Unionmarker (1983) and the Organization of Ibero-American States (1949).

It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazilmarker.Portugal and England (subsequently, the UK) share the world's oldest active military accord through their Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, which was signed in 1373.

The only international disputes concerns the municipality of Olivençamarker.Under Portuguese sovereignty since 1297, the municipality of Olivença was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz in 1801, after the War of the Oranges. Portugal claimed it back in 1815 under the Treaty of Vienna.

There are also some controversies over the Savage Islandsmarker.1881 - The Spanish Foreign Affairs Ministry stated during the meeting that "...it is not clear if the sovereignty of the island belongs to Spain or Portugal". 1911 – In September the Portuguese government received an official communication from the Spanish government in which it was stated that Spain would build a lighthouse in the islands and had decided to include them in the Canary archipelago. Portuguese administration protested and it was agreed not to take any actions that might endanger a friendly solution to the dispute. The Permanent Commission of International Maritime Law gave sovereignty of the Savage Islands to Portugal on February 15, 1938.Nevertheless, bilateral diplomatic relations between the two neighbouring countries are cordial, as well as within the European Union.


The armed forces have three branches: Army, Navy, and Air Force. The military of Portugal serves primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and providing humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad. As of 2002, the total armed forces of Portugal numbered 43,600 active personnel including 2,875 women. Reservists numbered 210,930 for all services.

The army had 25,400 personnel with equipment including 187 main battle tanks. The navy of 10,800, including 1,580 marines, had two submarines, six frigates, and 28 patrol and coastal combatants. The air force of 7,400 was equipped with 50 combat aircraft. Paramilitary police and republican guards, the Guarda Nacional Republicana(GNR), number 40,900. GNR is a police force under the authority of the military, its soldiers are subject to military law and organization. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraqmarker and East Timormarker.The United States maintains a military presence with 770 troops in the USA Air Force Base at Terceira Islandmarker, in the Azores.Portugal participates in peacekeeping operations in several regions. Defense spending in 1999–00 was $1.3 billion, representing 2.2% of GDP.

Since the early 2000s, compulsory military serviceis no longer practiced. The changes also turned the forces' focus towards professional military engagements. The age for voluntary recruitment is set at 18. In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two major military interventions: the First Great Warand the Portuguese Colonial War(1961–1974). Portugal has participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timormarker, Bosniamarker, Kosovomarker, Afghanistanmarker, Iraqmarker (Nasiriyahmarker), and Lebanonmarker.The Portuguese Military's Rapid Reaction Brigade, a combined force of the nation's elite Paratroopers, Special Operations Troops Centre, and Commandos, is a special elite fighting force.

Law and criminal justice

The Portuguese legal systemis part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. Until the end of the 19th century, Frenchmarker law was the main influence.Since then the major influence has been German law. The main laws include the Constitution(1976, as amended), the Civil Code(1966, as amended) and the Penal Code(1982, as amended). Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code(1888, as amended) and the Civil Procedure Code(1961, as amended). Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territoriesand continues to be the major influence for those countries. Portugal's main police organizations are the Guarda Nacional Republicana - GNR(National Republican Guard), a gendarmerie; the Polícia de Segurança Pública - PSP(Public Security Police), a civilian police force who work in urban areas; and the Polícia Judiciária - PJ(Judicial Police), a highly specialized criminal investigation police which is overseen by the Public Ministry.

Geography and climate

Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagusmarker.The northern landscape is mountainous in the interior with plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, that includes the Algarveand the Alentejo, features mostly rolling plains and a climate somewhat warmer and drier than in the north. The Algarve, separated from the Alentejoby mountains, has a climate much like the southern coastal areas of Spain. Portugal's highest point is Mount Picomarker on Pico Islandmarker in the Azores.This is an ancient volcano measuring . Mainland Portugal's highest point is Serra da Estrelamarker, with the summit being above sea level.

Portugal has a Mediterranean climate, Csain the south and Csbin the north, according to the Köppen climate classification. Portugal is one of the warmest European countries: the annual average temperature in mainland Portugalvaries from in the mountainous interior north to over in the south and on the Guadiana basin. In some areas, as in the Tejo and Douro basins, annual average temperatures can be as high as . Here in the summer temperatures may be over as it is documented in a climatology study done recently, for example in the Arqueology Park in Côa, Douro valley. The record high of was recorded in Riodades, São João da Pesqueiramarker.The annual average rainfall varies from a bit more than in the mountains in the northto less than in southern parts of Alentejo. The country has around 2500–3200 hours of sunshine a year, an average of 4-6 h in winter and 10-12 h in the summer, with higher values in the southeast and lower in the northwest.

The Madeiramarker and Azores archipelagos have a narrower temperature range with annual average temperatures exceeding , according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute, in the south coast of Madeira Islandmarker.The annual average rainfall in the mainland varies from a bit more than in the mountains in the north to less than in Massueime region, near Côa on the Douro river . In the Pico mountain, in Azores, is the rainiest spot of Portugal, reaching over per year, according to IM (Portuguese Meteorological Institute).

The islands of the Azores are located in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge whilst the Madeira islands were formed by the activity of an in-plate hotspot, much like the Hawaiian Islandsmarker.Some islands have had volcanic activity as recently as 1957. Both the Azores and the Madeira Islands have a subtropical climate, but there are differences between the islands, mainly because of differences in temperature and rainfall. Some islands in Azores do have dry months in the summer therefore a Mediterranean climate according to Koppen-Geiger ( both Csa and Csb types) Maritime Temperate ( Cfb) in some islands ( Flores) and Humid subtropical (Cfa) in the others (Corvo), according to Koppen-Geiger where are no dry months in the summer. The Savage Islandsmarker, that belong to the Madeira archipelago, have a Desertic climate (BWh) with an annual average rainfall of just around .The sea surface mean temperatures in these archipelagos vary from - in winter to - in the summer, occasionally reaching .

In South Azores, there´s an oceanic area, inside Portuguese maritime territory which has the unique tropical climate (As type according to Koppen-Geiger)known in Europe, because of Gulf Stream influence on this area. Sea temperatures here are over 20 °C (68 °F) even on the peak of the winter ( Source AEMET).

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zone, a seazone over which the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, has 1,727,408 km². This is the 3rd largest Exclusive Economic Zoneof the European Unionand the 11th largest in the world.

Fauna and Flora

Conservation areas of Portugalinclude one national park (Parque Nacional), 12 natural parks (Parque Natural), 9 natural reserves (Reserva Natural), 5 natural monuments (Monumento Natural), and 7 protected landscapes (Paisagem Protegida), ranging from the Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerêsmarkerto the Parque Natural da Serra da Estrelamarkerto the Paul de Arzila.Climate and geographical diversity shaped the Portuguese Flora.As far as Portuguese forestsare concerned, because of economic reasons the pine tree (especially the Pinus pinasterand Pinus pineaspecies), the chestnut tree (Castanea sativa), the cork oak (Quercus suber), the holm oak (Quercus ilex), the Portuguese oak (Quercus faginea), and the eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) are very widespread.

fauna is diverse and includes the fox, badger, Iberian lynx, Iberian Wolf, wild goat(Capra pyrenaica), wild cat (Felis silvestris), hare, weasel, polecat, chameleon, mongoose, civet, brown bear (spotted near Rio Minho, close to Peneda-Gerês) and many others. Portugal is an important stopover place for migratory birds, in places such as Saint Vicent Cape or Monchiquemarker mountain, where thousands of birds that fly from Europe to Africa in the Autumn or on the opposite direction can be seen in the Spring.They congregate there because the Iberian Peninsulamarker is the closest place in Europe to Africa.Portugal has around 600 bird species and almost every year there are new records. The islands have some species of American, European, and African origin, while the mainland shares European and African bird species.

Portugal has over 100 freshwater fish species and vary from the giant European catfish (Tejo International Natural Park) to some small and endemic species that live only in small and located lakes (West Zone, for example). Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought.Marine fishspecies number are on the thousands mark and include the sardine(Sardina pilchardus), tunaand Atlantic mackerel. The marine bioluminescence is very well-represented (in different colors spectra and forms), with interesting phenomena like the glowing plankton, that is possible to observe in some beaches. In Portugal it is also possible to observe the upwelling phenomena, especially on the west coast, which makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and biodiversity. Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in biodiversity in the world.

There are many endemic species of Insect fauna, that are only found in some places in Portugal, others are more widespread like the stag beetle(Lucanus cervus) and the cicada. Macaronesian islands (Azores and Madeiramarker) have many endemic species (like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs) that developed differently from other places in the world because of their isolated locations and so very unique species have evolved there.Only in Madeira island is possible to observe more than 250 species of land gastropods.Laurissilvamarker is a unique type of subtropical rainforest in Europe and in the world.It is found in Madeira and The Azores and also on the Canary islands, Spain.

Administrative divisions

Portugal has an administrative structure of 308 municipalities(Portuguese singular/plural: concelho/concelhos), which are subdivided into more than 4,000 parishes(freguesia/freguesias). Municipalities are grouped for administrative purposes into superior units. For continental Portugal the municipalities are gathered in 18 Districts, while the Islands have a Regional Government directly above them. Thus, the largest unit of classification is the one established since 1976 into either mainland Portugal (Portugal Continental) or the autonomous regions of Portugal (Azores and Madeiramarker).

The 18 districts of mainland Portugal are: Aveiro, Beja, Braga, Bragança, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Évora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisbonmarker, Portalegre, Porto, Santarémmarker, Setúbal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, and Viseu - each district takes the name of the district capital.

The European Union's system of Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statisticsis also used. According to this system, Portugal is divided into 7 regions (Açores, Alentejo, Algarve, Centro, Lisboa, Madeiramarker, and Norte), which are subdivided into 30 subregions.



Population in Portugal, in thousands (1961-2003)
population of Portugal has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history. A single religion (Catholicism) and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity, namely after the expulsion of the Moors, Moriscosand Sephardi Jews.

Portugal was one of the last western European nations to give up its colonies and overseas territories (among them Angolamarker and Mozambiquemarker in 1975), turning over the administration of Macaumarker to the People's Republic of Chinamarker in 1999.Its colonial historyhas long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the southwestern corner of Europe looking out to the Atlantic ocean.

Native Portuguese are an Iberianmarker ethnic group and their ancestry is very similar to other western and southern European peoples, particularly from Spainmarker, with whom it shares ancestry and has cultural proximity.It is largely consistent with the geographic position of the western part of the Iberian peninsula, located on the extreme southwest of continental Europe. There are clear connections with Mediterranean peopleas well as with those of Atlanticand Western Europe. The most important demic influence in modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one — current interpretation of Y-chromosomeand mtDNAdata suggests that modern-day Portuguese traces largely a significant amount of their origin to the paleolithicpeoples which began arriving to the European continent around 45,000 years ago. All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, not only genetical, but also cultural, but the main populational source of the Portuguese is still paleolithic.

The Instituto Nacional de Estatística(INE, Portugal's official bureau of statistics), estimated that, according to the 2001 census, the population was 10,355,824 of which 52% was female, 48% was male. By 2007, Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom about 332,137 were legal immigrants. Portugal, long a country of emigration (the vast majority of Brazilians have some Portuguese ancestry), has now become a country of net immigration, and not just from the last Indianmarker (Portuguese until 1961), African (Portuguese until 1975), and Far East Asianmarker (Portuguese until 1999) overseas territories.Since the 1990s, along with a boom in construction, several new waves of Ukrainian, Brazilian, people from the former Portuguese colonies in Africaand other Africans have settled in the country. Those communities currently make up the largest groups of immigrants in Portugal. Romaniansmarker, Moldovansmarker and Chinese also have chosen Portugal as destination.A number of EU citizens mostly from the United Kingdommarker, but also from Nordic countries, are permanent residents of the country, with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners and choosing to live in the Algarve and Madeiramarker.Portugal's Gypsypopulation, estimated at about 40,000, offers another element of ethnic diversity. Most gypsies live apart, and primarily in the south. They can often be found at rural markets selling clothing and handicrafts.

are seven Greater Metropolitan Areas (GAMs): Algarve, Aveiro, Coimbra, Lisbon, Minho, Portoand Viseu.

Source of the city populations: INE census, 2001.

* - The Autonomous Region of Madeiramarker is not a Metropolitan Area.


Church and state were formally separated during the Portuguese First Republicmarker (1910–26), a separation reiterated in the Portuguese Constitution of 1976.Portugal is a secular state. Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedomare the 2001 Religious Freedom Act and the 1940 Concordata (as amended in 1971) between Portugal and the Holy See.

Portuguese society is Roman Catholic. 84.5% of the population are Roman Catholic and 2.2% being other Christian faiths.

Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christianorigin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Churchwere generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquestand its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including the first university. The growth of the Portuguese overseas empiremade its missionariesimportant agents of colonizationwith important roles of evangelizationand teachingin all inhabited continents.

The country has small Protestant, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(Mormon), Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, Christian Orthodox, Baha'i, Buddhistand Jewishcommunities.


Portugueseis the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia marker and Northern Portugal, from the Galician-Portuguese language.It is derived from the Latinspoken by the romanizedPre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsulaaround 2000 years ago. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire (1415–1999). As a result, nowadays the Portuguese language is also official and spoken in Brazilmarker, Angolamarker, Mozambiquemarker, Cape Verdemarker, São Tomé and Príncipemarker, Guinea-Bissaumarker, and East Timormarker.These countries, plus Macaumarker Special Administrative Region (People's Republic of China), make up the Lusosphere, term derived from the ancient Roman province of Lusitania, which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douromarker river.Mirandeseis also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of northeastern Portugal. It retains fewer than 5,000 speakers in Portugal (a number that can be up to 12,000 if counting second language speakers).


Portugal's economic developmentmodel has been changing from one based on public consumptionand public investmentto one focused on exports, private investment, and development of the high-techsector. Business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear, cork (of which Portugal is the world's leading producer), wood products and beverages.

The country changed its political regime in 1974 because of the Carnation Revolution, culminating with the end of one of its most notable periods of economic growth, which had started in the 1960s.

Portugal has a strong tradition in the fisheriessector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.

Travel and tourism will continue to be extremely important for Portugal, with visitor numbers forecast to increase significantly over the next five years. However, there is increasing competition from Eastern European destinations such as Croatiamarker who offer similar attractions to Portugal, and are often cheaper.Portugal must keep its focus on its niche attractions such as health, nature and rural tourism to stay ahead of its competitors.

Alvercamarker, Covilhã, Évora, and Ponte de Sormarker are the main centres of the Portuguese aerospace industry.

The insurancesector has performed well, partly reflecting a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal. While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks, both the life and non-life sectors, overall, are estimated to be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.

The Global Competitiveness Report for 2005, published by the World Economic Forum, placed Portugal's competitivenessin the 22nd position, but the 2008-2009 edition placed Portugal in the 43rd position out of 134 countries and territories.Research about quality of life by the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life survey placed Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the world for the year 2005, ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like Francemarker, Germanymarker, the United Kingdommarker and South Koreamarker, but 9 places behind its only neighbour, Spainmarker.This is despite the fact that Portugal remains the country with the lowest per capita GDP in Western Europe.

The poor performance of the Portuguese economy was explored in April 2007 by The Economistwhich described Portugal as "a new sick man of Europe". From 2002 to 2007, the unemployment rate increased by 65% (270,500 unemployed citizens in 2002, 448,600 unemployed citizens in 2007).

Corruption has become an issue of major political and economic significance for the country. Some cases are well known and were widely reported in the media, such as the affairs in several municipalities involving local town hall officials and businesspersons, as well as a number of politicians with wider responsibilities and power.


In 2006 the world's largest solar powerplant began operating in the nation's sunny south while the world's first commercial wave powerfarm opened in October 2006 in the Norte region. As of 2006, 66% of electricity production was from coal and fuel power plants. A total of 29% was produced by hydroelectricsand 6% by wind energy. In 2008, up to 43% of the electricity consumed in the country had been produced through the renewable energies, even though the hydroelectric production had decreased because of the dryness that affected the country.


Officially, in 2008 the unemployment decreased to 7.3% in the second quarter of 2008. In 2008, about 8% of the people with a degree were unemployed, and a much larger proportion were underemployed. Nearly 60,000 people with an academic degree are unemployed in Portugal. According to Eurostat, Portugal was the 9th poorest country of the 27 member states of the European Union by purchasing power, for the period 2005-2007. The last European survey of workers, published in 2007 and which formed the basis of this 2009 research study showed that Portugal is the 5th European country with lower quality of work.

Science and technology

Scientific and technological researchactivities in Portugal are mainly conducted within a network of R&Dunits belonging to public universitiesand state-managed autonomous research institutions like the INETI - Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovaçãoand the INRB - Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos. The funding and management of this research system is mainly conducted under the authority of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education(MCTES) itself and the MCTES's Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia(FCT). The largest R&D units of the public universities by volume of research grants and peer-reviewed publications, include biosciencesresearch institutions like the Instituto de Medicina Molecular, the Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, the IPATIMUP, and the Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular. Among the private universities, notable research centers include the Facial Emotion Expression Lab. Internationally notable state-supported research centres in other fields include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, a joint research effort of both Portugal and Spain. Among the largest non-state-run research institutions in Portugal are the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciênciaand the Champalimaud Foundationwhich yearly awards one of the highest monetary prizes of any science prize in the world. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects. One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon.

Portugal made agreements with several European scientific organizations aiming at full membership. These include the European Space Agencymarker (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physicsmarker (CERN), ITERmarker, and the European Southern Observatorymarker (ESO).Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with MIT and other North American institutionsin order to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.

Portugal has the largest aquarium in Europe, the Lisbon Oceanariummarker, and have several other notable organizations focused on science-related exhibits and divulgation, like the state agency Ciência Viva, a programme of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to the promotion of a scientific and technological culture among the Portuguese population, the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra, the National Museum of Natural History at the University of Lisbon, and the Visionarium.

With the emergence and growth of several science parksthroughout the world which helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several science parks across the country. These include the Taguspark (in Oeirasmarker), the Coimbra iParque (in Coimbra), the Madeira Tecnopolo (in Funchalmarker), Sines Tecnopolo (in Sinesmarker), Tecmaia (in Maiamarker) and Parkurbis (in Covilhã).Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.


educational system is divided into preschool (for those under age 6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary education(3 years, till the 12th grade), and higher education(universityand polytechnic).Total adult literacy rate is 95%. Portuguese primary school enrollments are close to 100%. About 20% of college-age students attend one of the country's higher education institutions (compared with 50% in the United States). In addition to being a key destination for international students, Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students. All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled 380,937 in 2005.

Portuguese universities have existed since 1290. The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbonmarker before moving to Coimbra.The largest university in Portugal is the University of Porto. Universities are usually organized into faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions, and are always used in the polytechnical system. The Bologna processhas been adopted since 2006 by Portuguese universities and polytechnical institutes. Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus claususis enforced through a national database on student admissions.


According to the latest Human Development Report, the average Life Expectancyin 2007 was 78.6 years.

The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service(NHS), special social health insurance schemes for certain professions (health subsystems) and voluntaryprivate health insurance. The NHS provides universal coverage. In addition, about 25% of the populationis covered by the health subsystems, 10% by private insurance schemes and another 7% by mutual funds.The Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policy as well as managing the NHS.Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives,developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery. Decentralization efforts haveaimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, theautonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primarycare.

The NHS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer (including the state) and employeecontributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems. In addition, direct paymentsby the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding.

Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases. Mortalityfrom cardiovascular diseases(CVD) is higher than in the Eurozone, but its two main components, ischaemicheart disease and cerebrovascular disease, display inverse trends compared with the Eur-A, withcerebrovascular diseasebeing the single biggest killer in Portugal (17%).Portuguese people die 12% less often from cancer than in the Eur-A, but mortality is not declining asrapidly as in the Eur-A. Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than44 years. Although lung cancer(slowly increasing among women) and breast cancer (decreasing rapidly)are scarcer, cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more frequent.Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the late1980s.

Portugal’s infant mortality ratehas dropped sharply since the 1980s, when 24 of 1000 newborns died inthe first year of life. It is now around 3 deaths per a 1000 newborns. This improvement was mainly due to thedecrease in neonatal mortality, from 15.5 to 3.4 per 1000 live births.

People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of theirbehaviour on their health and their use of health care services. Yet their perceptions of their health candiffer from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness withinpopulations. Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at the household level complement other data onhealth status and the use of services.Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal (Kasmel et al., 2004). This isthe lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country interms of mortality and selected morbidity.


Transportation was seen as a priority in the early 1970s because of the fast growing economy, and again in the 1990s, after the 1974 Carnation Revolution, pushed by the growing use of automobiles and mass consumption. The country has a network of roads, of which almost are part of a 44 motorwayssystem. Portugal was among the first countries in the world to have a motorway, opened in 1944, linking Lisbon to the National Stadium, the future highway Lisbon-Cascais (now A5). However, although they were later built a few other sections in the 1960 and 1970, only in late 1980 started the construction of motorways in a large scale.
Founded in 1972, Brisais the largest highway management concessionaire. With 89,015 km², Continental Portugal has 3 international airports located near Lisbonmarker, Portomarker and Faro.The national railway system service is provided by Comboios de Portugal. The major seaports are located in Leixõesmarker, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz, Lisbonmarker, Setúbalmarker, Sinesmarker and Faro.

The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems: Lisbon Metroand Metro Sul do Tejoin the Lisbon Metropolitan Areaand Porto Metroin the Porto Metropolitan Area, each with more than of lines. In Portugal, Lisbon tram services have been supplied by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa(Carris), for over a century. In Portomarker a tram network, of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douromarker remain, began construction in 12 September 1895, the first in the Iberian Peninsulamarker.All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services.

Rail transportof passengers and goods is derived using the of railway lines currently in service, of which are electrified and about allow train speeds greater than . The railway network is managed by the REFERwhile the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses(CP), both public companies. In 2006 the CP carried 133 million passengers and of goods.

Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover point for many foreign airlines at airports all over the country. The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochetemarker, to replace Lisbon's Portela airportmarker.Currently, the most important airports are in Lisbonmarker, Faromarker, Portomarker, Funchalmarker (Madeiramarker), and Ponta Delgadamarker (Azores).


Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery.
Since the 1990s, Portugal has increased the number of public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundationmarker established in 1956 in Lisbon.These include the Belém Cultural Centermarker in Lisbon, Serralves Foundationmarker and the Casa da Músicamarker, both in Portomarker, as well as new public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls which were built or renovated in many municipalities across the country.


Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline, also known as Portuguese late Gothic, a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the Portuguese Age of Discovery. Modern Portugal has given the world renowned architects like Eduardo Souto de Moura, Álvaro Siza Vieiraand Gonçalo Byrne. Internally, Tomás Taveirais also noteworthy.


Portuguese cinemahas a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century. Portuguese film directors such as Arthur Duarte, António Lopes Ribeiro, Manoel de Oliveira, António-Pedro Vasconcelos, João Botelhoand Leonel Vieira, are among those that gained notability. Noted Portuguese film actors include Joaquim de Almeida, Maria de Medeiros, Diogo Infante, Soraia Chaves, Vasco Santana, Ribeirinho, and António Silva, among many others.


Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text and song. Until 1350, the Portuguese-Galiciantroubadoursspread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula. Gil Vicente(ca. 1465 - ca. 1536), was one of the founders of both Portuguese and Spanish dramatic traditions.

Adventurer and poet Luís de Camões(ca. 1524–1580) wrote the epic poem "Os Lusíadas"(The Lusiads), with Virgil's Aeneidas his main influence. Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic and contemporary styles, as exemplified by Fernando Pessoa(1888–1935). Modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors such as Almeida Garrett, Camilo Castelo Branco, Eça de Queiroz, Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresenand António Lobo Antunes. Particularly popular and distinguished is José Saramago, winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize for literature.


Portuguese cuisine is diverse. The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod(bacalhauin Portuguese), for which there are hundreds of recipes. There are more than enough bacalhaudishes for each day of the year. Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardinesand caldeirada, a potato-based stewthat can be made from several types of different, scrambled fish or meats or even vegetables. Typical Portuguese meat recipes, that may be made out of beef, pork, lamb, or chicken, include cozido à portuguesa, , feijoada, frango de churrasco, leitão (piglet) and carne de porco à alentejana.Typical fast fooddishes include the francesinhafrom Porto, and bifanas(grilled pork) or prego(grilled beef) sandwicheswhich are well known around the country. The Portuguese art of pastryhas its origins in Middle-AgesCatholic monasteries widely spread across the country. These monasteries, using very few ingredients (mostly almonds, flour, eggs and some liquor), managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries, of which pastéis de Belém(or pastéis de nata) originally from Lisbon, and ovos-molesfrom Aveiro are good examples. Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a cult for good food and throughout the country there are myriad good restaurants and small typical tascas.

Portuguese wines have deserved international recognition since the times of the Roman Empire, which associated Portugal with their god Bacchus. Today the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes. Some of the best Portuguese wines are: Vinho Verde, Vinho Alvarinho, Vinho do Douromarker, Vinho do Alentejo, Vinho do Dão, Vinho da Bairrada and the sweet: Port Wine, Madeira Wine and the Moscatel from Setúbalmarker and Favaiosmarker.Port Wine is well known around the world and the most widely known wine type in the world. The Douromarker wine region is the oldest in the world.


Portuguese musicencompasses a wide variety of genres. The most renowned is fado, a melancholy urban music, usually associated with the Portuguese guitarand saudade, or longing. Coimbra fado, a unique type of fado, is also noteworthy. Internationally notable performers include Amália Rodrigues, Carlos Paredes, José Afonso, Mariza, Carlos do Carmo, António Chainho, Mísia, and Madredeus. One of the most notable Portuguese musical groups outside the country, and specially in Germanymarker, is the goth-metal band Moonspell.In addition to fado and folk, the Portuguese listen to pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdommarker, as well as a wide range of Portuguese and Brazilian artists and bands.Bands with international recognition include Blasted Mechanismand The Gift, both of which were nominated for an MTV Europe Music Award. Portugal has several summer music festivals, such as Festival Sudoeste in Zambujeira do Marmarker, Festival de Paredes de Coura in Paredes de Couramarker, Festival Vilar de Mouros near Caminhamarker, and Optimus Alive!, Rock in Rio Lisboa and Super Bock Super Rock in Greater Lisbon.Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto. Furthermore, one of the largest international Goa trancefestivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, and the student festivals of Queima das Fitasare major events in a number of cities across Portugal. In 2005, Portugal held the MTV Europe Music Awards, in Pavilhão Atlânticomarker, Lisbonmarker.

Fandangois one of the most popular regional dances.

In the Classical music domain, Portugal is represented by names as the pianist Maria João Pires, and in the past by the great cellist Guilhermina Suggia. Notable composers include Carlos Seixas, João Domingos Bomtempo, João de Sousa Carvalho, Luís de Freitas Brancoand his student Joly Braga Santos, Fernando Lopes-Graça, Emmanuel Nunesand Sérgio Azevedo.


It has also a rich history as far as painting is concerned. The first well-known painters date back to the XV century – like Nuno Gonçalves- were part of the Gothic painting period.José Malhoa, known for his work Fado, and Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro(who painted the portraits of Teófilo Bragaand Antero de Quental) were both references in naturalist painting.

The 20th century saw the arrival of Modernism, and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters: Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly by the Delaunays. Among his best known works is Canção Popular a Russa e o Fígaro. Another great modernist painter/writer was Almada Negreiros, friend to the poet Fernando Pessoa, who painted his (Pessoa’s) portrait. He was deeply influenced by both Cubistand Futuristtrends. Prominent international figures in visual arts nowadays include painters Vieira da Silva, Júlio Pomar, and Paula Rego.


Football is the most popular and played sport. There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level. The legendary Eusébiois still a major symbol of Portuguese footballhistory. FIFA World Player of the Yearwinners Luís Figoand Cristiano Ronaldo, are among the numerous examples of other world-class football (soccer) players born in Portugal and noted worldwide. Portuguese football managers are also noteworthy, with José Mourinhoand Manuel Joséamong the most renowned.

The Portuguese national teams, have titles in the FIFA World Youth Championshipand in the UEFAyouth championships. The main national team - Selecção Nacional- finished second in Euro 2004(held in Portugal), reached the third place in the 1966 FIFA World Cup, and reached the fourth place in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, their best results in major competitions to date.

Sport Lisboa e Benfica, Futebol Clube do Porto, and Sporting Clube de Portugalare the largest sports clubsby popularity and in terms of trophies won, often known as "os três grandes" ("the big three"). They have 12 titles won in the European UEFAclub competitions, were present in many finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season. Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may include basketball, futsal, handball, and volleyball.
Portugal has a successful rink hockeyteam, with 15 world titlesand 20 European titles, making it the country with the most wins in both competitions. The most successful Portuguese rink hockey clubs in the history of European championships are Futebol Clube do Porto, Sport Lisboa e Benficaand Óquei de Barcelos.The national rugby union teammade a dramatic qualification into the 2007 Rugby World Cupand became the first all amateur team to qualify for the World Cup since the dawn of the professional era. The Portuguese national rugby sevens teamhas performed well, becoming one of the strongest teams in Europe, and proved their status as European champions in several occasions.

In athletics, the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Gamescompetitions. Cycling, with Volta a Portugalbeing the most important race, is also a popular sports event and include professional cycling teams such as Sport Lisboa e Benfica, Boavista, Clube de Ciclismo de Tavira, and União Ciclista da Maia. The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like fencing, judo, kitesurf, rowing, sailing, surfing, shooting, triathlonand windsurf, owning several European and world titles. The paralympicathletes have also conquered many medals in sports like swimming, bocciaand wrestling.

In motor sport, Portugal is internationally noted for the Rally of Portugal, and both the Estorilmarker and Algarve Circuitsmarker.

Northern Portugal has its own original martial art, Jogo do Pau, in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents.

In equestrian sports, Portugal won the only Horseball-Pato World Championship (in 2006), achieved the third position in First Horseball World Cup (organized in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, in 2008), achieved several victories in the Working Equitation European Cup.

See also


  1. Portal do Governo
  2. Appendix B - International Organizations and Groups: developed countries (DCs), CIA — The World Factbook — Appendix B, The World Factbook
  3. Milhazes, José. Os antepassados caucasianos dos portugueses - Rádio e Televisão de Portugal in Portuguese.
  4. Black Death, Great Moments in Science, ABC Science
  5. The standard view of historians is that Cabral was blown off course as he was navigating the currents of the South Atlantic, sighted the coast of South America, thereby accidentally discovering Brazil. For an account of an alternative view of the discovery of Brazil, however, see Alternative theory of the European discovery of Brazil
  6. Map proves Portuguese discovered Australia: new book, in Reuters (Wed Mar 21, 2007) - (see Theory of Portuguese discovery of Australia)
  7. Macau Handover Ceremony - 1999, youtube.com
  8. Flight from Angola, The Economist (August 16, 1975).
  9. Dismantling the Portuguese Empire, Time Magazine (Monday, July 07, 1975).
  10. http://www.ipa.min-cultura.pt/pubs/R.../folder/01.pdf
  11. http://www.dandantheweatherman.com/wortrivaug.htm
  12. http://www.meteo.pt
  13. INE, Statistics Portugal
  14. Portugal - Emigration
  15. Portugal sees integration progress, BBC News, November 14, 2005
  16. Etnia cigana. A mais discriminada, (Expresso-05.04.2008)
  17. Grande Enciclopédia Universal, p. 10543, "Portugal", para. 4
  18. Investing in Portugal Report, Financial Times
  19. Fundação da SEDES - As primeiras motivações, "Nos anos 60 e até 1973 teve lugar, provavelmente, o mais rápido período de crescimento económico da nossa História, traduzido na industrialização, na expansão do turismo, no comércio com a EFTA, no desenvolvimento dos sectores financeiros, investimento estrangeiro e grandes projectos de infra-estruturas. Em consequência, os indicadores de rendimentos e consumo acompanham essa evolução, reforçados ainda pelas remessas de emigrantes.", SEDES
  20. PESSOA, M.F.; MENDES, B.; OLIVEIRA, J.S. CULTURAS MARINHAS EM PORTUGAL, "O consumo médio anual em produtos do mar pela população portuguesa, estima-se em cerca de 58,5 kg/ por habitante sendo, por isso, o maior consumidor em produtos marinhos da Europa e um dos quatro países a nível mundial com uma dieta à base de produtos do mar."
  21. [1], Euromonitor International
  22. Covilhã: Aleia vai montar avião até agora vendido em kit e jactos portugueses em 2011, 14th April 2008
  23. Évora aprova isenções fiscais aos projectos da Embraer, Diário Digital (22nd August 2008)
  24. Portugal: Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Insurance Regulation, IMF, (October 2006)
  25. http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf
  26. Portugueses perderam poder de compra entre 2005 e 2007 e estão na cauda da Zona Euro, Público (December 11, 2008)
  27. "A new sick man of Europe", The Economist, 2007-04-14. http://www.economist.com/world/europe/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9009032
  28. Luis Miguel Mota, População desempregada aumentou 65% em cinco anos, Destak.pt (6th June 2008)
  29. Eurojust chief embroiled in Portuguese corruption scandal, euobserver.com (May 13, 2009)
  30. People & Power, Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera (March 2008)
  31. Taxa de desemprego desce para 7,3 por cento no segundo trimestre, Público (14th August 2008)
  32. Licenciados desempregados mais do que duplicaram desde 2002, Diário Digital (19th February 2008)
  33. Portugal é um dos países com pior qualidade de emprego, Destak.pt (May 28, 2009).
  34. Ciência Viva
  35. Tecparques - Associação Portuguesa de Parques de Ciência e Tecnologia
  36. Madeira Tecnopolo
  37. Sines Tecnopolo
  38. http://www.tecmaia.com.pt Tecmaia
  39. Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia da Covilhã (Parkurbis)
  40. see http://www.euro.who.int/document/chh/por_highlights.pdf
  41. ListAfterList.com
  42. Curious? Read
  43. Poesia e Prosa Medievais, p. 9, para. 4


  • Ribeiro, Ângelo & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal I — A Formação do Território QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-106-6)
  • Ribeiro, Ângelo & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal II — A Afirmação do País QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-107-4)
  • de Macedo, Newton & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal III — A Epopeia dos Descobrimentos QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-108-2)
  • de Macedo, Newton & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal IV — Glória e Declínio do Império QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-109-0)
  • Ribeiro, Ângelo & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal V — A Restauração da Indepêndencia QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-110-4)
  • Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal X — A Terceira República QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-115-5)
  • Loução, Paulo Alexandre: Portugal, Terra de Mistérios Ésquilo, 2000 (third edition; ISBN 972-8605-04-8)
  • Muñoz, Mauricio Pasto: Viriato, A Luta pela Liberdade Ésquilo, 2003 (third edition; ISBN 972-8605-23-4)
  • Grande Enciclopédia Universal Durclub, 2004
  • Constituição da República Portuguesa, VI Revisão Constitucional, 2004
  • Programa do Movimento das Forças Armadas, 1974 [3747]

External links


General information


Aníbal Cavaco Silva
9 March 2006
Prime Minister
José Sócrates
12 March 2005
2761 km²
5518 km²
3517 km²
3947 km²
6747 km²
2808 km²
5064 km²
5007 km²
10.225 km²
6608 km²
4960 km²
Vila Real
4328 km²
7393 km²
2395 km²
6065 km²
2673 km²
Castelo Branco
6675 km²
Viana do Castelo
2255 km²
Autonomous Regions
Autonomous Region
2.333 km²
801 km²
City name
Metropolitan area
1 Lisbonmarker 564,657 G.M.A. of Lisbon 2,661,850 Grande Lisboa 2,003,580
2 Portomarker 263,131 G.M.A. of Porto 1,679,854 Grande Porto 1,572,176
3 Vila Nova de Gaia 178,255 G.M.A. of Porto - Grande Porto -
4 Amadoramarker 175,872 G.M.A. of Lisbon - Grande Lisboa -
5 Braga 109,460 G.M.A. of Minho 797,909 Cávado 404,681
6 Almadamarker 101,500 G.M.A. of Lisbon - Península de Setúbal -
7 Coimbra 101,069 G.M.A. of Coimbra 435,900 Baixo Mondego 340,342
8 Funchalmarker 100,526 N/A* N/A* Madeiramarker 245,806
9 Setúbalmarker 89,303 G.M.A. of Lisbon - Península de Setúbal 714,589
10 Agualva-Cacémmarker 81,845 G.M.A. of Lisbon - Grande Lisboa -

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