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The term post-disco (or simply boogie) has multiple meanings. Sometime after 1990, an Allmusic editorial contributor used "post-disco" in an attempt to isolate a dance music genre in the era between the indistinct "end" of disco music and the equally indistinct emergence of house music. "Post-disco" was used in 1984 by Cadence Magazine when defining post-disco soul as disco without the loud bass-drum thump. In 1985, New York Magazine referenced post-disco in relation to electronic funk. Other authors emphasize "post-" (meaning "after")) to indicate a greater disconnect from the disco era and disco-influenced music. Billboard Magazine, for example, mentioned the word twice: in 1982, when dividing post-disco movements into another category called "post-disco pop", citing Knack, Barbra Streisand, Kenny Rogers, and Christopher Cross as new wave and adult contemporary artists who figured in this kind of music, and in 1994, when the word was used in relation to reggae song "Pass The Dutchie" by Musical Youth.

The Allmusic author provides few specifics other than implying post-disco follows from the DJ- and producer-driven, increasingly electronic side of disco; and singling out "boogie" ("midtempo tracks steeped in funk"), early Italo-disco ("electronic tracks with heavy traces of Giorgio Moroder") and "the beginnings of alternative dance" as forms of the post-disco "genre". In 2006, however, another author explicitly referenced both house music and techno as forms of post-disco. Likewise, George E. Haggerty, in his 2000 book Gay Histories and Cultures, says house is a form of post-disco dance music that has been popular in Chicago clubs, and Michael Campbell, in his 2008 book Popular Music in America defined techno as post-disco dance music.

A watershed album of the post-disco era was Michael Jackson & Quincy Jones's Off The Wall, which helped establish a direction of dance/R&B music and influenced many young producers. Parliament-Funkadelic, a funk band, also set the tone for many post-disco and post-punk bands of the 1980s.

Terms

Boogie

The term "boogie" (or electro-funk) was used in Londonmarker to describe a form of Black dance/funk music from early 1980s. These records, mostly U.S. imports, were sometimes regarded as "Electro-Funk" or "Disco-funk". Originally the word boogie could be found in 1970s funk and disco records, but tracks like "Boogie's Gonna Get Ya" (1981) by Rafael Cameron or "Break Dancin' - Electric Boogie" by West Street Mob (1984) helped define the musical style of Boogie.

Post-disco "boogie" record labels include Prelude, West End, Sam as well as mainstream disco labels like SalSoul, Radar or Vanguard.

The better-known 1980s performers in this post-disco movement include Patrice Rushen, Mtume, Kashif, Nick Straker Band, Skyy, D. Train, Unlimited Touch, and also Kurtis Blow.

Successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from the post-disco era include:
Year Song Label Artist U.S. Dance U.S. R&B U.S. Pop Kool & The Gang: Billboard SinglesDavid Bowie: Billboard SinglesSOS Band: Billboard SinglesIndeep: Billboard SinglesEarth, Wind & Fire: Billboard SinglesMichael Jackson: Billboard Singles by All Music Guide. Retrieved on August 11, 2009. U.S. M.R. U.K. Pop
1980 "Celebration" De-Lite Kool & The Gang #1 #1 #1 ('81) #7
"Take Your Time" Tabu SOS Band #1 #1 #3
1981 "Let's Groove" Columbia Earth, Wind & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3
1982 "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life" Sound of New York Indeep #2 #10 #13
"Love Come Down" RCA Evelyn King #1 #1 #17 #7
1983 "Give It Up" Meca KC #18 #1
1983 "Billie Jean" Epic Michael Jackson #1 #1 #1
1984 "Let's Dance" Epic David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1
"Cool It Now" MCA New Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat" Epic Miami Sound Machine #17 #6
1987 "Rhythm Is Gonna Get You" Epic Miami Sound Machine #27 #5


Dance-rock

Another post-disco movement is connected with post-punk/no wave genres with fewer R&B/funk influences. An example of this "post-disco" is Gina X's "No G.D.M." and artists like Liquid Liquid, Polyrock, Dinosaur L, and Disco Not Disco [2000] compilation album. This movement also connects with Dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in his book Popular Music in America defines that genre as "post-punk/post-disco fusion." Campbell also cited Robert Christgau, who described dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as umbrella term used by various DJs in 1980s. However, Allmusic defines "dance-rock" as 1980s and 1990s music practised by rock musicians, influenced by Philly soul, disco, and funk, fusing those styles with rock and dance. Artists like The Rolling Stones, David Bowie, Duran Duran, INXS, Eurythmics, Depeche Mode, The Clash, New Order and Devo belong, according to Allmusic, to this genre. Dance-rock embraces some experimental funk acts like A Certain Ratio, Gang of Four, and also pop musicians, for example Robert Palmer and Hall & Oates. This kind of dance-rock influenced Garbage, No Doubt, Robbie Williams, Scissor Sisters, Franz Ferdinand, and The Killers.

Legacy

The 1980s post-disco sounds also inspired many Norwegianmarker dance music producers . Some rappers such as Ice Cube or EPMD built their careers on music that comes from funk/post-disco era. Also Sean "Puffy" Combs has been influenced by post-disco R&B in an indirect way.

In popular culture

The word "post-disco" has been implicitly mentioned in a 1989 novel named Crazy Love by Elías Miguel Muñoz:

See also



References and notes

  1. AMG was founded in 1991 —
  2. Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's Encyclopædia: "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic guitar, and group harmonies with jazzed-up horns, Clinton and his ever-evolving bands set the tone for many post-disco and post-punk groups of the 1980s and 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, 2009, from Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
  3. Search song on EveryHit.com database
  4. [1]. Songfacts.com about Kool & The Gang trivia informations. Retrieved on 5. 5. 2009
  5. Soul > LP > Earth Wind & Fire: Raise!: Earth Wind & Fire hits the 80s -- and never misses a beat! Turns out that the group's older style of jazzy funk was a perfect fit for the boogie-styled rhythms of the post-disco era". Dusty Groove America.com. Retrieved on August 12, 2009.
  6. Grow, Kory (May 2008). Revolver Magazine article: Why The Most Dangerous Band Of The Decade, True Norwegian, Black Metallers, Gorgoroth, Turned On Itself - "When the post-disco classic "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life" by early-'80s New York crew Indeep comes on, King asks what the singer means by the bizarre titular statement.". No. 68. ISSN 1527-408X.
  7. [2]. 70disco.com web. Re-retrieved on August 1, 2009
  8. ShowArtist: Evelyn "Champagne" King. Disco-funk.co.uk. Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
  9. Hoffmann, W. Frank & Ferstler, Howard (2005). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound (Publication no. 2): "He [Harry Casey] briefly returned to the public eye billed as KC with the release of KC Ten (Meca 8301; 1984: #93), featuring the post-disco single 'Give It Up' (Meca 1001; 1984; #18), before fading back into obscurity". p. 566. ISBN 041593835X
  10. The Eighties Club: The Politics and Pop Culture of the 1980s: "On the dance floor, David Bowie's "Let's Dance" and Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" defined the post-disco beat." Retrieved on August 11, 2009.
  11. One Hit Wonder Center - One-Hit Wonder Music of the 50's~90's: "There are also tracks to represent the rise of post-disco club/dance trend, such as Laid Back's "White Horse", New Edition's "Cool It Now", and Timex Social Club's " Rumors" ". Retrieved on August 12, 2009.
  12. Morales, Ed (2002). Living in Spanglish: the search for Latino identity in America: ""With their group, Miami Sound Machine, ... "Doctor Beat," manages to fuse elements of Latin percussion with the electric hass heats of the post-disco era". p. 244. ISBN 0312262329.
  13. Ham, Anthony & Roddis, Miles and Lundgren, Kari (2008). Norway: Discover Norway - (The Culture) Interview with Bernt Erik Pedersen, music editor, Dagsavisen: "A lot of current dance music producers are influenced by the post-disco sound of the early 80s". Publisher: Lonely Planet Publications. p. 53. ISBN 1741045797.
  14. Light, Alan (november, 1993). V I B E - Funk Masters article: "It's no wonder that rappers such as EPMD and Ice Cube, striving for that perfect mind-body fusion, have built careers out of fragments from these fathers of funk (as well as the post-disco wave they inspired - dance-floor favourites like Zapp and Cameo)". p. 51?, ISSN 1070-4701
  15. Schoonmaker, Trevor (2003). Fela: from West Africa to West Broadway: "Puffy's consistent pilfering of pop coffers from a certain time period shows undoubtedly that he is influenced by the post-disco R&B bounce of the late 1970s and early 1980s". Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 4. ISBN 1403962103.
  16. Muñoz, Elías Miguel (1989). Crazy Love. Synopsis: Experimental epistolary novel and at the same time a novel of immigration from Cuba to Florida. Publisher: Arte Publico Press. p. 121. ISBN 0934770832



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