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The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender is a statement calling for the Surrender of Japan in World War II. On July 26, 1945, United Statesmarker President Harry S. Truman, United Kingdommarker Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and President of the Republic of Chinamarker Chiang Kai-shek issued the document, which outlines the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japanmarker as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. This ultimatum stated that, if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction."

Japan's initial rejection of the ultimatum, by promulgating the condition that Japan be allowed to keep the emperor, and the impending Soviet entry into the war , led directly to Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and August 9. Whether the ultimatum was intended to be acceptable without recourse to use nuclear weapons has been subject to considerable debate.

The declaration was one of Churchill's final official acts as Prime Minister before he left office the following day in favour of Clement Attlee.

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