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The President of Brazil is both the head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazilmarker. The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'etât against the Emperor Pedro II. Since then, Brazil had six constitutions, two dictatorships and three democratic periods. During these democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory.

The current president is Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, from the Partido dos Trabalhadores , elected in 2002 for the 2003–2006 term. Then re-elected for the 2007–2010 term. He received the most votes of any president in Brazil until then, receiving 56.7 million votes. In the 2006 presidential elections held on 1 October 2006, he received 58.2 million votes.

General description

The Brazilian Constitution of 1988, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president, as well as the term of office and method of election.

Duties and powers

As a presidential republic, Brazil grants significant powers to the President. He effectively controls the government, represents the country abroad, and appoints the Cabinet and, with the approval of the Senate, the judges for the Supreme Federal Tribunalmarker. The president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.

Presidents in Brazil also have significant lawmaking powers, exercised either by proposing laws to the National Congressmarker, or else by using Medidas Provisórias (Provisional Measures), an instrument with the force of law that the President can enact in cases of urgency and necessity, except to make changes to some areas of Law (provisional measures cannot be used to create new taxes, to change criminal law, electoral law, etc). A Provisional Measure comes into effect immediately, before Congress votes on it, and remains in force for up to 60 days unless Congress votes to rescind it. If Congress, on the other hand, votes to approve the provisional measure, it becomes an actual law, possibly with changes decided by the Legislative Branch. The provisional measure expires at the end of the 60 day period, or sooner, if rejected by one of the Houses of Congress.

Article 84 of the current Constitution, determines that the President shall have the exclusive power to:
  1. appoint and dismiss the Ministers of State;
  2. exercise, with the assistance of the Ministers of State, the higher management of the federal administration;
  3. start the legislative procedure, in the manner and in the cases set forth in this Constitution;
  4. sanction, promulgate and order the publication of laws, as well as to issue decrees and regulations for the true enforcement thereof;
  5. veto bills, wholly or in part;
  6. provide, by means of decree, on organization and structure of federal administration, in the cases where there is neither increase of expenses nor creation or extinction of public agencies; and extinction of offices or positions, when not held;
  7. maintain relations with foreign States and to accredit their diplomatic representatives;
  8. conclude international treaties, conventions and acts, ad referendum of the National Congress;
  9. decree the state of defense and the state of siege;
  10. decree and enforce federal intervention;
  11. upon the opening of the legislative session, send a government message and plan to the National Congress, describing the state of the nation and requesting the actions he deems necessary;
  12. grant pardons and reduce sentences, after hearing the entities instituted by law, if necessary;
  13. exercise the supreme command of the Armed Forces, appoint the commanders of Navy, Army and Air Force, to promote general officers and to appoint them to the offices held exclusively by them;
  14. appoint, after approval by the Senate, the Justices of the Supreme Federal Court and those of the superior courts, the Governors of the territories, the Attorney-General of the Republic, the President and the Directors of the Central Bank and other civil servants, when established by law;
  15. appoint, with due regard for the provisions of article 73, the Justices of the Federal Court of Accounts;
  16. appoint judges in the events established by this Constitution and the Advocate-General of the Union;
  17. appoint members of the Council of the Republic, in accordance with article 89, VII;
  18. call and preside over the Council of the Republic and the National Defense Council;
  19. declare war, in the event of foreign aggression, authorized by the National Congress or confirmed by it, whenever it occurs between legislative sessions and, under the same conditions, to decree full or partial national mobilization;
  20. make peace, authorized or confirmed by the National Congress;
  21. award decorations and honorary distinctions;
  22. permit, in the cases set forth by supplementary law, foreign forces to pass through the national territory, or to remain temporarily therein;
  23. submit to the National Congress the pluriannual plan, the bill of budgetary directives and the budget proposals set forth in this Constitution;
  24. render, each year, accounts to the National Congress concerning the previous fiscal year, within sixty days of the opening of the legislative session;
  25. fill and abolish federal government positions, as set forth by law;
  26. issue provisional measures, with force of law, according to article 62;
  27. perform other duties set forth in the Constitution.


Requirements to hold office

According to the 1988 Constitution, the president must be a native-born citizen of Brazil, be at least 35 years of age, be a resident in Brazil, be an elector, have all the electoral rights, and be inscribed in a political party (write-in candidates are forbidden).

Term of office

Currently the president serves his second four-year term without the possibility of reelection for another term sequentially. The reelection for executive posts has existed since 1997, when the Amendment nº 16 was passed.

Privileges of office

While in office, the president is entitled to use the official residences. The Palácio da Alvoradamarker as is used as the main residence, the Granja do Torto as a weekend retreat in the Capital, the Palácio Rio Negromarker as a retreat in Rio de Janeiromarker, and the Palácio do Planaltomarker as his workplace.

The president is also entitled a personal staff, consisting of medical and security personnel, secretaries and assistants. Furthermore, the president has at his disposal two custom-built aircraft, including the Brazilian Air Force One – designed to allow the president to fully conduct his duties from the air, along with helicopters and official vehicles.

Former Presidents

According to the Constitution (Law nº 1.593; 6.095; 7.481; 8.400) the following privileges are guaranteed to former Presidents:
  • Life-long pension (equivalent to the salary of the ministers of the Supreme Federal Tribunal)
  • Permanent security protection (by the Presidential Guard – Batalhão da Guarda Presidencial)
  • The use of two official vehicles (for life)
  • Repository funding for a Presidential library
  • Life-long monthly pension for widows and daughters of ex-presidents


As of 2008 four former Presidents are alive:

The most recent former President to die was João Figueiredo (1999).

Office-holders

Image:Deodoro da Fonseca (gravura).jpg|
1st
Deodoro da Fonseca
1889–1891
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2nd
Floriano Peixoto
1891–1894
Image:Prudente de Morais no jornal A Semana 1899.jpg|
3rd
Prudente de Morais
1894–1898
Image:Campos Sales.jpg|
4th
Campos Sales
1898–1902
Image:FranciscodePaulaRodriguesAlves.jpg|
5th
Rodrigues Alves
1902–1906
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6th
Afonso Pena
1906–1909
Image:NiloProcópioPeçanha.jpg|
7th
Nilo Peçanha
1909–1910
Image:Hermescivil1910.jpg|
8th
Hermes da Fonseca
1910–1914
Image:Venceslau Brás (retrato oval).jpg|
9th
Venceslau Brás
1914–1918
Image:FranciscodePaulaRodriguesAlves.jpg|
·
Rodrigues Alves
Did not take office
Image:Delfim Moreira.jpg|
10th
Delfim Moreira
1918–1919
Image:Epitacio2.jpg|
11th
Epitácio Pessoa
1919–1922
Image:ArturBernardes1.jpg|
12th
Artur Bernardes
1922–1926
Image:Presidentwashluis.jpg|
13th
Washington Luís
1926–1930
Image:JulioPrestes.jpg|
·
Júlio Prestes
Did not take office
Image:Juntagovernativa1930.png|
Waited for Vargas' oath
Military Junta
1930
Image:Getulio.gif|
14th
Getúlio Vargas
1930–1945
Image:JoseLinhares.jpg|
15th
José Linhares
1945–1946
Image:Eurico Gaspar Dutra.jpg|
16th
Gaspar Dutra
1946–1951
Image:Getulio.gif|
17th
Getúlio Vargas
1951–1954
Image:Café Filho.jpg|
18th
Café Filho
1954–1955
Image:CarlosLuz.jpg|
19th
Carlos Luz
1955
Image:Nereu.gif|
20th
Nereu Ramos
1955–1956
Image:Juscelino.jpg|
21st
Juscelino Kubitschek
1956–1961
Image:Janio1.jpg|
22nd
Jânio Quadros
1961
Image:Mazzilli.jpg|
23rd
Ranieri Mazzilli
1961
Image:Jango.jpg|
24th
João Goulart
1961–1964
Image:Mazzilli.jpg|
25th
Ranieri Mazzilli
1964
Image:Castelobranco.jpg|
26th
Castelo Branco
1964–1967
Image:Costa e Silva.jpg|
27th
Costa e Silva
1967–1969
Image:Juntagovernativa1969.png|
·
Military Junta
1969
Image:Garrastazu_médici.jpg|
28th
Emílio Médici
1969–1974
Image:Ernesto Geisel.jpg|
29th
Ernesto Geisel
1974–1979
Image:João Figueiredo.jpg|
30th
João Figueiredo
1979–1985
Image:Tancredo_Neves.jpg|
·
Tancredo Neves
Did not take office
Image:Sarneyoficial.jpg|
31st
José Sarney
1985–1990
Image:Fernando_collor.jpg|
32nd
Fernando Collor
1990–1992
Image:Itamar.jpg|
33rd
Itamar Franco
1992–1995
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34th
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
1995–2003
Image:Lula - foto oficial05012007.jpg|
35th
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
2003–– in office


Latest election

See also



References



External links




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