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The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippinesmarker. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or Pangulo (or informally, "Presidente"). The executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines.

The incumbent President is Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.


Under Article 7, Section 2 of the Philippine Constitution, in order to serve as President, one must be at least 40 years of age, a registered voter, able to read and write, a Filipino citizen by birth, and a resident of the Philippines for at least 10 years prior to election.


Under Article 7, Section 5 of the Philippine Constitution, before the president enters on the execution of his/her office, the President shall take the following oath or affirmation :

[In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted]

Powers and Duties

Under Article 7, Section 1 of the Philippine Constitution, the president heads the Executive branch of the government, which includes the Cabinet and all executive departments. The executive power, as such, is vested on the President alone.

Section 18 of the Philippine Constitution, the president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. As Commander-in-Chief, the President can call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he or she may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law.

Section 19 gives the president power to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment, except when the President is under impeachment.

Section 20 provides the president to contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.

The president exercises general supervision over local government units.

The president appoints, with consent of the Commission on Appointments, members of the Constitutional Commission, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in the President in 1987 Constitution.

The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president, based on a list prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. These appointments do not need the consent of the Commission on Appointments.

Official title

The official title of the president is the "President of the Philippines." The honorific for the President of the Philippines is "Your Excellency" or "His/Her Excellency", adopted from the title of the Governor-General of the Philippines during Spanish and American occupation. The term "President of the Republic of the Philippines", used under Japanese occupation of the Philippines distinguished the government of then-President José P. Laurel from the Commonwealth government in exile under President Manuel L. Quezon. The restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945 and the subsequent independence of the Philippines title "President of the Philippines" sanctioned in the 1935 constitution. The 1973 constitution, though generally referring to the president as "President of the Philippines" did, in Article XVII, Section 12, once use the term, "President of the Republic." President Ferdinand E. Marcos proclaimed martial law in his Proclamation No. 1081 consistently used the term "President of the Philippines."

State of the Nation Address

The State of the Nation Address (abbreviated SONA) is an annual event in the Republic of the Philippinesmarker, in which the President of the Philippines reports on the status of the nation, normally to the resumption of a joint session of the Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). This is a duty of the President as stated in Article VII, Section 23 of the 1987 Constitution :


At the start of the term

Under Article 7, Section 7 of the Philippine Constitution, In case the president-elect fails to qualify, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified.

If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice President-elect shall become President.

Where no President and Vice President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall act as President until a President or a Vice President shall have been chosen and qualified.

During the term

Article 7, Sections 8 and 11 of the Philippine Constitution provide rules of succession to the presidency. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice President will become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice President; the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified.

The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President.

The line of presidential succession as specified by Article 7, Section 10 of the Philippine Constitution are the Vice President, Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

The current Presidential line of succession is:
# Name Position
1 Manuel L. de Castro, Jr. Vice President
2 Juan Ponce Enrile Senate President
3 Prospero C. Nograles Speaker of the House

Contrary to popular belief, the Constitution doesn't name the Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court in the line of succession.

If the offices of both the President and the Vice President become vacant at the same time, Congress shall enact a law calling for special election. However, if the presidential election is 18 months away, no special election shall be called.

Privileges of office

Official residence

Malacañan Palace, often known as Malacañang Palace, is the official residence of the President of the Philippines. The president is entitled to have an official residence as stipulated under Article 7, Section 6 of the Philippine Constitution. The Palace is located along the north bank of the Pasig River in San Miguel, Manilamarker. The Filipino name is derived from the Tagalog phrase "may lakan diyan", meaning "there is a noble there"; this was eventually shortened to Malakanyáng. The two terms in use, "Malacañan" and "Malacañang", are distinct in that the first refers to the official residence of the President itself, while the latter identifies the office of the President, as well as for both as a whole collocquially and in the media. Malacañang Palace is depicted on the verso (back) side of the present-day 20-Peso bill.


Article XVIII Section 17 of the 1987 constitution provides that until the Congress provides otherwise the President shall receive an annual salary of three hundred thousand pesos. On August 21, 1989, Republic Act No. 6758 directed the Department of Budget and Managements (DBM) to establish and administer a unified Compensation and Position Classification System along lines specified in that Act. On 14 March 2007, President Arroyo issued Executive Order No. 611 Department of Budget and Management (DBM) is hereby directed to implement a ten percent (10%) increase over the basic monthly salaries of civilian government personnel whose positions are covered by the Compensation and Position Classification System as of June 30, 2007, including the salaries of the President, Vice-President, Senators and members of the House of Representatives, but to take effect only after the expiration of the respective terms of office of the incumbent officials pursuant to Section 10 of Article VI and Section 6 of Article VII of the 1987 Constitution.

Air Transport

250th (Presidential) Airlift Wing of the Philippine Air Force has the mandate of providing safe and efficient air transport for the President of the Philippines and the First Family. On occasion, the wing has also been tasked to provide transportation for other members of government, visiting heads of state, and other state guests.

The fleet includes: 1 Fokker F28, which is primarily used for the President's domestic trips, 4 Bell 412 helicopters, 3 Sikorsky S-76 helicopters, 2 Aérospatiale SA-330 Puma helicopters, 1 Sikorsky S-70-5 Black Hawk, a number of Bell UH-1N Hueys, as well as Fokker F-27 Friendships. For trips outside of the Philippines, the Air Force employs a Bombardier Learjet 60 or charters appropriate aircraft from Philippine Airlines. Prior to 1962, the Air Force chartered aircraft from Pan American World Airways as the international services of Philippine Airlines were suspended. For short-haul flights, Boeing 737s were initially used and have since been replaced by the Airbus A320. For medium- to long-haul flights, Boeing 747-400s were initially used; their roles are now being fulfilled by the Airbus A340-300. The aircraft with the callsign PR 001 is a special plane operated by Philippine Airlines to transport the President of the Philippines.

Presidential Security Group

The Presidential Security Group, known officially as the PSG, is the lead agency tasked in providing security for the President of the Philippines, Vice President of the Philippines, and their immediate families. They also provide protective service for visiting heads of states and diplomats.

Unlike the other groups around the world who protect political figures, the PSG is not required by command to protect presidential candidates. However, former president's and their immediate families received VIP Protection service from the PSG.


Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office.

Andrés Bonifacio is considered by some historians to be the de facto first President of the Philippines. He was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Tagalog: Kataastaasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan secret society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan went into open revolt in August 1896, Bonifacio had transformed it into a de facto revolutionary government with him as President. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic (Spanish: Republica Tagala). Although the word Tagalog refers to a specific ethnicity, Bonifacio used it to denote all indigenous people in the Philippines in place of Filipino which had colonial origins. In place of the Spanish Filipinas he coined a Tagalog name, Haring Bayang Katagalugan (Sovereign Tagalog Nation). (Item 3 in the list, referring to Note 41 at p. 61, citing );

^ , "Formation of a revolutionary government";

^ (in "Document G", Account of Mr. Bricco Brigado Pantos).

In March 1897 Emilio Aguinaldo was elected President of a revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention. The new government was meant to replace the Katipunan as a government, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899. Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Biak-na-Bato Republic. Exiled in Hong Kong after the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, with the advent of the Spanish-American War he returned to the Philippines to renew revolutionary activities and formed a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898. Revolutionary forces under his command declared independence on June 12, 1898. On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government. On January 23, 1899, he was then elected President of the Philippine Republic (Spanish: Republica Filipina), a government constituted by the Malolos Congress. Thus, this government is also called the Malolos Republic. Sovereignty over the Philippines passed from Spain to the United States with the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo's government effectively ceased to exist on April 1, 1901, when he pledged allegiance to the United States after being captured by U.S. forces in March. The current Philippine government, formally called the Republic of the Philippinesmarker, considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first President of the Philippines and the Malolos Republic as the "First" Philippine Republic.

Miguel Malvar continued Aguinaldo's leadership of the Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902, while Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuation of Bonifacio's Katipunan. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents". Along with Bonifacio, Malvar and Sakay are not recognized as Presidents by the Philippine government.

Between 1901 and 1935, executive power in the Philippines was exercised by a succession of 16 American Governors General. In October 1935, Manuel L. Quezon was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines which had been established, still under U.S. sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on May 14 of that year.

José P. Laurel became president of the Philippines in 1942 under a constitution imposed under Japanese occupation. Laurel, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court who had been instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel L. Quezon, who fled to Corregidor and then to the United States to establish a government-in-exile.

The 1935 constitution was reinstated after the Japanese surrender ended World War II, with Sergio Osmeña as President, Osmeña having succeeded to the Presidency after 1944 the death of President Quezon.

A new constitution ratified on January 17, 1973, during the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, introduced a parliamentary-style government. This constitution was in effect until the People Power Revolution of 1986 swept Corazon Aquino into power as President. On March 25, 1986, Presidential Proclamation No. 3 promulgated a provisional constitution, which was supplanted on February 2, 1987 when the now-current constitution was ratified.

Both Bonifacio and Aguinaldo might be considered to have been an inaugural president of an insurgent government. Quezon was the inaugural president of a predecessor-government to the current one, and Aquino was the inaugural president of the currently-constituted government.

The Government of the Philippines considers Emilio Aguinaldo to have been the inaugural President of the Philippines, followed by Manuel Quezon and by subsequent Presidents. Philippine Presidents, The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines. Despite the differences in constitutions and government, the line of presidents is considered to be continuous. For instance, the current president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, is considered the 14th president.

While the Philippine government considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States following the Philippine-American War, and the United States does not consider his presidency to have been legitimate. Manuel L. Quezon is considered to be the first president by the United States and the first to win an election.

The Philippines had two presidents at one point during World War II heading two governments. One was Quezon heading the Commonwealth government-in-exile (considered de jure) and the other was J. P. Laurel heading the Japanese-sponsored republic (considered de facto). Laurel was instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel Quezon. Laurel was not recognized as a Philippine president formally until the Macapagal administration. The recognition coincided with the movement of the Philippine Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. However, it must be borne in mind that in the roster of presidents, it is inaccurate to consider Laurel the successor of Osmeña or vice versa; Laurel's republic was formally rejected after World War II and none of its statutes or actions were considered legal or binding. The inclusion of Laurel causes some problems in determining the order of presidents. Quezon, Osmeña, and Roxas, for example, were three of a continuous constitutional line; Laurel was the only President of the Second Republic. Thus, Laurel has no predecessor and successor, while Osmeña was Quezon's successor and Roxas was Osmeña's successor.

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After the presidency

Many presidents held significant positions after leaving the presidency. Jose P. Laurel, who was president during the Japanese occupation, served as Senator from 1951-1957. He was also the chairman of the Economic Mission to the United States (1954) and the founder of the Lyceum of the Philippines. Sergio Osmeña became member of the council of state under the administrations of Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay and Garcia. He was also a member of the National Security Council in the Garcia administration. Elpidio Quirino became member of the council of state under President Ramon Magsaysay. Carlos P. Garcia was a delegate, later elected, president of the Constitutional Convention on July 11, 1971. Diosdado Macapagal was also a delegate and then succeeded Carlos P. Garcia as president of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. He also lectured in universities and member of the council of state under Presidents Aquino and Ramos. Corazon Aquino was a member of the national security council under the Ramos, Estrada and Arroyo administrations. She was also a member of the council of state under President Arroyo. Fidel Ramos founded the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation. He was a member a senior advisor and member of the National Security Council under President Estrada. He is a member of the Council of State and an Ambassador–at–large under President Arroyo.

 there are two living former Presidents:

Among other honors, former Presidents and their immediate family are entitled to no less than three soldiers as guard detail entitled.

See also

External links


  1. The 1943 Constitution
  2. The 1935 Constitution
  3. The 1973 Constitution
  5. Compensation and Position Classification Act of 1989 (August 21, 1989), Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.
  7. .
  8. .
  9. * .
  10. * .
  11. .
  12., Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar
  13. The Philippine Presidents, The official website of the Government of the Philippines.
  14. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, U.S. Library of Congress.
  15. Jose P. Laurel, The Philippine Presidency Project.
  16. Sergio Osmeña, The Philippine Presidency Project.
  17. Elpidio Quirino, The Philippine Presidency Project.
  18. Carlos P. Garcia, The Philippine Presidency Project.
  19. The Manila Times Internet Edition | TOP STORIES > Pullout of Erap security a ‘mistake’

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