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The Principality of Piombino was a state of Italymarker, which existed (initially as independent lordship) from 1399 to 1805, when Napoleon absorbed it into the Principality of Lucca and Piombino.

This state was in turn soon split, and Piombino in 1815 went to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.


The Principality of Lucca and Piombino was created in 1805 by Napoleon for his beloved sister Elisa Bonaparte and her husband Felice Pasquale Baciocchi. The State was the result of the annexation of ancient Principality of Piombino by the Republic of Lucca which was turned into a monarchy. The Constitution was written by Napoleon on June 22, establishing a Council of State helping the Princes, and a legislative Senate.

The Principality adopted the French Franc as currency, even if few special local coins were minted. On March 3, 1809, Elisa was created by his brother as Grand Duchess of all Tuscany in Florencemarker, a region which had been annexed to Francemarker two years before. The Principality so became part of Tuscany and, consequently, of the French Empire, but under a special status: a prefect was appointed (Antoine-Marie-Pierre de Hautmesnil), but the territory was never named as a Department.

In 1814, Austrianmarker Army occupied Lucca and gave Piombino to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and Elbamarker to exiled Napoleon. Lucca was restored as a separate State, and Congress of Vienna gave it to Maria Louisa of Bourbon.

List of rulers

Lords of Piombino - Appiani dynasty

Princes and princesses of Piombino

See also


  1. Holy Roman Emperor
  2. King of Spain
  3. under the regency of his mother Anna Maria Arduino
  4. With Gregorio I Boncompagni as co-regent from 1701
  5. Stripped of government by French troops in 1799 and 1801
  6. Also Princess of Lucca, under Napoleonic control

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