are not operated by
governments though many receive public subsidies, especially in the
form of tax breaks and public student loans and grants. Depending
on the region, private universities may be subject to government
regulation. Private universities compare to public universities
and national universities
Bond University is Australia's first
private university, founded in 1987.
It runs three semesters
per year (correlating exactly with the Northern and Southern
Hemispheres' schedules), which allows a student to complete a six
semester degree in two years and an eight semester degree (e.g.
Law) in under three years.
Since Bond University's foundation, the University of Notre Dame
has also been founded as a private university, in
1989. They remain Australia's only private universities.
University, a public university, owned a private university
called Melbourne University
Private from 1998 to 2005.
The private university was
not successful, losing $A
20 000 000 over its life.
Austria, educational institutions must be authorised by the
State to legally grant academic
As of today, all universities in Austria are
governed by the 2002 Austrian Universities' & University Degree
Programmes' Organisation Act (Federal Law Gazette No. 120/2002). In
1999, a federal law (Universitäts-Akkreditierungsgesetz
was passed to allow the accreditation
of private universities.
(Accreditation Council, 
evaluates applicants and issues recommendations to the responsible
Austrian accreditation authority (the Austrian Federal Ministry of
Science & Research).
Accreditations must be renewed regularly and
can be withdrawn, e.g. in the case of repeated academic misconduct
as happened in 2003 where the accreditation of International
University Vienna, was withdrawn. In 2006, when the
accreditation of IMADEC University expired, the Accreditation Council rejected
requests for renewal.
Austrian law provides that private universities in Austria must use
the term Privatuniversität
university") in their German
although their formal names in other languages, e.g. in English
, are not regulated. Thus, there is
the possibility of private institutions employing the term
"university" as opposed to "private university" in their
advertisements in all languages except German while still complying
with Austrian law.
While the legal definition of "private university" prohibits
funding by the federal Republic of Austria, funding by other public
bodies is not prohibited. Consequently, some of Austria's private
universities are funded by provincial governments.
Accreditation of private universities started in 2001. Today, there
are 12 private universities in Austria. Most of them are small
(fewer than 1000 students) and specialise in only one or two fields
Three former private universities are not
- International University
Vienna: Accreditation was withdrawn in 2003 due to
- IMADEC University: First accreditation period ended in January 2006
and was not renewed.
Privatuniversität Li Shi Zhen in Vienna:
Accreditation period ended 2009; TCM did not call for
renewal. All students could finish their studies.
A number of private universities sprouted in Bangladesh after the
Private University Act, 1992 was instituted. The biggest private
universities of Bangladesh include North South
University (NSU), BRAC University (BRACU), Shanto Mariam
University Of Creative Technology (SMUCT),East West University (EWU), United International
University (UIU), American International
University-Bangladesh(AIUB) and Ahsanullah University of Science and
All private universities must be
approved by University Grants
(UGC) before they get Sanad (permit) to
Several private universities were established in Canada
Since 2003, joint-partnership private universities have been
established in the PRC. English is the only language of instruction
in all three institutions.
universities are prohibited by the constitution (Article 16).
However, laboratories of
(Εργαστήρια ελευθέρων σπουδών, ergastiria
eleftheron spoudon) operate freely in the country and based on a
law from the 1930s they are registered as private for-profit
businesses and regulated by the Greek Ministry of Commerce
academic degrees, which are not recognised in Greece, are directly
provided to successful students by foreign universities in the
Kingdom, United States of America, or other countries, usually through franchise or validation agreements (the franchise
agreement usually being considered better).
This has limited
access to the laboratories, which usually teach in English, to
high-income Greeks who for various reasons (usually family matters)
did not want to go abroad.
In 2008 the Nea Demokratia
government of Greece
law that will force all laboratories of liberal studies to register
with the Greek Ministry
of Education and Religious Affairs
(κολλέγια, kollegia) by August 2009.
It is expected that this will help to widen the participation of
Greek students in private colleges
, thus allowing the
expertise and efficiency of the private educational sector to
benefit the Greek students and society.
India, privately funded institutions are in existence
since independence, but they were not recognised as private
Many private universities (or institutions
classified as universities by the University Grants
or those that define themselves as university) have
come up only recently. Many of these universities offer
multidisciplinary professional courses similar to state funded
universities, however institutions offering single stream
specialization programs are also in existence.
University is India's
number 1 ranked University conducted by TOI.Birla
Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), in Pilani, Rajasthan and Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, Jharkhand are two well respected private universities in
India that are considered as being competitive with the Indian Institutes of
University in Patiala, Punjab is a well
known private engineering college of north India.
University in Vellore
(South India) has also been ranked among the top technical
universities in India. BITS Pilani has been awarded with the highest 5 star ranking by
University in another famous private university in Manipal, Karnataka.
It has over 20 constituent colleges that
offer over 180 programs in 14 disciplines. Manipal University
is the preferred
destination of students from over 55 countries. KIIT University, Bhubaneswar became the youngest institute to get university
status in India and entered the Limca Book of Records.
one of the best private university in eastern India.
Many institutes specializing in management education (like Xavier Labour Relations
, and The Indian
Institute of Planning and Management
) have been around since
the 1940s and the 1970s respectively. Some of the noted private
universities in western India are the Tata Institute of Social
, Mumbai, and D. Y Patil University, Navi Mumbai
Dnyaneshwar Vidyapeeth, Pune has been awarding engineering degree
and diplomas for 30 years.
Vedanta University, near Bhubaneswar, Orissa is India's
first large multidisciplinary private university..
government of Orissa passed a landmark bill to allow the massive
university to be set up and function with autonomy in July
Symbiosis University, a top management and law university of India,
is another private university. It started its Engineering faculty
Ireland, a private university (more commonly known as a
private college) is one that is not funded by the state,
and therefore not covered by the free-fees initiative.
Institutes of Technology
Colleges of Education
, as well
as the National College of
and some religious institutions are publicly funded and
therefore covered by free-fees
. There are few private
colleges, and they are highly specialised, such as Griffith
College Dublin, Dorset College and
The major representative body for private
colleges in Ireland is the Higher Education Colleges Association
http://www.HECA.ie. Private colleges in Ireland can seek to have
their programmes validated/accredited by the Higher Education
and Training Awards Council
See Private Universities in
As of 2007, there are 568 private universities, while there are 87
and 89 public universities
Private universities thus account for about 3/4 of all universities
in Japan. Many, but not all, junior colleges in Japan are private.
Like public and national universities, many private universities
use National Center
Test for University Admissions
as an entrance exam
There are 19 private universities in Lebanon. Among theses
universities, two are internationally acknowledged, namely, the
University of Beirut and the Lebanese American University. The languages of teaching in private
universities are mainly French and
English, while Arabic is widely used in religious
universities and Armenian in the
The first university opened in
Lebanon was the Syrian Protestant College in 1866 (Became the
American University of Beirut in 1921). It was founded by Daniel
Bliss a Protestant missionary. The second university opened in
Lebanon was the, Université
, founded by the Jesuits
In the Netherlands there is one private university named Nyenrode
. This University has been founded in 1946
and is still active as a Graduate School for Business. You can get
your master degree in Management and do an MBA. Both programmes are
taught in English. Recently, Nyenrode merged with the institute for
CPA education and both institutions share their facilities. The
Nyenrode Business University also contains a campus and highly
active student life.The Dutch HBOs (universities of applied
science) count more private institutes like the Nootenboom
University for Business and the IVA
The Higher Education Commission (HEC), formerly the University
Grant Commission, is the primary regulator of higher education in
Pakistan. It also facilitates the development of higher educational
system in Pakistan. Its main purpose is to upgrade the List of universities in Pakistan
be world-class centres of education, research and
The HEC is also playing a leading role towards building a knowledge
based economy in Pakistan by giving out hundreds of doctoral
scholarships for education abroad every year.In spite of the
criticism of HEC, its creation has also had a positive impact on
higher education in Pakistan. In their two year report for 2004 to
2006 it is mentioned that according to the Institute of Scientific
Information, the total number of publications appearing in the
8,000 leading journals indexed in the web of Science arising out of
Pakistan in 2005 was 1,259 articles, representing a 41% increase
over the past two years and a 60% increase since the establishment
of HEC in 2002. In addition the HEC digital library now provides
access to over 20,000 leading research journals, covering about 75%
of the world's peer reviewed scientific journals.
1991, there were only two recognized private universities in
Pakistan: Aga Khan
University established in 1983; and Lahore University of
Management Sciences established in 1985.
however, there were 10 private universities and in 2001-2002, this
number had doubled to 20; among the first to gain degree awarding
status was Hajvery
(HU), established in 1990. In 2003-2004
Pakistan had a total of 83 private degree granting
The rapid expansion of private higher education is even more
remarkable if we look at the number of institutions established on
a year-by-year basis. In 1997, for instance, three private
institutions were established; in 2001 eleven new private
institutions were opened; and in 2002 a total of 29 private sector
institutions sprung up.
The HEC website also points to a 40% increase in enrollment in
universities in Pakistan over the last two years, which it
attributes to efforts on its part to encourage higher education in
oldest non-state-run university, the Universidade Católica
Portuguesa - UCP (Catholic University of Portugal), a
catholic private university (concordatory status) with branches in the cities
of Lisbon, Porto, Braga, Viseu, and
Figueira da Foz, was founded before
the others, in 1967, and officially recognized in 1971.
offers some well-recognized degrees and is reputed for law and
business management degrees it awards at its Lisbon and Porto
branches. After the Carnation
of 1974, in the 1980s and 1990s, a boom of
educational private institutions was experienced in Portugal and
many private universities started to open. Most private
universities had a poor reputation and were known for making it
easy for students to enter and also to get high grades. In 2007,
several of those private universities or their heirs, were
investigated and faced compulsory closing (for example, the
closing and the Moderna University
scandals) or official
criticism with recommendations that the state-managed investigation
proposed for improving their quality and avoid termination. In the
mid-2000s, within the Bologna
, a reorganization of higher education was started which
included more stringent regulations for private education and
expanded state policies with regard to private education quality
assurance and educational
. In general, the private higher education
institutions were often considered the schools of last resort for
underachieving applicants who didn't score enough points in the
admission examinations to enter the main public institutions.
Nearly open-admission policies have hurt private universities'
reputation and the actual quality of their alumni. Without large
endowments like those received, for example, by many US private
universities and colleges which are attractive to the best
scholars, researchers and students, the private higher
education institutions of Portugal
, with a few exceptions, do
not have neither the financial support nor the academic profile to
reach the highest teaching and research standards of the top
Portuguese public universities
In addition, the private universities have faced a restrictive lack
of collaboration with the major enterprises which, however, have
developed fruitful relationships with many public higher education
institutions. Most Portuguese private universities specialise in a
limited number of fields, most often in the social sciences
famous private university is Fu Jen Catholic University, and the earliest is Tunghai
In Turkey there are 29 private universities. The well known
private universities in Turkey are Koc
University , Sabanci
University , Bilkent University.
The private university/public university split does not fit the
United Kingdom university system very well. British universities
have institutional autonomy, which is well respected as it has
developed over centuries, but in the first half of the 20th century
they came to rely on the government for most of their funding.
two universities which are wholly privately financed are University
of Buckingham, and Richmond University. Richmond University does not itself have the
power to award UK degrees: for this purpose its degrees are
validated by the Open
in Central London
is now also known as a private university, its degrees are
validated through the American system as it is a subsidiary of an
In the U.S., most prestigious universities and colleges are
private, operated as educational and research nonprofit organizations
. While most
are likewise private, there are also some public liberal arts
. Some private universities are closely
affiliated with religious organizations (e.g., the University
of Notre Dame) and some are directly operated by religious
organizations (e.g., Brigham Young University).
private though they are most often referred to as proprietary
colleges to prevent confusion with non-profit
Like government-operated institutions, private universities are
eligible for educational
, but some private universities (primarily
proprietary colleges) are not accredited (see list of
unaccredited institutions of higher learning
), and their
degrees are not formally recognized.
Legally private universities may not discriminate but generally
have a somewhat free hand in setting admissions policies. E.g.,
universities in the Ivy League
historically based their selections on many secondary factors other
than academic performance. In recent years, however, many private
universities have been making an effort to appeal to and recruit
academically talented students from underprivileged
The U.S. system of education has also been transplanted to other
countries. Private universities such as the American University in Cairo
and the American
University of Afghanistan
typically offer a liberal arts
curriculum to their students.
at private universities
tend to be higher than at public
though many private universities offer financial
aid as well.
- Burrows, Toby & Philip G. Kent. (1993) Serials
Management in Australia and New Zealand. Haworth Press. p. 19.
- Princeton Review. (2004) Guide to Studying Abroad. The
Princeton Review. p. 105. ISBN 0-375-76371-6.
- Private University Act, 1992
- Diane Stone, "Market Principles, Philanthropic Ideals and
Public Service Values: The Public Policy Program at the Central
European University", PS: Political Science and Politics,
July 2007: 545—551.
- Wells, Georgia. (2005) "New Indian university modeled after
Stanford." The Stanford Daily, July 27, 2006 
- Bill for Vedanta varsity gets legislative
- Lebanese Ministry of Higher Education Website (in Arabic)
- Education in Lebanon, CSRD report, Lebanese American
University, 2004 
- Gladwell, Malcolm. (2005) "Getting In: the social logic of Ivy
League admissions." The New Yorker, October 10, 2005 
- Tottie, Gunnel. (2001) Introduction to American
English Blackwell Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 0-631-19792-3.