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Provence (Provençal) wine comes from the French wine-producing region of Provence in southeast Francemarker. The Romans called the area nostra provincia ("Our province") which gave the region its name - just north of the Alps it was the first Roman province outside Italy.

Wine has been made in this region for at least 2600 years since the ancient Greeks founded the city of Marseillemarker in 600 BC. Throughout the region's history, viticulture and winemaking has been influenced by the cultures that have been present in Provence, from the Ancient Greeks, Romans, Gauls, Catalans, and Savoyards. This diverse influence has left a legacy in the large variety of grapes that are used to make Provençal wine, which include local varieties of Greek and Roman origins as well as Spanish, Italian and traditional French wine grapes.

Today the region is known predominately for its rosé wine, though wine critics such as Tom Stevenson believe that region's best wines are the spicy, full flavoured red wines. Rosé wine currently accounts for more than half of the production of Provençal wine with red wine accounting for about a third of the region's production. Unlike the 'blush' wines like White Zinfandel known in the US, Provençal rosés are rarely sweet and almost always dry. White wine is also produced in small quantities throughout the region with the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) region of Cassis specializing in white wine production. The Côtes de Provence is the largest AOC followed by the Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence. The Bandolmarker region near Toulonmarker is one of the more internationally recognized Provençal wine regions.

History

Marseille
The exact time that viticulture was begun in Provence is difficult to calculate, with the possibility of early inhabitants using indigenous vines to produce wine before the Phocaeanmarker Greeks settled Massalia in 600 BC. Archaeological evidence, in the form of amphora fragments indicate that the Greeks were producing wine in the region soon after they settled. By the time that the Romans reached the area in 125 BC, the wine produced there had a reputation across the Mediterraneanmarker for high quality. Over time Provence would come under the influence and rule of a vast range of cultures from the Saracens, Carolingians, Holy Roman Empire, the Counts of Toulouse, the Catalans, René I of Naples, House of Savoy to the Kingdom of Sardinia. This diverse spectrum of influences has shaped the viticulture and winemaking styles of Provence.

At the end of the 19th century, the phylloxera epidemic reached Provence and devastated the region's viticulture. Many vineyards were slow to replant and some turned to the high yielding, but lower quality Carignan grape. The arrival of the railroad system opened up new markets in the north such as Parismarker. In the 20th century, as the region's tourism industry grew around resorts in the French Rivieramarker, production rosé increased as a compliment to the region's characteristic cuisine that feature such dishes as bouillabaisse and aioli.

Climate and geography

Vineyards in the Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence region.
Provence has a classic Mediterranean climate, with the large sea forming its southern border. Mild winters are followed by very warm summers with little rainfall. Sunshine is found in abundance in this region with the grapevines receiving more than 3000 hours, twice the amount needed to ripen grapes fully. This abundance does have the adverse affect of potentially over ripening grapes if vineyard owners are not cautious. The mistral wind provides both a positive and negative influence on viticulture in Provence. The strong wind coming from the north can cool the grapes down from the heat and also dry the grapes after rain, providing some protection against rot and grape diseases. It can also damage vines that are not securely trained and protected by hillside landforms. In areas where the wind is particularly strong, the most ideal vineyard locations are on hillsides facing south towards the sea with the hill providing some shelter from the mistral's strength. In those areas, the type of grape varieties planted will also play a role since south facing slopes receive the most sunshine and in the warm climate can easily over expose delicate and early ripening varieties which would be better suited on north facing slopes.

The soil across Provence is varied, lacking uniformity and generalization. In isolated areas, such as the Cassis AOC and near the Mediterranean coastline, are deposits of limestone and shale. These area tend to be planted with white wine grapes that perform better in those soil types. Along other coastal regions can be found soils with more schist and quartz composition. Further inland there is more clay and sandstone.

Wine regions

Red wine from the Côtes de Provence.
Provence has eight major wine regions with AOC designations. The Côtes de Provence is the largest followed by Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence. Other significant wine regions include Les Baux-de-Provencemarker, Coteaux Varois, Coteaux de Pierrevert, Bandol, Cassis, Bellet and Palette. Unofficial sub-appellations include the Fréjusmarker, La Londemarker and Montagne Sainte-Victoiremarker regions. The Côtes du Luberon AOC in the nearby Vauclusemarker département is occasionally cited by some sources with Provence due to some similarities in wine style; the appellation is however officially part of the Rhône wine region and its typicity more closely approaches that of its neighbour on its northern border, Côtes de Ventoux AOC, also a Rhône wine. The region has several vin de pays designations with Bouches-du-Rhône, near Aix-en-Provencemarker, being one of the most common designation seen abroad.

  • The Bellet AOC is located in southeastern Provence, near the city of Nicemarker. This region has a significant Italian influence with its major white wine being made from the Italian wine grape Vermentino (Known locally as Rolle). Other significant grape varieties include Chardonnay, Clairette Mayorquin, Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains, Pignerol and Roussanne. Though white wines gets most of the region's international attention, production in Bellet is about equal in white, red and rosé wine with most being consumed by the tourist to the French Riviera.




  • The Coteaux de Pierrevert AOC is a minor wine region located around the village of Pierrevertmarker in the northeastern section of Provence. The region produces red, white and rosé wine made from mostly Grenache, Syrah, Cinsaut, Clairette and Rolle. The climate here is cooler than other Provençal region and the wines are thus lighter in body than the wine found in other areas of Provence.


Côtes de Provence

The Côtes de Provence is a large noncontiguous wine region that covers over 85 communes in the eastern region of Provence. The boundaries of the region extend from the alpine hills near Draguignanmarker to the coast of Saint-Tropezmarker. The noncontiguous parts of the reach includes land southeast of the Palette AOC and on the outskirts of the Bandol and Cassis wine regions. In the mountainous terrain near Villars-sur-Varmarker in the northeast part of the reach continues vineyards that can label their wine as Côtes de Provence. The region accounts for nearly 75% of all the wine production in Provence with the vast majority of that production being rosé wine (nearly 80%). While the number is rising, about 15% of wine production is red wine with the remaining 5% white. The main grape varieties of the region is Carignan, Cinsaut, Grenache, Mourvedre and Tibouren with the use of Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah increasing. To improve quality, producers are limiting the amount of Carignan used in their rosé and red wine production, putting a maximum of 40% permitted in the wine and mandating that at least 60% of the blend be composed of Grenache, Cinsaut, Mourvedre and Tibouren. There is also an AOC requirement that at least 20% of the rosé blend must come from wine made using the saignee method of maceration.

In recent years, there has been more experimentation in the elevage (winemaking methods) used with a new generation of winemakers beginning to incorporate non-traditional methods of rosé production including the use oak barrels for aging and fermentation. There has begun a renewed focus in white wine production with more winemakers using temperature controlled tanks that allow a cooler fermentation process that is better suited to white wine production. There are still remnants of traditional winemaking in the Côtes de Provence and some producers still use the traditional packaging of their wine in the distinctive wine bottle known as a skittle which has a shape that is between an amphora vessel and a bowling pin.

Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence and Les Baux-de-Provence

The Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence is the second largest Provençal wine region, covering over 50 communes in the west and northwestern regions of Provence. The main village of the region is the historical town of Aix-en-Provencemarker. Nearly 60% of the wine production here is red wine, followed by 35% rosé and 5% white wine production. The major grape varieties of this region include Grenache, Cinsaut and Mourvedre. Cabernet Sauvignon was introduced to the region in the 1960s by Georges Brunet of Château Vignelaure. The cuttings came from Brunet's Bordeaux estate of Château La Lagune.The main white wine grapes of the Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence include Rhône like Bourboulenc, Clairette and Grenache blanc as Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc and Semillon. Some producers will make a white nouveau wine (young wine) that is released in December, following the harvest and only couple weeks after the release of Beaujolais nouveau. Though unlike the red Beaujolais wine, these Provençal white wines are not required to have the words nouveau or primeur on the label.
The commune of Les Baux-de-Provence
Within the Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence is the smaller Les Baux-de-Provence region which was granted AOC status in 1995. The climate of the region is very hot with the surrounding valley known as the Val d'Enfer (Valley of Hell). Vineyards are centered around the hilltop village of Les Baux-de-Provencemarker and are dominated by red wine grape varieties (nearly 80%). There is very little white wine production with the remaining production being dry rosé. The leading grape varieties of this region are Grenache, Mourvedre and Syrah. AOC requirements dictate that no two grapes can compose more than 90% of the blend with Carignan, Cinsaut and Counoise permitted but at a maximize usage of 30%. The use of Cabernet Sauvignon is growing in prevalence but it limited to composing no more than 20% of the blend. The rosés of Les Baux-de-Provence are composed of a minimum 60% of Cinsaut, Grenache and Syrah with similar requirement as the AOC red wine that no two grapes varieties composed more than 90% of the blend. The Les Baux-de-Provence AOC was the first French wine region to regulate that all vineyards be farmed biodynamically. The moved came after most vineyard owners had already converted to organic viticulture, eliminating the use of chemicals that could easily spread from the vines due to the strong mistral winds.

Bandol

A red Bandol wine.
The Bandol wine region, located near the coast east of Marseille and Cassis, is one of Provence's most internationally recognized wine regions. Based around the fishing village of Bandol, west of Toulon, the Bandol AOC covers the production of 8 communes with silicon & limestone soils. Those soils and the warm, coastal climate is ideally suited for the late ripening Mourvedre grape which is the major variety of the region. For both the red and rosé wines, Mourvedre must account for at least 50% of the blend, though most producers will use significantly more, with Grenache & Cinsaut usually filling out the rest of the wine's composition. Syrah and Carignan are restricted in Bandol to no composing no more than 15% of the blend or 10% individually. Nearly 70% of the region's production is red wine with rosé wine filling out the rest of Bandol's production accompanied by a small amount of white production. Red Bandol wine is characterized by its dark color with rich flavors of black fruit, vanilla, cinnamon and leather that usually require at least 10 years of aging before they fully develop. Though examples are made that can be approachable in three years. Prior to release, the wine is required to spend at least 18 months aging in oak. The white wines of Bandol are composed primarily of Clairette, Bourboulenc and Ugni blanc. Previously Sauvignon blanc was used but it is not prohibited from the AOC wines. The rosés of Bandol are characterized by spicy and earthy flavors that can resemble the Rhône rosés from Tavel AOCmarker, with some having strawberry notes.

Bandol is the only French wine region that is dominated by the Mourvedre grape, which performed differently depending on the particular terroir of the region. The soils in the northwest region, from the communes of La Brûlat to Saint-Cyr-sur-Mermarker, the soil is composed of small pebbles and produces lighter, more delicate wines. On the red clay soil that is scattered throughout the region, the wine produced is very tannic and must be tempered with increased blending of Cinsaut and Grenache. The Grenache grape itself, it typically planted on cooler north facing slopes to prevent the grape was over ripening and making the wine highly alcoholic. The relative infertility of the soil throughout the region helps to keep yield low with the Bandol region having some of the lowest yields throughout France. The use of mechanical harvesting is prohibited throughout the region but its use is impractical due to the style of terracing used on the hillsides throughout the region.

Cassis

The Cassis AOC, located along the coast between Marseilles and Bandol, is unique among Provençal wine region with over 75% of its production being white wine. The soil of this region is primarily limestone which serves well the major white grapes of the area-Clairette, Marsanne, Ugni blanc and Sauvignon blanc. The dry white wines produced in this area are characterized by their full bodies, low acidity and herbal aromas that pair well with the local seafood cuisine like bouillabaisse. In recent years, local consumption has outpaced supply and limited the amount of Cassis wine that could be exported out of France. Local laws are being developed in the region to protect vineyards from being overrun with commercial and residential development from the city of Marseilles.

In decades past, the vineyard owners of this sparsely populated region would hire prostitutes from Marseilles to assist with picking grapes at harvest.

Coteaux Varois

The Massif de la Sainte-Baume.
The Coteaux Varois AOC covers the central region of Provence, in the Varmarker département from where the region's name is derived, between the Côtes de Provence and Coteaux d'Aix-en-Provence AOCs. The region is partially sheltered by the surrounding Sainte-Baumemarker mountains which have tempering effect on the Mediterranean influences that is common throughout Provence. This is most evident in the vineyards around Brignolesmarker where the cooler climate pushes harvest till early November several weeks after most Provençal wine region have harvested in early September. This unique terroir has encouraged interest from Burgundy wine producers like Maison Louis Latour to experiment with planting Pinot noir. The region started out as a vin de pays till it was upgraded to Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) status in 1985, followed by AOC status in 1993. Over 60% of the region's production is rosé with around 33% red wine production and small amount of white wine production. The leading grape varieties of the region are Grenache, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cinsaut, Mourvedre, Syrah and Carignan.

Classified estates

Provence is the only French wine region outside of Bordeaux, that has developed a classified ranking for wine estates. (Burgundy, Champagnemarker and Alsace classify their vineyard areas, not wine estates). On July 20th, 1955, fourteen Provençal wine estates were designated Crus Classés based on an evaluation of the estates' history, winemaking and cellar reputation and overall vineyard quality. All of the estates are located in the Côtes de Provence. The fourteen Crus Classés of Provence are:



Grape varieties

Grenache.
The main grape variety throughout Provence is Mourvedre which is the primary component in many red wines and rosés. Provence makes over 1,000 kinds of wines. It is often blended with Grenache and Cinsaut, with the later being used as a significant component in most rosé. Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are rising in prominence though some traditional Provençal wine makers view those grapes with suspicion and a sign of globalization and appeal to international tastes. For the last century, Carignan has been a major grape but as more producer aim for improved quality the use of this high yielding grape has decreased. Other significant grape varieties, used primarily in blending, include Braquet, Calitor, Folle and Tibouren. The major white wine grapes of Provence include the Rhône varieties of Bourboulenc, Clairette, Grenache blanc, Marsanne and Viognier as well as Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Semillon, Rolle and Ugni blanc.

Wine styles and food pairings

Wine expert Karen MacNeil notes that most well made examples of Provençal wine have flavors and aromas that reflect the garrigue landscape of the region which includes wild lavender, rosemary and thyme. The rosé of the region are normally dry with zestiness derived from their acidity. The red and whites are characterized by their full bodies and intense aromatics. The nature and impression of the wines change significantly depending on if they are consumed as an apéritif or paired with food, particularly the unique flavors of Provençal cuisine. The rosé wine in particular is noted for its ability to pair well with garlic based dishes, such as aioli.

See also



References

  1. J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 551 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906
  2. T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia" pg 243-247 Dorling Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0756613248
  3. K. MacNeil The Wine Bible pg 306-311 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345
  4. E. McCarthy & M. Ewing-Mulligan "French Wine for Dummies" pg 224-228 Wiley Publishing 2001 ISBN 0764553542
  5. http://www.vins-rhone.com/pages/page.asp?lng=en&rub=2563|Rhône wine
  6. J. Robinson Jancis Robinson's Wine Course Third Edition pg 193 & 204 Abbeville Press 2003 ISBN 0789208830
  7. H. Johnson & J. Robinson The World Atlas of Wine pg 144-146 Mitchell Beazley Publishing 2005 ISBN 1840003324
  8. J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 72 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906
  9. J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 61 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906


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