A public university
is a university
that is predominantly funded by public
means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to
. A national university
may or may not be
considered a public university, depending on regions. In some
regions of the world prominent public institutions are highly
influential centres of research; many of these universities are
ranked among the world best in the THES - QS World University
and the Academic Ranking of World
Argentina the National
Universities, also called "Public or State-run Universities",
is the name used to refer to all those institutions whose creation
arose from the enactment of a National Congress Act, except for
those whose creation preceded that of the state itself (as is the
case of the National University of Cordoba and the University of Buenos Aires).
They lie as Public Law legal entities and
their regular operation funding comes from the national state,
pursuant to what is set out on the annual national budget
National universities hold the largest share of the entire
Argentine university system: counting over 80% of the undergraduate
population and with campuses stretched throughout to all provinces
comprising the national territory, they account for over 50% of the
country's scientific research while additionally providing
technical assistance to both the public and private sectors.
In Australia, there are 38 public universities and 4 private
universities. The private universities are Bond University, the University of Notre Dame
Australia (both Australian), and two foreign universities,
University (USA) and Cranfield University (UK), which have campuses in Adelaide.
Australia's public universities are variously grouped:
also a number of ungrouped universities, such as the University of Tasmania, University of
Canberra and the Australian Catholic University, which has campuses in Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne,
Ballarat and Canberra and is open to all irrespective of religious
of the Group of
Eight are the oldest and most prestigious public universities
in Australia and include the Universities of Queensland, Sydney,
Melbourne, New South Wales, Adelaide and Western Australia together
with the Australian National University and Monash
University. Three were established in the 19th
- The Innovative Research
Universities Australia represent a number of research-intensive
institutions, which were established in the 1960s and 1970s.
includes Flinders, La
Trobe, James Cook, Griffith, Macquarie, Newcastle and Murdoch
Network universities largely grew from the former Institutes of
Technology and include RMIT University, Queensland University of
Technology, Curtin University of
Technology, the University of Technology
Sydney and the University of South Australia. They gained university status in the late
1980s to the early 1990s as a result of the reforms of the then
Minister for Employment, Education and Training, John Dawkins.
32 public universities in Bangladesh as of May 2009.
The University Grant
Commission is the monitoring body for all the public universities
in Bangladesh. The Universities does not deal directly with the
government, but with the University Grants
, which in turn deals with the government. Recently
many private universities are established under the Private
University Act of 1992.
Brazil, there are a few hundred public universities funded
by the Federal or State governments, and they include the most
renowned universities in the country, such as the University of São Paulo.
UFPR - Federal University of Parana,
Professors are public servants, most of them tenured and selected
by public contests, where international research publications is a
major criterion for hiring. Teaching load is usually modest and
leaves time for research. In contrast, most private institutions are
for-profit enterprises which hire teachers on a per-hour basis and
have no research (notable exceptions are certain private but
non-profit universities, mostly affiliated with religious
organizations, such as the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de
There are no tuition or entrance fees in public universities (a
right established in the Brazilian Federal Constitution), but since
they accept only a small fraction of applicants, only well-prepared
students can pass the entrance examination; so, in practice, most
of their students come from middle and upper class families. Since
2005 the Brazilian Government has been offering a limited number of
tuition grants to enable poor students to attend private
is a constitutional
responsibility of the individual provinces.
Most universities are
established and operated under provincial legislation, but a few of
the oldest were founded by Royal
. All major Canadian universities are publicly-funded
but maintain institutional autonomy, with the ability to decide on
admission, tuition and governance.
The Group of
is an organization of the country's thirteen leading
research-intensive universities. Additionally, McGill
University and the University of Toronto are members of the Association of American
Universities, along with sixty public and private institutions
in the United
Private universities in Canada are
relatively new and mostly exist at the undergraduate
Chile, the public, or "traditional" universities are more
renowned then the private universities.
Casa Central (Headquarters),
Universidad de Chile
"traditional" universities are private non-profit universities,
they are considered public universities because they existed long
before the 80s, when the military government of Augusto Pinochet
created the first private universities. Even though state run
universities are much cheaper than the private ones, they are not
tuition free for the students. The most prestigious universities in
Chile are the Universidad de
(state-run) and the Pontificia
Universidad Católica de Chile
(private non-profit), these two
universities have the students with the best scores in the
admission test and also run the majority of the research in Chile
(with the Universidad de Chile at the top). The non-traditional
universities are for-profit universities, and don't have the same
prestige as the "traditional" ones.
China, nearly all universities and research institutions
They are usually run by the provincial
governments. Some public universities are national
which are directly administered
by the central
. There are few private undergraduate colleges
(mostly engineering schools) sponsored by some private enterprises
and the majority of these are not entitled to give bachelor
degrees. All important and significant centers for higher education
in the country are publicly administered.
Rica the Universidad de Costa Rica, the
Universidad Nacional, the Universidad Estatal a Distancia and the
Tecnológico de Costa Rica, all public universities, are among
the nations most prestigious institutions. Nevertheless, the
UN-sponsored University for Peace and the INCAE Business School (with campuses in Nicaragua and Costa Rica), are also notable.
University opened in 975 AD as the second oldest university in
the world. It was followed by a lot of universities
opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo
University, Ain Shams
University, Assiut University,
Beni-Suef University,Zagazig University,Suez Canal University, Benha University, where tuition fees are
totally subsidized by the Government.
Austria, most of the universities are public. The
tuition fees are also regulated by the state and are the same for
all universities. Except for some studies, notably medicine,
everybody who fulfills the condition of a secondary degree is
allowed to attend a public university. Private universities have
existed since 1999, but they still need state accreditation.
Denmark, almost all universities are public and are held in
higher esteem than their private counterparts. Until
recently, tuition was free at all public universities.
Finland all universities are public and free of
Germany, most higher education institutions are public and
operated by the states and all
lecturers and professors are public servants. Until 2006,
public universities were free of tuition fees; however, since then
some states have adopted tuition fees.
universities are public and enjoy de jure institutional autonomy,
although in practice this autonomy is limited by ministerial
interventions in issues such as student enrolment, academic
recruitment and funding. With the exception of the Hellenic Open University,
undergraduate programmes are offered tuition-free for Greek
citizens, as are many post-graduate courses. Education is regarded
as a constitutional responsibility of the state and the
establishment of private universities is prohibited by the
constitution. The article of the constitution regarding education
was voted by the current parliament as one of those that will be
amended by the next elected house of parliament. It is the
intention of the current government to allow the establishment of
private universities and recognize already existing private
colleges as higher education institutions.
Italy, almost all the universities are public, but they
enjoy de jure institutional autonomy (limited by the state in
practice, like in Greece). Students pay quite low tuition
fees, decided by each university and related to the student's
family wealth, to the course and to the student's performances in
the exams. A few scholarships are also available for the best
low-income students. Private funding, even for research, ranges
from low to non-existent, compared to most other European
universities are divided into a few categories; private
universities which are operated by private citizens, societies or
companies, and public universities created by Acts of
Parliament. The Government pays all tuition fees, and other
costs of students. Most private universities charge tuition fees
directly to students, and these institutions are generally held in
lower regard than public universities. A small number of
private universities do not charge fees, such as John Paul II Catholic University of
Lublin, founded in 1918 and property of the Roman Catholic Episcopacy of Poland; the Polish Government pays
Portugal, there are 13 public universities, a
university institute and a
Higher education in
Portugal provided by state-run institutions is not free, as a
tuition fee must be paid, although being much lower than the
tuition fees of the private ones. The highest tuition fee allowed
by law in public universities was 901.23 euros/year (2007). The
public universities include some of the most selective and
demanding higher learning institutions in the country, noted for
high competitiveness and nationwide reputation.
Spain there are a total of 73 universities, most of which
are supported by state funding.
universities are public. Education in Sweden is normally free, so
there are no tuition fees at any university in Sweden, except for
the compulsory Student Union membership (20 to 40 EUR in
Kingdom, all universities are funded mostly by government
teaching and research grants except for the University
of Buckingham. However, unlike in other European
countries, the British government does not own the universities'
assets and university staff are not civil servants. United Kingdom
universities are therefore better described as independent
institutions with public funding, rather than public universities
India, most universities and nearly all research
institutions are public.
There are some private
undergraduate colleges (mostly engineering schools) and the
majority of these are affiliated to a public university. Few other
private colleges are partially-aided by the state and central
governments which results in reduced fees for the students. But all
important and significant centers for higher education in the
country are publicly administered.
eight official universities in Israel.
addition, there are a few dozen colleges and other institutes of
higher learning, as well as about a dozen foreign university
extensions. All are academically supervised by the Council for Higher
Education in Israel
(CHEI). The main difference between a
university and a college in Israel is that only a university can
degrees. Theoretically, a
college can apply to the CHEI to upgrade its status to
Japan, public universities refer to schools that are not
national universities but are
run by local governments, either prefectural or municipal.
to the Ministry of Education, public universities have "provided an opportunity
for higher education in a region and served the central role of
intellectual and cultural base for the local community in the
region", and are "expected to contribute to social, economical and
cultural development in the region."; this contrasts to
research-oriented aspects of national universities.
As of April 2006, there were 76 public universities, compared to 87
national and 571 private universities, and 127,872 students
attended the schools. The number of the public universities has
increased sharply in recent years; in 1980 there were only 34
public universities and in 1993 there were 46. Since July 2003 when
Independent Administrative Institutions Law
was put into
effect, public universities have been allowed to be incorporated.
The average tuition in public universities for 2007 fiscal year was
536,238 yen, the average entrance fee 399,351 yen and the average
application fee 17,095 yen.
In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public
universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4
system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students
who meet the criteria for government sponsorship receive a loan
from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back
after completing higher education.
Mexico, the UNAM
(Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), sometimes simply known
as the "National University of Mexico", was founded in 1551.
It is the largest university in the country and one of the largest
in the world with over 250,000 students including its system of
high schools. By percentage, it contributes the most to
the country's academic research and cultural development although
there are other significant public institutions such as the
Politécnico Nacional, and the federal state-run
Tribhuwan University is the first
public university of Nepal.
The university is highly reputed both in Nepal as well as abroad,
and runs various programs in a wide number of academic disciplines.
It operates through six different schools, and also provides
affiliation to various colleges across the country.
In New Zealand, all universities are public. The oldest (University
of Otago) was established by Provincial Ordinance, the next six
were established by individual Acts of Parliament, and one (Auckland
University of Technology) established by the currently preferred method, an
Order-in-Council under the
Education Act 1989.
Pakistan, universities are under the control of Higher Education
Commission of Pakistan (HEC) (formerly the University Grant
There are around 67 Public and 57 private
universities in Pakistan. The University of Punjab is the biggest
public university followed by the University of Karachi.
Peru, the admission test required to enter national
(public) universities requires higher scores. The public opinion
sees this from the four century old National
University of San Marcos, that it has seen as the most respected public
education institution in the country.
Also many other public
universities follow the same rigorous pattern used at Saint Mark's
university, like National
, the National University of
and Federico Villarreal University.
Universities and colleges in the Philippines are controlled and
managed by the Commission on
. There are more than 500 government-run higher
education institutions, of which 436 are state colleges and
universities, including satellite campuses, 31 local colleges and
, and a handful of community colleges.
In 2008, state colleges
have a PHP
26.2-billion budget, out of which PHP
19.4 billion will be funded by direct
has 23 public tertiary
educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional
university or a comprehensive university (providing theoretical and
vocational training). Prominent public South African universities
include the University of Cape Town, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand and Rhodes University.Monash
University of Australia established a campus in Johannesburg in 2001.
States, most public universities are state universities founded and operated by
state government entities; the oldest
being the University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill and The University of Georgia, although the overall oldest school now
designated as public is The College
of William & Mary (founded in 1693 and first considered
Every U.S. state has at least one public
university to its name, and the largest states have more than
thirty. This is partly as a result of the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Acts
which gave each eligible state 30,000 acres (120 km²) of federal
land to sell to finance public institutions offering courses of
study in practical fields in addition to the liberal arts. Many
U.S. public universities began as teacher training institutions
eventually were expanded into comprehensive universities.
State University, formerly Southwest Missouri State Teachers
State University, formerly Southwest Texas State Teachers College;
State University of New York at
Cortland, formerly Cortland State Teachers College; the
of North Alabama, formerly Florence State Teachers College and
Georgia Southern University, formerly South Georgia Teacher's
generally charge higher tuition to out-of-state students, a
practice which the United States Supreme Court has deemed constitutional because the state is
acting as a market participant
providing a service, rather than protecting a fundamental right.
The higher fees
are based on the theory that students from the state have
contributed to subsidizing the university by paying state taxes,
while out-of-state students have not. It has never been determined
whether the U.S. Constitution would allow the federal government
to establish a federal university system; the only federally
chartered universities that currently exist are those under the
auspices of the U.S. military, such as
Historically, many of the prestigious universities in the United
States have been private. Some public universities are also highly
prestigious and increasingly selective though; Richard Moll
prestigious public universities Public
. At schools like the University
of Michigan, The College of William &
Mary, the University of California,
Berkeley, the University
of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, San
Diego, the University of Virginia, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill a vast majority of the departments are consistently
highly ranked, allowing the schools to enjoy prestige similar or
higher to that of an Ivy League
State support of public universities has been
declining, forcing many public universities to seek private
support. Some professional graduate programs in law, business, and
medicine rely almost solely on private funding.
There are also a number of public liberal arts
, including the members of the Council of Public
Liberal Arts Colleges
- List of Public and Private Universities in
- GMA NEWS.TV, RP universities get low rankings; La
Salle, UST dropped out of Top 500. Accessed August 19,