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Pune ( , ), formerly known as Punawadi or Punya-Nagari or Poona, is the eighth largest city in Indiamarker, and the second largest in the state of Maharashtramarker, after Mumbaimarker. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateaumarker at the confluence of the Mula ( ) and Mutha rivers ( ),Pune is the administrative capital of Pune district and the 7th Metro city of India.

Pune is known to have existed as a town since 937 AD. Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, lived in Pune as a boy, and later oversaw significant growth and development of the town during his reign. In 1730, Pune became an important political centre as the seat of the Peshwa, the prime minister of the Chhatrapati of Satara. After the town was annexed to British India in 1817, it served as a cantonment town and as the "monsoon capital" of the Bombay Presidency until the independence of India.

Today, Pune is known for its educational facilities, having more than a hundred educational institutes and nine universities. Pune has well-established Manufacturing, Glass, Sugar and Metal Forging industries since 1950-60s. Pune also has a growing industrial hinterland, with many information technology and automotive companies setting up factories in Pune district. Additionally, Pune city is well known for various cultural activities like Classical Music, Sports, Literature, Foreign language learning and Administrative, Economics, Social Science studies. These activities and job opportunities attract migrants and students from all over India, and also attract students from Middle-East, Iranmarker, Eastern Europe, South-East Asia which makes for a city of many communities and cultures.

Name

The name Pune (anglicized as Poona) derives from Punya Nagari (Sanskrit, "City of Virtue"). The oldest reference to this name is on a Rashtrakuta copper plate dated to 937. Current Era in which the town is referred to as Punya-Vishaya or Punak Vishaya. By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Kasbe Pune or Punavadi. Although the city's name is sometimes transcribed as Poona in English, a practice particularly common during the British Raj, the spelling "Pune" has now become standard. Pune is also referred to as the "Student Capital Of India", on account of a tremendous population here being primarily of students in various universities and institutes.

History

Shivaji Maharaj was a great king of the Maratha Kingdom

Early and Medieval

Copper plates dated to 758 and 768 show that, by the 8th century, an agricultural settlement known as 'Punnaka' existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakutas. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was also built during this era.

Pune was a part of Yadava Empire of Deogirimarker from the 9th century to 1327. It was later ruled by the Nizamshahi sultans, until it was annexed by the Mughal empire in the 17th century. In 1595, Maloji Bhosale was appointed the jahagirdar of Pune and Supe by the Mughals.

Maratha and Peshwa rule

In 1625, Shahaji Bhosale appointed Rango Bapuji Dhadphale(SarDeshpande) as the administrator of Pune. He was one of the first major developers of the town, overseeing the construction of the Kasba, Somwar, Ravivar and Shaniwar Peth. After the destruction of town in the raid of Vijapur sultan during 1630, and again from 1636 to 1647, Dadoji Kondev- a military and administrative officer of Shahaji Bhosale, oversaw development and construction in the area, he not only stabilzed revenue system of Pune and 12 Mavals but also developed effective methods to control disputes and law & order situation. Construction also began on the Lal Mahal palace, as Shahaji's son, Shivaji Bhosale (later Chattrapati Shivaji) was to move there with his mother Jijabai. The Lal Mahal was completed in 1640. Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple herself. The Ganapati idol consecrated at this temple is regarded as the presiding deity (gramadevata) of the city.

Shivaji was crowned Chhatrapati in 1674, he oversaw further development in Pune, including the construction of the Guruwar, Somwar, Ganesh and Ghorpade Peths.

Baji Rao I became Peshwa of the Maratha empire, ruled by Chattrapati Shahuji, in 1720. By 1730, the palace of Shaniwarwadamarker had been constructed on the banks of the Mutha river, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. The patronage of the Peshwas resulted in the construction of many temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul, Parvati temple and the Sadashiv, Narayan, Rasta and Nana Peths. The Peshwas fell into decline after their loss in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In 1802, Pune was captured from the Peshwa by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Poona, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-05.Navi Peth, Ganj Peth and Mahatma Phule Peth believed to developed in Pune during British Raj

British Raj

The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the Britishmarker in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then transcribed Kirkee) on 5 November 1817 near Pune, and the city was seized. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency, and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army). The Pune Municipality was established in 1858. Pune was at one time the "monsoon capital" of the Bombay Presidency.

Nanasaheb Peshwa, the adopted son of the last Peshwa Bajirao II, rose against British East India Company rule in 1857, as part of the Indian Mutiny. He was helped by Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansimarker and Tatya Tope. After the mutiny failed, the final remnants of the Maratha empire were annexed to British India.

Pune was an important centre for the social and religious reform movements of the late 19th century. Many prominent social reformers and freedom fighters lived here, including Bal Gangadhar Tilak a.k.a Lokmanya Tilak, Maharshi Vitthal Ramji Shinde and Jyotirao Phule.

In 1893, Pune found its First Industry in the private sector known as the Raja Bahudur Motilal Poona Mills Ltd. It was founded by the Raja Mukundlal Pittie, he named it after his father. His father received the Title, of Raja Bahadur from the Nizam of Hyderabad, which is in the specific hierarchy among the (en)noble(d) Hindu retainers at the court of the Nizam of Hyderabad . The mill was one of its kind and gave many locals employment and flourished until the late twentieth century. The Pittie family are prominent Industrialists in Pune. The Mills reside in the heart of the city, by the Pune Railway Station.

In late 1896, Pune was hit by bubonic plague, by the end of February 1897, the epidemic was raging, the mortality twice the normal, with half the city population having left it. A Special Plague Committee was formed, under the chairmanship of W. C. Rand, an Indian Civil Services officer and troops brought in to deal with the emergency. By the end of May the epidemic was under control. On 22 June 1897, the Diamond Jubilee of the coronation of Queen Victoria, Rand, the Special Plague Committee chairman and his military escort Lt. Ayerst were shot at, while returning from the celebrations at Government House. Both died, Ayerst on the spot and Rand of his wounds on 3 June, 1897. The Chapekar brothers and two accomplices were charged with this murder in various roles, and also the shooting of two informants and an attempt to shoot a police officer. All the three brothers were found guilty and hanged, an accomplice was dealt with similarly, another a school boy was sentenced to ten years rigorous imprisonment.This action of the Chapekars has been considered as the worst violence against political authority seen anywhere in the world during the third plague pandemic.

After independence

After Indian Independence, Pune saw a lot of development, such as the formation of the National Defense Academy NDA, Khadakwasla, National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan and some other research institutes. Pune also served as headquarters of the Southern Command of the army. Industrial developments started around 1950-60s in Hadapsar, Bhosari, Pimpari, and Parvati Industrial estate. Telco (now Tata Motors) started operations in 1961, which gave a huge boost to the automobile sector. Pune was referred at that time as “Pensioners’ Paradise” since many government officers, civil engineers, and Army personnel preferred to settle down in Pune after their retirement. Pune had 200,000 bicycles at that time.

In July 1961, Panshetmarker dam broke and its waters flooded the city, destroying most of the older sections, giving a chance for modern town planning concepts to be put into use. This unfortunate incident however led constructive developments in the city, and the economy of the city witnessed a boom in construction and manufacturing sectors. By 1966, the City had expanded in all directions.

After 1970, Pune emerged as the leading engineering city of the country, especially in the automotive sector with Telco, Bajaj, Kinetic, Bharat Forge, Alfa Laval, Thermax, etc. expanding their infrastructure. By this time the city had gained the reputation of being the ‘Oxford of the East’ due to a large number of educational institutes. In 1989, Dehu Road-Katraj bypass (Western bypass) was completed, reducing traffic congestion in the inner city. In 1990 Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries; new businesses like floriculture and food processing begin to take root in and around the city. In 1998, work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began; a huge accomplishment for the country, the expressway was completed in 2001. In the three years before 2000 Pune saw huge development in the Information Technology sector, and IT Parks formed in Aundh, Hinjewadi and Nagar road. By 2005 Pune overtook both Mumbai and Chennai to have more than 2 Lakh (200,000) IT professionals.In 2006, PMC started BRT (Bus Rapid Transit System) project first among all Indian cities but due to narrow roads of the city it have not worked properly however PMC is working on glitches in this project and planning skywalks near BRT and other changes.The year 2008 saw huge development near the Chakanmarker and Talegaonmarker region as Multinational Corporations (MNCs) like General Motors, Volkswagen, and Fiatmarker have set up greenfield facilities near Pune. Additionally, in 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged additional development in the north-west region of the city and added a few Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) buses on Pune's road. The Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA) operations should be established by late 2009, Its proposed initiatives will give a huge boost to the city’s infrastructure and include the development of systems for a metro (rapid-transit rail) and buses, plus effective water and garbage treatment facilities.

During July and August 2009 many cases of the Influenza A virus were reported in the city, the first recorded case being at Abhinav School. Pune reported India’s first H1 N1 death,followed by other 100+ deaths. Such large number of fatalities due to H1 N1 is highest among all asian cities, this situation resulted in a temporary exodus of students and professionals from city and had a negative impact on the Dahi handi-Gopalkala and century old Ganesh festivals. The city’s cold and humid weather during these months helped to spread the virus.

Geography

One of the street in central Pune-ABC Chowk,Peth Area
Pune is located above sea level on the western margin of the Deccan plateaumarker. It is situated on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range (the Western Ghats), which separate it from the Arabian seamarker. It is a relatively hilly city, with its tallest hill, Vetal Hillmarker, rising to above sea level. Just outside the city, the Sinhagadmarker fort is located at a height of 1300 m.

Central Pune is located at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. The Pavana and Indrayani riversmarker, tributaries of the Bhima rivermarker, traverse the northwestern outskirts of metropolitan Pune.Pune lies very close to the seismically active zone around Koyna Dammarker, about 100 km south of the city, and has been rated in Zone 4 (on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes) by the India Meteorological Department. Pune has experienced some moderate-intensity and many low-intensity earthquakes in its history. Although no major earthquakes have originated in Pune itself, an earthquake of magnitude 3.2 took place in the Katraj region near Pune on May 17, 2004. In 2008, and a low intensity earthquake observed on night of 30 July 2008 was measured at 4.2 as per news resources around 12:41 am. The epicenter for the earthquake was in Koyna Dam field

Climate

Pune has a tropical wet and dry climate with average temperatures ranging between 20 °C to 28 °C.

Pune experiences three distinct seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Typical summer months are from March to May, with maximum temperatures ranging from . The warmest month in Pune is April; although summer doesn't end until May, the city often receives locally developed heavy thundershowers in May (although humidity remains high). Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature ever recorded was on April 30, 1897.

The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from . Most of the 722 mm of annual rainfall in the city fall between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Pune once received rainfall on 29 consecutive days .

Winter begins in November; November in particular is referred to as the Rosy Cold (literal translation) ( ). The daytime temperature hovers around while night temperature is below for most of December and January, often dropping to . The lowest temperature ever recorded was 1.7 °C on January 17, 1935.

Transport

Road

Pune Bypass helps traffic from the north to south bypass the city easily
Both public transport (autorickshaws and buses) and private transport (cars, motorcycles and scooter) are popular in Pune. According to one study, there were then 400,000 cars and 1.7 million two-wheelers in Pune in 2007 . More than 200,000 vehicles are added to the traffic in Pune every year.
Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by the Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). A Pune Bus Rapid Transit system has been proposed, in which dedicated bus lanes would allow buses to travel quickly through the city. Buses to towns within Pune district surrounding Pune, as well as cities throughout Maharashtramarker are run by the Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation. Private bus companies also run buses to major cities throughout India, especially Mumbai. Initially, about 10 years ago, the public transport was a little too bad. Recently, a new fleet of buses have started plying and doing good business; morover, routes have been extended/added to cope up with the burdening population of the metro. Lately (since August 2008), CNG (Compressed natural gas) buses have started operating and saving fuel cost for the government.Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian highways and state highways. National Highway 4 (NH 4) connects it to Mumbaimarker and Bangaloremarker, NH 9 to Solapurmarker and Hyderabadmarker, and NH 50 to Nashikmarker. State highways connect it to Ahmednagarmarker, Aurangabadmarker, and Alandimarker.
MSRTC's "Shivneri" Volvo Bus from Pune to Mumbai
Since 2002, Pune has been connected to Mumbai via the Mumbai-Pune Expressway, India's first six-lane high-speed expressway. Both pre-paid air-conditioned "cool" cabs and private bus companies ply this route, connecting Mumbai and Pune in three hours. Out of the total distance of 165 km from Mumbai to Pune, the Express Highway part is 96 km.A ring road is being planned to be constructed for the convenience of traffic.
Pune is served by two intra-city highways:
  1. Old Pune-Mumbai Highway: This is a major arterial road serving the Pune metropolitan area. The highway begins at the centre of the city i.e. Shivaji Nagar and stretches up to Dehu Road. Most sections of the highway feature 8 lanes (4 in each direction). It features a series of flyovers and underpasses making certain sections traffic signal-free.
  2. Katraj-Dehu Road Bypass: This road is a part of the National Highway 4 and forms a metropolitan bypass of the city, skirting through its western border. It is also known as Westerly Bypass. It stretches from Dehu Road in the north to Katraj in the south. This highway features 4 lanes (2 in each direction) and a series of flyovers/grade-separators. All the westbound roads of Pune intersect this highway.
  3. The Nashik City-Pune Highway NH 50: This is the Highway totally devoted to traffic from nashik city to pune and from pune to nashik city. A big highway featuring 4 lanes and a series of Tunnels and Bypasses.Sangamner Bypass is still on work. It will make the golden triangle(Nashik-Pune-Mumbai).
Pune has witnessed an extraordinary growth in vehicular density and has consequently seen an alarmingly high increase in traffic offenses, accidents, and fatalities resulting from these.

Rail

A rapid transit system has been proposed in Pune, from past 5 years and is scheduled to begin operations in 2010. It is being planned in consultation with Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited, the corporation which built and operates the Delhi Metro. Three routes have been identified thus far:
  • Warje-Chinchwad, via Karve road, Jangli Maharaj road, Shivajinagar, and the Pune-Mumbai road (22 km, elevated)
  • Shivajinagar-Kalyaninagar, via Raja Bahadur Mill road and the Pune-Ahmednagar road (13 km, elevated)
  • Agriculture College-Swargate, via Shivaji road (10 km, underground)


The city has two railway stations, one in the city and the other at Shivajinagar. Both stations are administrated by the Pune division of the Central Railways, which extends from after Lonavala (which is administered by the Mumbai CSTM division) to before Daund (which is under the Solapur division), to Baramati, and to Hublimarker (via Mirajmarker) . All the railway lines to Pune are broad gauge, with double electrified lines (1500 volt DC traction) to Lonavala, a double non-electrified line to Daund, and single non-electrified lines to Kolhapurmarker via Mirajmarker and Baramati via Daund.

The city has Pune-Mirajmarker-Hublimarker-Bangaloremarker rail track which is one of the most important track in Maharashtra.

Local trains (EMUs) connect Pune to the industrial town of Pimpri-Chinchwadmarker and the hill station of Lonavalamarker, while daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Howrah, Delhi, Jammutawi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore,Jamshedpur(Tatanagar) and so on.There is a train which connects Nashik to pune.At Pune, there is diesel locomotive shed (DLS) and electric trip shed (ETS).

Air

Pune International Airportmarker is an international airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighboring Indian Air Force base, the only one of its kind in the world. Apart from domestic flights to all major Indian cities, this airport serves two international direct flights: one to Dubaimarker (operated by Air India Express), and one to Frankfurtmarker (operated by Lufthansamarker on an exclusively business class jet). New airport at Chakan is opening shortlyThe Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation is responsible for the design and construction of a new Pune International Airportmarker. The area between Chakan and Rajgurunagar, around the villages of Chandus and Shiroli, is currently being considered as a construction site. If constructed here, it will be 40 km from central Pune along the Pune-Nashik National highway (NH-50)and will be the largest one in Asia. Domestic airlines connect Pune to Mumbaimarker, Delhimarker, Kolkatamarker, Chennaimarker, Bangaloremarker, Hyderabadmarker, Ahmedabadmarker, Nagpurmarker, Goamarker, Indoremarker and Shirdimarker.

Civic Administration

The city of Pune is managed by the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC). The Corporation consists of 149 directly elected councilors, who are led by the Mayor of Pune, a titular position mainly acting as an ambassador and representative of the city. Actual executive power is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service who is appointed by the Maharashtra state government.

Apart from the PMC, four other administrative bodies are active within the Pune Metropolitan Area:

A plan to establish a single Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA), consisting of the combined municipal councils, corporations, and other local governments of Pune, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Lonavalamarker, Talegaonmarker, Bhormarker, Shirur, Saswad, the three cantonments and hundred villages near the city, has been considered since 1997, but might come to fruition this year. This body will then be the executing authority which will acquire and develop reserve land to improve the infrastruction of the Pune metropolitan area.

The Pune Police is headed by the Police Commissioner of Pune, an officer of the Indian Police Service. The Pune Police report to the state ministry.

Military establishments

Pune has been a prominent cantonment town since the early 1800s. Several important battles were fought in and around Pune, including the battle of Khadki (1817) and the battle of Koregaon (1818). Many military establishments have been set up here, including:

An early war memorial built to commemorate all who fought from Poona in the Great War is located opposite Sassoon Hospital. A more recent war memorial, the National War Memorial is located in Pune Cantonmentmarker near Ghorpadi. This memorial commemorates the sacrifice of Maharashtrian soldiers of the Indian Armed Forces who lost their lives in the conflicts fought by independent India.

Demographics

As per 2001 census of India, the population of the Pune urban agglomeration is 3,529,900. This includes the towns of Khadkimarker, Pimpri-Chinchwadmarker and Dehumarker. Growth in the software and education sectors has led to an influx of skilled labour from across India. The population of the urban agglomeration has been estimated to be around 4,485,000 in 2005. The migrating population rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. Almost 30 percent of Pune's population lives in slums. The sharp increase in censorial decade of 1991–2001 can be attributed to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. The literacy rate is about 81%, 1% higher than the national average.

Marathi is the official and most widely spoken language, while Hindi and English are understood and spoken widely. The dialect of Marathi-speaking in Pune has been suggested to be the "standard" form of the language. Pune has many white-collar professionals thanks to a large number of educational, research and training institutes spread throughout the city.

Pune has a substantial population of Brahmins—20% to be more specific—which is the highest for any city in Maharastra. Pune also has a large Muslim population, half of which speak Marathi very well, with the remainder speaking Hindi and Urdu. People from the Muslim Dawoodi Bohra community are also found in the city. Pune is the only city (other than Suratmarker, Navsarimarker, Mumbaimarker and Ahmedabadmarker) to host huge numbers of Parsis, majority of whom are found in Camp, Pune Station, Koregaon Park and Nagar Road. Sikh gurudwaras can be found in the Guruwar Peth, Pune Camp and Dehu Road areas of Pune. Pune's Buddhist population is found primarily in the Yerawada and Parvati area.

A majority of Pune’s population is Marathi, however residents from all over India can be also found in the city. Pune hosts larger number of foreign students and IT professionals.Pune’s White collar population and majority of students are mostly fluent in English. Pune hosts many students and there are numerous student hostels found thought out the city.

According to the Pune Municipal Corporation, 38.9% of the population lived in slums in 2001.

Economy



As one of the largest cities in India, and as a result of its many colleges and universities, Pune is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing companies to expand. Pune has the sixth largest metropolitan economy and the highest per capita income in the country.

Automotive

The automotive sector is particularly prominent in Pune. It is home to the Automotive Research Association of India, which is responsible for the homologation of all vehicles available in India. All sectors of the automotive industry are represented, from two-wheeler and autorickshaws (Bajaj Auto, Kinetic Motor Company) to cars (Volkswagen Group, General Motors, Tata Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Fiatmarker,Peugeot), tractors (John Deere), tempos, excavators (JCB Mfg. Co. Ltd.) and trucks (Force Motors). Several automotive component manufacturers like TATA Autocomp Systems Limited , Robert Bosch GmbH, Visteon, Continental Corporation, ITW, SKF, Magna etc are also located here. Other automotive companies including General Motors, Volkswagen, and Fiatmarker have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to cite Pune as India's "Motor City".

Other Manufacturing

Engineering goods manufactured in Pune include forges (Bharat Forge), Truck Transmissions Systems, Clutches & Hydraulic components Eaton Corporation, and engines (Kirloskar Oil Engines, Cummins). Other major manufacturers include Alfa Laval, Thyssen Krupp and Black & Veatch, Saint-Gobain Sekurit (Automotive safety glass.)

India's largest engineering conglomerate the Kirloskar Group is based in Pune and was one of the first to set up manufacturing facilities in Pune. Kirloskar Brothers Limited (One of the World's largest Pump Company's), Kirloskar Oil Engines(The Worlds largest Genset Company), Kirloskar Pneumatics Co Ltd and other Kirloskar companies are based in Pune.

Other goods are also manufactured in the area. Electronic goods are manufactured by multinational companies such as the Whirlpool Corporation and the LG Group. Food giants like Frito Lay and Coca Cola have food processing plants, while newer companies such as Tasty Bite have a nearby farm. Many small and medium-sized companies are also active, producing components for larger companies and creating unique components for the Indian marketplace.

Software and Information Technology



The Hinjewadi IT Park (officially called as the Rajeev Gandhi IT Park), is a project undertaken by MIDC to promote the IT sector in Pune. When completed, the Hinjewadi IT Park is expected to have an area of about 2800 acres. The estimated investment in the project is Rs. 600.0 million. To facilitate economic growth, the government made liberal incentives in its IT and ITES Policy, 2003 and leased properties based on MIDC land

The buoyant IT sector in Pune employs more than 70,000 people. Major software companies in Pune include Infosys, Wipro, Satyam, TCS, Cognizant and IBM global. Software giant Microsoft intends to set up a Rs. 700 crore (Rs. 7 billion) project in Hinjewadi. Communications consulting bellwether Tech Mahindra has set up their primary development center in Pune, employing over 23,000 personnel.

Education and Research



Pune has more than a hundred educational institutes and nine universities, and has acquired a reputation as 'The Oxford of the East', with students from all over the world studying at the colleges of the University of Pune. Pune has more schools, colleges and universities than any other city in the world.

Basic and Special Education

Public schools (known locally as municipality schools) are run by the PMC, and are affiliated with the MSBSHSE. Private schools are run by educational trusts or individuals. They are usually affiliated to either the state board or to national education boards, such as the ICSE, CBSE or NIOS boards.

Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India. JLPT exams are held every December. Instruction in Japanese is provided by many educators, including the University of Pune. Other languages including German (taught at the Max Muller Bhavan) and French (at the Alliance Francaise de Poona) are popular in the city.

University Education

Most colleges in Pune are affiliated to the University of Pune, established in 1948. Seven other deemed universities have also been established in the city.

The College of Engineering, Punemarker, founded in 1854, is the second-oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by several local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and was responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885. This society currently maintains and operates 32 institutes in Pune.

The University of Pune, the National Defence Academy, Film and Television Institute of India, National Film Archives, Armed Forces Medical College and National Chemical Laboratory were established in Pune after the independence of India.

Symbiosis International University, which operates 33 different colleges and institutions in the city, is one of India's largest private universities. The best institution within the Symbiosis Umbrella being SIBM (Symbiosis Institute of Business Management) amongst others is ranked amongst the top management institutes in the country.

ILS Law College, established by the Indian Law Society is one of the top ten law schools in India. Established medical schools such as the Armed Forces Medical College and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College train students from all over Maharashtra and India and are amongst the top medical colleges in India. Military Nursing College (affiliated to the AFMC) ranks among the top nursing colleges in the world .

Research Institutes

In addition to the University of Pune, Pune is home to several research institutions of national importance. Located adjacent to the university is the National Chemical Laboratory, one of the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) and the Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), while the university campus houses the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, the National Centre for Radio Astrophysicsmarker and the National Centre for Cell Science.

The KEM Hospital Research Centre, Central Water and Power Research Station (CW & PRS), National Institute Of Bank Management (NIBM), NIC [National Informatics Centre], the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, the Agharkar Research Institute and the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI),Unit for Research and Development of Information Products (URDIP) and the National AIDS Research Institute are all in or around Pune.YASHADA, which is the Administrative Training Institute of Maharashtra is situated next to the Raj Bhavan in Pune.

The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute was established in 1917 and is a world-renowned institute for research and instruction in the Sanskrit and Prakrit languages and houses more than 20,000 ancient manuscripts. The National Institute of Virology and National Insurance Academy are located in Pune. Pune also houses the Tata Research Development and Design Centre, a research unit of Tata Consultancy Services, working in the areas of computer science and modeling/simulation for materials processing.

Several military and armament research organizations are also located in Pune (see the Military establishments section in this article).

Culture

As the largest city with a predominantly Marathi-speaking populace, Pune is closely associated with Marathi art, literature, drama and religious beliefs. Many Marathi writers, poets, actors, singers and other celebrities live in Pune. In recent years, cinemas, discos and clubs have also opened up as the younger, westernized college students and young professionals make their presence felt. Pune also has a food culture that includes numerous street foods such as "Vada paav, pani puri, ragda raav, kutchi daabeli, sev puri, dahi poori, pav bhaji, egg bhurji, chanachur, guddi ke baal and gola."Pune also hosts large population of Other Indian people from different states. In September 2009, around four lakh Malayalees across the city were celebrated Thiru Onam, the biggest and most important festival of Kerala. Similarly There are approximately three lakh Bengalis in the city who celebrates Durga Puja festival every year.

Food

Pune local cuisine has the typical taste of coconut and garlic, with large use of chillies. Jowar and Bajra are the main ingredients of traditional Pune food.A typical Pune meal includes Poli, bhakri (flattened millet pancakes) with pithla (a flour-based curry), Vada Pav, Bhelpuri, Pani Puri, misal and kacchi dhabeli,Pav bhaji. The mastani, a thick milkshake containing dried fruit, is a speciality of the city. It is named after Mastani, the controversial mistress of the Peshwa Baji Rao I in the 17th century .

Like any other cosmopolitan city, food from all over the world is available in the city's restaurants. A large number of Udupi, Kolhapuri and Maharashtrian restaurants may be found, along with many low-priced dining halls catering to students and office goers. Popular fast-food franchises in the city include Pizza Hut, McDonald's, Subway, KFC, Smokin' Joes and Papa Johns. There are several coffee houses (including Irani cafes) and modern chains such as Cafe Coffee Day, Mocha's and Barista Lavazza Coffee.

The food/snack joints popular among the locals are Vaishali (Fergusson College Road), Sharvaree and Shabari (Fergusson College Road),Kalyan Bhel at various locations, Bedekar Misal,Darshan at Prabhat road, Pushkarni Bhel (adjacent Bajirao Road), Sujata Mastani (at Sadashiv Peth),Relax Pav Bhaji at Sahakar Nagar, Durga Cafe and Anand Juice Bar(at Kothrud) and Marz'o'rin Sandwiches (at Camp). German Bakery at Koregaon Park, The Shrewsbery biscuits of Kayani Bakery are famous. Also popular are the soy beverages and doughnuts produced by Spicer Memorial College (Aundh).

Food Processing Industry

Pune Food Cluster development project, which is an Initiative Funded by World Bank and is being implemented with the help of SIDBI, Cluster Craft is for upliftment of the Fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.

Literature and Theatre

The form of Marathi spoken in Pune is held as the standard form of the language.

Lisa Klopfer, librarian at Eastern Michigan Universitymarker, observed in her overview of district libraries that the city's metropolitan area "has an estimated population of over five million, but retains [its] older neighborhoods and the aura of an intellectual center." As the agro-pharmaceutical business has dwindled in recent decades, immigration from erstwhile tribal peoples now accounts for seventy percent of population growth and education syllabi have not adjusted in accordance with other industrialised regions.

This has created what has become an exclusive environment in the government's expansion of education infrastructure, and Marathi literati have received a number of grants in areas that were previously ignored. Marathi theatre (नाटक or रंगभूमी in Marathi) is an integral part of Marathi culture. Both experimental (प्रायोगिक रंगभूमी) and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Mandir, Bala Gandharva Rangmandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagriha and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city. The theatre near swargate Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is Asia's largest theatre having AC and Dolby Surround System with capacity of 3,000 people.

The comic genius Spike Milligan (born in Ahmednagar in 1918) lived in Pune as a child, from 1922 to 1930 in the civil lines at Climo Road. The city made a remarkable and lasting impression upon him. He wrote about India for the rest of his life, and his imagination was imbued constantly with the sights, sounds and activity of Pune. He learnt Urdu from his nanny, and could still manage phrases in that language until his death - in 2002.

Pune is the hometown for the legendary Devgandharva Pt. Bhaskarbua Bakhale who established Pune Bharat Gayan Samaj in 1911. He is the teacher of Balgandharva and Master Krishnarao.

Every December, Pune hosts the three-day long Sawai Gandharva Music Festival. It presents Hindustani and Carnatic classical music. During the festival of Diwali, Pahat Diwali is a musical programme that begins in the early morning hours. Pune also hosts Vasantostav music festival.

Pune has given many famous artists to the traditional Indian music world.Well known names are great vocalist Pandit Bhimsen Joshi and in earlier generation to gifted Sitarist Pandit Chandrakant Sardeshmukh.

As per wish of Pandit Bhimsen Joshi, Pandit Chandrakant Sardeshmukh has initiated an under graduate department of Music Dance and Drama on University of Pune campus as a student founder in 1980. This is named as Lalit Kala Kendra and started formally in 1987 with Pandit Chandrakant Sardeshmukh as first joint coordinator. This department is currently led by Prof. Satish Alekar. This department has Gurukul and formal education system combined. Well known artists like great vocalist Pandit Bhimsen Joshi, well known Kathak Dancers Rohini Bhate and Manisha Sathe, renowned Bharatnatyam dancer Sucheta Bhide Chapekar, renowned viloinist Atul Upadhye and so many artists teach here as University Teachers and Traditional Gurus.

Religion

Hinduism is the most commonly practised religion in Pune, although many mosques, gurudwaras, Jain temples and other religious buildings are found throughout the city . The most prominent Hindu temple in Pune is the Parvati temple, located on Parvati hill and visible from most of the inner suburbs. The most famous is likely the Chaturshringi Templemarker, located on the slopes of a hill in the northwest of the city. During Navratri (which usually falls in the month of September), there is a large procession to this temple and worshippers gather from around the country to pray here.The presiding god of Pune city is the Kasba Ganapati, whose temple is found in Kasba Peth in central Pune.

Since 1894, Pune has celebrated Ganesh Chaturthi as a ten-day long festival, in which most neighborhoods put up a pandal (tent) with an idol of Ganesha, often amidst a religious setting, complete with decorative lights and festive music. This festival culminates with a parade of Ganesh idols from across the city carried to the local rivers to be immersed (Ganesh visarjan). The Kasba Ganapati, as the presiding deity of the city, is the first in this parade. The idea of a public celebration was initiated by Lokmanya Tilak in Pune, and has since spread to many other cities, particularly Mumbaimarker, which has a massive parade every year.

Significant religious leaders Sant Dnyaneshwar (born in Alandimarker in the 13th century) and poet Sant Tukaram (born in Dehumarker in the 17th century) were born near Pune. Their link to the city is commemorated with an annual pilgrimage to Pandharpurmarker, 300 kilometers away, consisting of a palkhi of both figures being carried to the main templemarker of the Hindu god Vithoba. The pilgrimage is timed to end on the auspicious day of Aashadhi Ekadasshi.

The Shrutisagar Ashram, located at Phulgaon village off Ahmednagar road, houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Lord Dakshinamurthy, located near the confluence of the Bhima, Bhama and Indrayani rivers. It was established in 1989 by Swami Swaroopanand Saraswati. Here one can find detailed explanations of śruti and smrti (including the Vedas, Bhagwat Gita, Upanishads and Puranas) in Marathi and English.

Pune has been associated with several significant spiritual teachers. Osho (known earlier as Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh) lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centers, is located in the Koregaon Park area. It has visitors from over a hundred countries. Pune is also the birthplace of spiritual guru Meher Baba, although pilgrims usually travel to Meherabadmarker.Hazrat Babajan, according to Meher Baba one of the five Perfect Masters of her time, lived the final 25 years of her life in Pune. She established her final residence first under a neem tree near Bukhari Shah's mosque in Rasta Peth and later another neem tree in the then-dilapidated section of Pune called Char Bawdi where she remained the rest of her life. There is a shrine erected for her in Pune around the tree under which she made her final street home.

The ISKCON movement also has a presence in the city, with the Sri Radha Kunjbihari Mandir.

B. K. S. Iyengar, an internationally known yoga master, established the Ramamani Iyengar Memorial Yoga Institute in Pune in 1975, in order to train students in the Iyengar Yoga System.

Museums, Parks and Zoos

Pu.
La. Deshpande Garden


Prominent museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Museum, Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Pune Tribal Museum and the National War Museum.

Pune has a number of public gardens, such as the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Garden, and Bund Gardenmarker. The Pune-Okayama Friendship Garden, now renamed Pu La Deshpande Udyan, is a recreation of the Korakuen Gardenmarker in Okayama, Japan.

The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located at Katraj, close to the city. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999.

The College of Military Engineering has a small rail museum as part of their larger Corps Equipment Museum. A large railway museum is also coming up in Lonavalamarker about 60 km away from the city on the Mumbai railway line.

Night Life

Pubs, discothèques, bars, hotels, and many other places have sprung up to cater to the needs of the citizens in the nights. They are concentrated mostly in the northern parts of the city and especially in Koregaon Park like Gaia, Soul, Stone Water Grill, Polaris, Kiva-the lounge, North Main, Casabella. The fourth Hard Rock Cafe of India also opened in Koregaon Park in January,2009. Others include Lush lounge and grill, Scream, Zoho, Fire n Ice, 262 The Lounge, Area 51 which are located in the other northern suburbs of the city.

Sister cities

Pune has sister city agreements with the following cities:

Neighborhoods

The city of Pune can be divided into the following zones:
  • Central Pune: consisting of roughly seventeen peths, or neighborhoods. These were established and developed during the Maratha and Peshwa rule, and are referred to as the old city.
  • Westside Pune(inner): consisting of Deccan Gymkhana, Erandwane and Shivajinagar in the west, Camp, Dhole-Patil Road, and Koregaon Park in the east, and Swargate, Parvati, Sahakarnagar, Mukundnagar, Maharshinagar, Gultekdi, and Salisbury Park in the South. On the north, the inner city is bounded by the Mula-Mutha river.
  • Eastside Pune(outer): including the newer developed areas of Khadki, Aundh and Ganeshkhind in the northwest, Kothrud and Paud Road in the west, Dattawadi, Sahakarnagar and Dhankawadi in the southwest, Bibvewadi, Lullanagar, and upper Kondhwa in the southeast, Yerwada (including Kalyani Nagar and Shastri Nagar) in the northeast, Vishrantwadi in the north, and Ghorpadi, Fatimanagar, Wanowrie and Hadapsar South in the east.
  • Suburbs: including Baner and Pashan in the northwest, Bavdhan and Warje in the west, Wadgaon, Dhayari and Ambegaon in the southwest, Katraj, Lower Kondhwa, Undri and Mohammedwadi in the southeast, Hadapsar North, Mundhwa, and Manjri in the east, Wadgaon Sheri and Kharadi in the northeast, and Dhanori and Kalas in the north.


The Pune metropolitan area also includes the following areas, located roughly to the northwest of Pune city. These are administered by the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporationmarker.
  • Pimpri and its surroundings: Chikhli, Kalewadi, Kasarwadi, Phugewadi, and Pimple Saudagar.
  • Chinchwad and its surroundings: Thergaon, Tathawade, and Talawade.
  • Sangvi and its surroundings: Dapodi, Wakad, Hinjewadi, Pimple Nilakh, and Pimple Gurav.
  • Bhosari and its surroundings: Moshi, Dighi, Dudulgaon, and Charholi Budruk.
  • Nigdi-Akurdi and its surroundings: Ravet, Dehu Road, and Somatne.


Media and Communication

Marathi language newspapers such as Sakal, Loksatta, Lokmat, Kesari, Maharashtra Times and Pudhari are popular. Major English dailies in the city are The Times of India, Indian Express, Pune Mirror, MidDay, Daily News & Analysis (DNA) and Sakaal Times (formerly the Maharashtra Herald) have editions based in Pune, with additional local supplements.

Star Maajha, Zee Marathi, Doordarshan Sahyadri and ETV Marathi, Me Marathi, are popular television channels. Many English and Hindi entertainment and news channels are watched as well.Pune has FM Radio services as well running for last few years. Though Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz) tops the popularity rating (it being the first of Private FM channels being introduced in the city), AIR FM (101.MHz), Radio City(91.10), Radio One (94.30), Red FM (93.5) and Vidyavaani (University of Pune's own FM Channel) have their presence felt.

There are plans to make Pune India’s first wireless city. Intel Corporationmarker, Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) and Microsense joined hands to commercially roll out the first phase of a 802.16d Wi-Fi and WiMax network in the city. The first phase of the Unwire Pune project deployment would provide wireless connectivity in a 25 km2 expanse of the city. After the completion of the first phase, in around four months, Pune Municipal Corp is planning to make services commercially available to citizens offering a speed of 256 kbit/s.

Sports and Recreation

Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, soccer, tennis, kabaddi, kho-kho, rowing and chess. The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune. The 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in Pune.

Cricket

Cricket is played between clubs affiliated with the Maharashtra Cricket Association (MCA), which maintains a domestic cricket team (the Maharashtra cricket team). This team, one of three based in the state of Maharashtramarker, competes in interstate matches and leagues, such as the Ranji Trophy.

Soccer

Pune has its own football(Soccer) club called Pune FC. This was established in 2007. This club has recently gained to play in I-League division 1 matches. It uses balewadi sports complex to play I-League matches. It has built two practice grounds in the outskirts of Pune.

Basketball

Pune has basketball at the Deccan Gymkhana club and at the Fergusson College. There is lot of interest for basketball in Pune.

Sport Institutions

Prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadiummarker, the Deccan Gymkhana,PYC Hindu Gymkhana and the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex at [[Balewadi. The Nehru Stadium is the home ground of the Maharashtra cricket team, and has hosted many prominent cricket events, including one of the matches in the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The facility at Balewadi hosted the National Games in 1994, and also successfully hosted the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river. A new cricket stadium, the Pune International Cricket Centre, is to be constructed by 2010, near Mahalunge village on the Mumbai-Pune expressway.

Prominent sportspersons hailing from Pune include cricketer D. B. Deodhar, father-son cricketing duo Hemant and Hrishikesh Kanitkar, tennis players Radhika Tulpule, Gaurav Natekar and Nitin Kirtane, and table-tennis player Aniket Koparkar. Abhijit Kunte and Pravin Thipse are chess grandmasters and national champions. Dhanraj Pillay, ex-captain of the Indian national field hockey team. Local MP Suresh Kalmadi is also the president of the Indian Olympic Association.

The National Education Foundation (NEF) organises adventure sports in Pune by the name Enduro3. It attracts participants from all over India and is normally a 2-3 day event with activities like cycling, trekking, river-crossing and rifle shooting. The city has also been the host of 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.

Adventure Sports

Due to its proximity to the Sahyadri mountains, hiking and trekking are also a very popular recreational activities in Pune. Apart from individual hikers, there are various hiking clubs in the city which organize hikes to many destinations in the Sahyadris and the Himalayas.

The rules of badminton were first formalized in Pune in 1873.

Horse Racing

Pune Race Course was built in 1830.

Total area: 118.5 acres. Land under the control of the Army (Southern Command).

Additional stabling at Empress Gardens (one km from the Race Course)

Racing from July to October.

Highlights: The Pune Derby, RWITC Invitational, Independence Cup, Southern Command Cup and many more.

Badminton

The game of Badminton is believed to have originated in Pune.

Places of tourist interest



References

External links




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