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Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance which involves the manipulation of puppets. It is very ancient, and is believed to have originated 30,000 years BC. Puppetry takes many forms but they all share the process of animating inanimate performing objects. Puppetry is used in almost all human societies both as an entertainment – in performance – and ceremonially in rituals and celebrations such as carnivals.

Most puppetry involves storytelling. The impact of puppetry depends on the process of transformation of puppets, which has much in common with magic and with play. Thus puppetry can create complex and magical theatre with relatively small resources.

History of puppetry

Puppetry is a very ancient art form, thought to have originated about 30,000 years ago . Puppets have been used since the earliest times to animate and communicate the ideas and needs of human societies. Some historians claim that they pre-date actors in theatre. There is evidence that they were used in Egyptmarker as early as 2000 BC when string-operated figures of wood were manipulated to perform the action of kneading bread. Wire controlled, articulated puppets made of clay and ivory have also been found in Egyptian tombs. Hieroglyphs also describe "walking statues" being used in Ancient Egyptianmarker religious dramas. The oldest written record of puppetry can be found in the written records of Xenophon dating from around 422 BC.


Evidence of earliest puppetry comes from the excavations at the Indus Valley Civilization.Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee, page 14 Archaeologists have unearthed terracotta dolls with detachable heads capable of manipulation by a string dating to 2500 BC. Other excavations include terracotta animals which could be manipulated up and down a stick, achieving minimum animation in both cases. The epic Mahabharata, Tamil literature from the Sangam Era, and various literary works dating from the late centuries BC to the early centuries of the Common Era, including Ashokan edicts, describe puppets.Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee, pp.14-15 Works like the Natya Shastra and the Kamasutra elaborate on puppetry in some detail.Ghosh, Massey, and Banerjee, pages 15-16 The Javanese Wayang theater was influenced by Indianmarker traditions.Bell, page 46 Europeans developed puppetry as a result of extensive contact with the Eastern World.Bell, page 37 Some scholars trace the origin of puppets to India 4000 years ago, where the main character in Sanskrit plays was known as "Sutradhara", "the holder of strings".China has a history of puppetry dating back 2000 years, originally in "pi-ying xi", the "theatre of the lantern shadows", or, as it is more commonly known today, Chinese shadow theatre. By the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD), puppets played to all social classes including the courts, yet puppeteers, as in Europe, were considered to be from a lower social stratum.In Taiwanmarker, budaixi puppet shows, somewhat similar to the Japanese Bunraku, occur with puppeteers working in the background or underground. Some very experienced puppeteers can manipulate their puppets to perform various stunts, for example, somersaults in the air.

Japanmarker has many forms of puppetry, including the bunraku. Bunraku developed out of Shinto temple rites and gradually became a highly sophisticated form of puppetry. Gidayu Takemoto and Monzaemon Chikamatsu were two noted banraku puppeteers. By 1730 it three puppeteers were required to operate each puppet in full view of the audience. The puppeteers, who dressed all in black, would become invisible when standing against a black background, while the torches illuminated only the carved, painted and costumed wooden puppets.Image:B-Schattenpuppe-Zhongkui (Peking).JPG|Chinese Shadow Puppet (Beijing Style)Image:B-Stockpuppen-Abt+WeißeSchlange+SchwarzeSchlange.JPG|Chinese Stick PuppetsImage:Sanbasopuppet.jpg|Sanbaso Bunraku Puppet, Tonda Puppet Troupe, JapanImage:osonowiki.jpg|The character Osono, from the play Hade Sugata Onna Maiginu, in a performance by the Tonda Traditional Puppet Troupe of Nagahama, Shiga Prefecture, Japan - an example of Japanese Bunraku puppetry.

In Koreamarker, the tradition of puppetry is thought to have come from China. The oldest historical evidence of puppetry in China comes from a letter written in 982 A.D. from Choe Seung-roe to the King. In Korean, the word for puppet is "ggogdu gagsi". "Gagsi" means a "bride" or a "young woman", which was the most common form the dolls took. A ggogdu gagsi puppet play has eight scenes.

Thailandmarker has Hun Krabok, a rod puppet theatre which is the most popular form of puppetry.

Vietnammarker developed the art form of mua roi nuoc, a water puppetry that is unique to that country. The puppets are built out of wood and the shows are performed in a waist high pool. A large rod under the water is used by the puppeteers to support and control the puppets. The appearance is created of the puppets moving over water. The origin of this form of puppetry dates back seven hundred years when the rice fields would flood and the villagers would entertain each other, eventually resulting in puppet show competitions between villages. This led to puppet societies becoming secretive and exclusive.

India has a great tradition of puppetry. In the great Indian epic Mahabharata there are references to puppets. The Rajasthani Puppet from India is notable and there are many Indian ventriloquists and puppeteers. The first Indian ventriloquist, Professor Y.K. Padhye, introduced this form of puppetry to India in the 1920s and his son, Ramdas Padhye, subsequently popularised ventriloquism and puppetry.

Indonesiamarker has a strong tradition of puppetry. In Javamarker, wayang kulit, an elaborate form of shadow puppetry is very popular. Javanese rod puppets have a long history and are used to tell fables from Javanese history.

Image:Indonesian puppets and puppeteer.jpg|Traditional Indonesian puppets and puppeteerImage:Wayang Bali.jpg|Wayang puppet from Bali, Indonesia

Middle East

Karagoz, Turkish shadow puppetry
Middle Eastern puppetry, like its other theatre forms, is influenced by the Islamic culture. Karagoz, the Turkish Shadow Theatre, has widely influenced puppetry in the region and it is thought to have passed from China by way of India. Later, it was taken by the Mongols from the Chinese and passed to the Turkish peoples of Central Asia. The art of Shadow Theater was brought to Anatoliamarker by the Turkish people emigrating from Central Asia. Other scholars claim that shadow theater came to Anatolia in the 16th century from Egyptmarker. The advocates of this view claim that shadow theatre found its way into the Ottoman palaces when Yavuz Sultan Selim conquered Egypt in 1517. He saw shadow theatre performed during a party in his honour and he was said to be so impressed with it that he took the puppeteer back to his palace in Istanbulmarker where his 21-year -old son, later Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, developed an interest in the plays.

In other areas, the style of shadow puppetry known as khayal al-zill, a metaphor translated as "shadows of the imagination" or "shadow of fancy", still survives. This is a shadow play with live music, "the accompaniment of drums, tambourines and flutes...also..."special effects" – smoke, fire, thunder, rattles, squeaks, thumps, and whatever else might elicit a laugh or a shudder from his audience"

In Iranmarker, puppets are known to have existed much earlier than 1000 CE, but initially only glove and string puppets were popular . Other genres of puppetry emerged during the Qajar era (18th-19th century BC) as influences from Turkey spread to the region. Kheimeh Shab-Bazi is a traditional Persian puppet show which is performed in a small chamber by a musical performer and a storyteller called a morshed or naghal. These shows often take place alongside storytelling in traditional tea and coffee-houses (Ghahve-Khave). The dialogue takes place between the morshed and the puppets. A recent example of puppetry in Iran is the touring opera Rostam and Sohrab.


Ancient Greece and Rome

Although there are few remaining examples of puppets from ancient Greece, historical literature shows the existence of puppetry. The Greek word usually translated as "puppets" is "neurospasta", from "nervus", meaning either sinew, tendon, muscle, string, or wire, which literally means "string-pulling" and "span", to pull. Aristotle referred to pulling strings to control heads, hands and eyes, shoulders and legs. Plato's work also contains references to puppetry. The Iliad and the Odyssey were presented using puppetry. The roots of European puppetry probably extend back to the Greek plays with puppets played to the "common people" in the 5th Century BC. By the third century BC these plays would appear in the Theatre of Dionysus at the Acropolis.

In ancient Greece and ancient Rome clay dolls, and a few of ivory, dated from around 500 BC, were found in children's tombs. These dolls had articulated arms and legs, some of which had an iron rod extending up from the tops of their heads. This rod was used to manipulate the doll from above, as it is done today in Sicilian puppetry. A few of these dolls had strings in place of rods. Some researchers believe these ancient figures were simply toys and not puppets, due to their small size.

Sicilian Puppet Theatre
Gioppino and Brighella, Bergamo, Italy

Italy - Middle Ages and Renaissance

Italy is considered by many to be the early home of the marionette due to the influence of Roman puppetry. Xenophon and Plutarch refer to them. The Christian church used marionettes to perform morality plays. It is believed that the word marionette originates from the little figures of the Virgin Mary, hence the word "marionette" or "Mary doll. Comedy was introduced to the plays as time went by, and ultimately led to a church edict banning puppetry. Puppeteers responded by setting up stages outside cathedrals and became even more ribald and slapstick. Out of this grew the Italian comedy called Commedia dell'arte. Puppets were used at times in this form of theatre and sometimes Shakespeare's plays were performed using marionettes instead of actors.

In Sicily, the sides of donkey carts are decorated with intricate, painted scenes from the Frankish romantic poems, such as The Song of Roland. These same tales are enacted in traditional puppet theatres featuring hand-made marionettes of wood. In Sicilian this is called "Opira dî pupi", or "Opera of the puppets". The opera of the puppets and the Sicilian tradition of cantastorî, or "sing stories", are rooted in the Provençal troubadour tradition, in Sicily during the reign of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in the first half of the 13th century.

Italy - 18th and 19th century

The eighteenth century was a vital period in the development of all Italian theatre, including the marionette theatre. The rod puppet was mainly of lower-class origin, but the marionette theatre was popular in aristocratic circles, as a celebration of the Age of Enlightenment. The effects, and the artful and complex construction of the puppets, the puppet theatres, and the puppet narratives, were all popular, particularly in Venice.

In the 19th century, the marionettes of Pietro Radillo became more complex and instead of just the rod and two strings, Radillo's marionettes were controlled by as many as eight strings, which increased control over the individual body parts of the marionettes.

Great Britain

British Puppet theatre (Punch and Judy style), c.
The traditional British Punch and Judy puppetry traces its roots to the 16th century to the Italian commedia dell'arte. The character of "Punch" derives from the character Pulcinella, which was Anglicized to Punchinello. He is a manifestation of the Lord of Misrule and Trickster, figures of deep-rooted mythologies. Punch's wife was originally "Joan", but later became "Judy". In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the familiar Punch and Judy puppet show which existed in Britain was performed in an easily-transportable booth. The British Puppet and Model Theatre Guild in the early 20th century instigated a resurgence of puppetry. Two of the Guild's founders, H. W. Whanslaw and Waldo Lanchester, both worked to promote and develop puppetry with publications of books and literature, mainly focusing on the art of the marionette. Lanchester had a touring theatre and a permanent venue in Malvern, Worcestershiremarker, regularly taking part in the Malvern Festival and attracting the attention of George Bernard Shaw. One of Shaw's last plays, Shakes versus Shav, was written for and first performed in 1949 by the company.

Current British puppetry theatres include the Little Angel Theatremarker in Islingtonmarker, London, Norwich Puppet Theatremarker, the Harlequin Puppet Theatre, Rhos-on-Seamarker, Wales, and the Biggar Puppet Theatre, Biggar, Lanarkshiremarker, Scotlandmarker. British puppetry now covers a wide range of styles and approaches. Don Austen, a British puppeteer, worked with Jim Henson's Creature Shop, and also worked on a number of feature films. There are also a number of British theatre companies, including Horse and Bamboo Theatre, and Green Ginger, which integrate puppetry into highly visual productions. From 1984 to 1996, puppetry was used as a vehicle for political satire in the British television series Spitting Image. Puppetry has also been influencing mainstream theatre, and several recent productions combine puppetry with live action, including Warhorse, at the Royal National Theatremarker and Madam Butterfly at the English National Opera.

Netherlands, Denmark, Romania, Russia and France

Many regional variants of Pulcinella were developed as the character spread across Europe. In the Netherlands it is Jan Klaassen (and Judy is Katrijn); in Denmark Mester Jackel; in Russia Petrushka; in Romania Vasilache; and in France Polichinelle. Only during the French revolution were puppet booths closed. Those puppeteers who dared to take part in political criticism were imprisoned. In Russia, the Central Puppet Theatre in Moscow and its branches in every part of the country enhanced the reputation of the puppeteer and puppetry in general.Image:PereDuchesneIllustre6 1 0.png|Polichinelle caricature, FranceImage:Guignol.jpg|Guignol Theatre, Paris, FranceImage:Tchantches.jpg|Traditional puppets from Liège, Belgium

Germany and Austria

There is a long tradition of puppetry in Germany and Austria. Much of it derives from the 16th century tradition of the Italian commedia dell'arte. The German version of the British character of 'Punch' is called Kasperle of Kaspar while Judy is called Grete. In the eighteenth century, operas were specifically composed for marionette puppets. Gluck, Haydn, de Falla and Respighi all composed adult operas for marionettes. In 1855, Count Franz Pocci founded the Munich Marionette Theatre. A German dramatist, poet, painter and composer, Pocci wrote 40 puppet plays for his theatre. Albrecht Roser has made a considerable impact with his marionettes in Stuttgartmarker. His characters Clown Gustaf and Grandmother are well-known. Grandmother, while outwardly charming, is savagely humorous in her observations about all aspects of society and the absurdities of life. The Salzburg Marionette Theatremarker was founded in 1913 by Professor Anton Aicher and is world famous. Today in Salzburgmarker in Austria, the Salzburg Marionette Theatre still continues the tradition of presenting full length opera using marionettes in their own purpose built theatre under the direction of Gretl Aicher. It performs mainly operas such as Die Fledermaus and The Magic Flute and a small number of ballets such as The Nutcracker. The Salzburg Marionette Theatre productions are aimed for adults although children are of course welcome. There is also a marionette theatre at Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna.

Marionette Theatre, Prague, Czech Republic
Puppet Theatre, Ostrava, Czech Republic

The Czech Republic

Marionette puppet theatre has had a very long history in entertainment in Praguemarker, and elsewhere in the Czech Republic. It can be traced deep into the early part of the Middle Ages. Marionettes first appeared around the time of the Thirty Years' War. The first noted Czech puppeteer was Jan Jiri Brat, who was born in 1724. He was the son of a local carpenter and created his own puppet theatre. Matej Kopecky was the most famous 19th century Czech puppeteer, and was responsible for communicating the ideas of national awareness. In 1920 and 1926 respectively, Josef Skupa created his most famous puppets: comical father Spejbl and his rascal son Hurvínek. In 1930, he set up the first modern professional puppet theatre. An important puppet organisation is the National Marionette Theatre in Prague. Its repertoire mainly features a marionette production of Mozart's famous Don Giovanni. The production has period costumes and a beautifully designed eighteenth century setting. There are numerous other companies, including Buchty a Loutky ("Cakes and Puppets"), founded by Marek Becka. Puppets have been used extensively in animated films since 1946. Jiří Trnka was an acknowledged leader in this area. Miroslav Trejtnar is an master puppeteer and teacher of traditional Czech marionette-making skills.

19th century

Throughout this period, puppetry developed separately from the emerging mainstream of actor theatres, and the 'ragged' puppeteers performed outside of theatre buildings at fairs, markets etc - continuing to be classified along with bandits and gypsies. In the 19th century, puppetry faced competition from other forms of theatre such as vaudeville and music hall, but it adapted to these challenges, for example: by developing stage acts and participating in the new forms of popular theatre, or reinventing itself in other ways and finding audiences at the newly fashionable seaside resorts.


Sub-Saharan Africa may have inherited some of the puppet traditions of Ancient Egypt. Certainly, secret societies in many African ethnic groups still use puppets (and masks) in ritual dramas as well as in their healing and hunting ceremonies. Today, puppetry continues as a popular form, often within a ceremonial context, and as part of a wide-range of folk forms including dance, storytelling, and masked performance.

Throughout rural Africa, puppetry still performs the function of transmitting cultural values and ideas that in large African cities is increasingly undertaken by formal education, books, cinema, and television.


The Teotihuacanmarker culture (Central Mexico) of 600 AD made figurines with moveable arms and legs as part of their funerary rites. Native Americans also used ceremonial puppets.In 1519, two puppeteers accompanied Hernando Cortez on his first journey to Mexico. Europeans brought their own puppet traditions with them, but gradually distinctive styles, forms and puppet characters developed in America.

Some advances in 20th century puppetry have originated in the United Statesmarker. Marionette puppetry was combined with television as early as the 1940s, with Howdy Doody of the United States being a notable marionette in this field. Bil Baird worked on revitalising marionette theatre and puppetry in the United States. He and his wife, Cora Eisenberg had their own marionette theatre in New York. Edgar Bergen also made a major contribution. In the 1960s Peter Schumann's Bread and Puppet Theater developed the political and artistic possibilities of puppet theatre in a distinctive, powerful and immediately recognizable way. At roughly the same time, Jim Henson was creating a type of soft, foam-rubber and cloth puppet which became known collectively as Muppets. Initially, through the children's television show Sesame Street, and later in The Muppet Show and on film, these inspired many imitators and are today are recognised almost everywhere. Wayland Flowers also made a major contribution to adult puppetry with his satirical puppet, Madame.

Puppets also have been used in the Star Wars films, notably with the character of Yoda. His voice and manipulation is provided by master puppeteer, Frank Oz.

Image:EdgarBergenandCharlieMcCarthyStageDoorCanteen1.jpg|Edgar Bergen and his puppet Charlie McCarthyImage:Go2wu murray01.jpg|Murray Monster, from Sesame Street.Image:Bread and puppet puppets glover vermont.jpg|Puppets in the Bread and Puppet Theater Museum in Glover, Vermont, USAImage:Mallory Lewis and Lamb Chop.jpg|Mallory Lewis and Lamb Chop


The aboriginal peoples of Australia have a long tradition of oral storytelling which goes back many thousands of years. They used masks and other objects to convey deep and meaningful themes about morality and nature. There are links between as an early form of ritualistic human carnival puppetry. Masks were carved from wood and heavily decorated with paint and feathers. In many of the Pacific countries, there has been a heavy emphasis on ritual.

With the arrival of European settlers, a different sort of puppetry took shape. In Australia in the 1960s, Peter Scriven founded the Marionette Theatre Company of Australia and had beautiful marionette productions such as The Tintookies, Little Fella Bindi. The Explorers and The Water Babies. Bilbar Puppet Theatre, established by Barbara Turnbull and her husband Bill Turnbull toured Australia extensively under the auspices of the Queensland Arts Council in 1970s and 1980s. Their puppets are now held in the Moncrieff Library of the Performing Arts, Queensland Performing Arts Centremarker, Brisbanemarker. In Melbourne Handspan Theatre 1977-2002 evolved from humble collective beginnings to evolve a design-rich large theatre format dubbed 'Visual Theatre' and became a hot-house for innovative projects and award-winning multimedia collaborations within Australia and around the world.

There are a great many thriving puppet companies in Australia. Courses exist at tertiary level at the Victorian College of the Artsmarker, University of Melbournemarker. Australian puppeteer Norman Hetherington was famous for his marionette, Mr. Squiggle who featured on an Australian Broadcasting Commission television program for many years from 1 July 1959. The last episode was on 9 July 1999. In every episode he would create several pictures from "squiggles" sent in by children from around the country. Richard Bradshaw OAM is another famous Australian puppeteer. He is currently President of UNIMA Australia, former artistic director of the Marionette Theatre Company of Australia and is renowned for his shadow puppetry and writing in the field. Rod Hull also made a contribution with his puppet Emu. In the 1960s, Hull presented a children's breakfast television programme in Australia. Snuff Puppets is one of Australia's modern puppet theatre troupes. Based in Melbournemarker, their work is full of wild black humour, political and sexual satire and a hand made visually aesthetic. Snuff Puppets has performed in over 15 countries, including tours to major festivals in Asia, South America and Europe. There is an annual winter festival of puppets at the City of Melbourne's ArtPlay and at Federation Square in Melbourne.

In New Zealand, a similar history has taken place.

Contemporary puppetry

Puppet theatre in Moscow, Russia in 1959
From early in the 19th century, puppetry began to inspire artists from the 'high-art' traditions. In 1810, Heinrich von Kleist wrote an essay 'On the Marionette Theatre', admiring the "lack of self-consciousness" of the puppet.

Puppetry developed throughout the twentieth century in a variety of ways. Supported by the parallel development of cinema, television and other filmed media it now reaches a larger audience than ever. Another development, starting at the beginning of the century, was the belief that puppet theatre, despite its popular and folk roots, could speak to adult audiences with an adult, and experimental voice, and reinvigorate the high art tradition of actors' theatre.

Sergei Obraztsov explored the concept of kukolnost ('puppetness'), despite Stalin's insistence on realism.Other pioneers, including Edward Gordon Craig and Erwin Piscator were influenced by puppetry in their crusade to regalvanise the mainstream. Maeterlinck, Shaw, Lorca and others wrote puppet plays, and artists such as Picasso, Jarry, and Léger began to work in theatre.

Craig's concept of the "ubermarionette"—in which the director treats the actors like objects—has been highly influential on contemporary "object theatre" and "physical theatre". Tadeusz Kantor frequently substituted actors for puppets, or combined the two, and conducted each performance from the edge of the stage, in some ways similar to a puppeteer. Kantor influenced a new formalist generation of directors such as Richard Foreman and Robert Wilson who were concerned with the 'object' in theatrical terms "putting it on stage and finding different ways of looking at it" (Foreman). Innovatory puppeteers such as Tony Sarg, Waldo Lanchester, John Wright, Bil Baird, Joan Baixas, Sergei Obratsov, Philipe Genty, Peter Schumann, Dattatreya Aralikatte, Jim Henson, Dadi Pudumjee, and Julie Taymor have also continued to develop the forms and content of puppetry, so that the phrase 'puppet theatre' is no longer limited to traditional forms of marionettes, glove, or rod puppets. Directors and companies like Peter Schumann of Bread and Puppet Theatre, Bob Frith of Horse and Bamboo Theatre, and Sandy Speiler of In the Heart of the Beast Puppet and Mask Theatre have also combined mask and puppet theatre where the performer, puppets and objects are integrated within a largely visual theatre world that minimises the use of spoken language.

Puppetry is now probably more familiar through television than live performance, but this still flourishes throughout the world. In the world of theatre, puppetry continues to be influential, and despite its 'outsider' status acts as an invigorating and rejuvenating influence on its mainstream relative, and feeds through object and physical theatre many of the most exciting developments in contemporary theatre.

See also


  1. Strings, Hands, Shadows: A Modern Puppet History/John Bell/Detroit Institute of Art/2000 ISBN 0-89558-156-6
  2. Blumenthal, Eileen, Puppetry and Puppets, Thames & Hudson, 2005. ISBN 978-0-500-51226-5
  3. Dugan , E.A., Emotions in Motion.
  4. Dugan, E.A., Emotions in Motion.
  5. Sang-su,Choe, A Study of the Korean Puppet Play, p.43
  6. Mutlu, Hayali Mustafa, Tradition Folk The Site
  7. Feeney, John, Saudi Aramco World (article), 1999.
  8. Floor, Willem, The History of Theater in Iran, ISBN 0-934211-29-9: Mage 2005
  9. Mehr News Agency,, 7 July, 2007.
  10. Iran Daily, 1 March, 2006.
  11. Mulholland, John, Practical Puppetry, p.9
  12. Observations - Chapter One
  13. Binyon,Helen, Puppetry Today, p.11
  14. Beaton, Mabel & Les, Marionettes: A Hobby for Everyone.
  15. Suib, Leonard Broadman, Muriel, Marionettes Onstage!, p.ix
  16. Signorelli, Collezione Maria,
  17. Binyon, Helen, Puppetry Today, p.36
  18. Remo Bufano's Book of Puppetry/Arthur Richmond, p.5
  19. Practical Puppetry/John Mullholland, p.10
  20. Practical Puppetry/John Mulholland, p.9
  21. The Complete Book of Puppets by David Currell, p. 14
  22. The Complete Book of Puppet Theatre by David Currell, p.12
  23. Czech Puppet Theatre by Alice Dubska, Jan Novak, Nina Malikova and Marie Zdenkova, p.6
  24. Practical Puppetry/John Mulholland, p.19
  25. Funni, Arthur, The Radio Years of Bergen and McCarthy (Thesis)
  26. 98/25/2 Marionette puppet, 'Tintookies Little Fella Bindi', Aboriginal figure, papier mache / wood / cotton / felt / feathers / metal, designed by Colin Garland for the Marionette Theatre of Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 1958-1977 - Powerhouse Museum Collection
  27. The Complete Book of Puppet Theatre by David Currell, p.50
  28. Strings, Hands, Shadows: A Modern Puppet History/John Bell/Chapter 6/Detroit Institute of Art/2000 ISBN 0-89558-156-6
  29. Experimental Theatre, from Stanislavsky to Peter Brook/James Roose-Evans, 1970 Studio Vista ISBN 0 415 00963 4

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