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Putten ( ) is a municipality and a town in Gelderland province in the middle of the Netherlandsmarker. Inhabitants: 23,041 (2006)[18163]

Putten is surrounded by a great variety of landscapes. To the east of Putten lies the Veluwemarker, the biggest national park of the Netherlands. To the north, east and west, Putten is surrounded by farmlands, and further to the west the ring-lake around Flevoland can be found.

Population centres

Bijsteren, Diermen, Gerven, Halvinkhuizen, Hell, Hoef, Huinen, Koudhoorn, Krachtighuizen, Putten, Steenenkamer and Veenhuizerveld.

History

Until WWII

Putten is an old village, in the coastal area of the old Zuiderzeemarker (Southern Sea). The oldest official paper in which Putten is mentioned dates back from 855. Small settlements however, were already built during the Roman era. After the founding of the present main church in the 10th century, the community becomes the centre of several smaller settlements. Also parts of Nijkerkmarker and Voorthuizenmarker became part of the Putten area, until in 1530 Nijkerk, and later also Voorthuizen, became independent communities.

Until 1356 when a dyke was built, the coastline changed frequently, overflowing agricultural land in the west of Putten. The water was still a threat however, and the dyke broke through several times. The last major flood was in 1916, when large parts of Putten were flooded. After the Afsluitdijkmarker was built in the north of the Netherlands, the Zuiderzee became a lake (1927-1933) and was no longer a threat.

Agriculture has always been a major source of income in Putten. Also the manufacturing of paper was important in the 17th-19th century. From the end of the 19th century tourism emerged, helped by the connection by rail since 1863. This made it easier for people from other towns to retreat in the boarding houses that Putten had built. Among those people from elsewhere were also the ones who suffered from tuberculosis and similar diseases. They benefited from the sunlight and clean air and retreated in the several sanatoria.

Over the centuries, Putten has suffered a lot from war violence. During the 15th, 16th and 17th century Putten has been burned down several times (at least five).

World War II Nazi warcrime

One of the biggest Nazi raids to be held in the Netherlands during World War II took place in Putten. On 1 October and 2 October 1944, 661 men and boys, the majority of the male population, were deported from the town and 602 of them were sent to work in concentration camps such as Neuengammemarker and Birkenaumarker. Only 49 returned after the war. Following the war, two of the responsible officers were tried and convicted for the crime. The raids were a retaliatory measure for an attack by the local resistance, that killed one Wehrmacht officer near Nijkerkmarker. The first and second of October are still commemorated every year.

Total amount of men deported 661
Released in Amersfoort 59
Deported to Neuengamme 602
Jumped out of the train on the way to Neuengamme 13
Arrived in Neuengamme 589
Returned to Putten after liberation 49
Died in German concentration camps 540
Killed during the raid 7
Died shortly after the return 5
Total number of victims 552


Image:Vrouwtje van Putten Herdenkingshof Dorpsstraat OudeRijksweg Putten2.JPG|Vrouwtje van Putten Herdenkingshof (Lady of Putten Memorialgarden)Image:War monument church Putten.png|War monument at the church of Putten

Economy

Today agriculture is still important in Putten, but the main sector now is the service sector. There is a considerable amount of shops and also tourism is important. Tourist are attracted by the varied landscape and the beach at the Ringlake. Every Wednesday there is a products and food market that is the biggest of the North-West Veluwe area.

Transport

Putten lies next to the A28 highway that connects Utrecht with the north. The train between Utrecht and Zwolle stops twice every hour, but coins or a Dutch debit card is needed to by a ticket in Putten. Three bus lines stop every hour.



References



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